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Prophets in Islam
Islam
(Arabic: الأنبياء في الإسلام‎) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);[1][2] and "prophets" (nabī, pl. anbiyāʼ), lawbringers that Muslims believe were sent by God
God
to every person, bringing God's message in a language they can understand.[1][3] Knowledge of the Islamic prophets is one of the six articles of the Islamic faith, and specifically mentioned in the Quran.[4] Muslims believe that the first prophet was also the first human being, Adam
Adam
(ادم), created by Allah
Allah
(الله). Many of the revelations delivered by the 48 prophets in Judaism and many prophets of Christianity are mentioned as such in the Quran
Quran
but usually in slightly different forms. For example, the Jewish Elisha
Elisha
is called Alyasa, Job
Job
is Ayyub, Jesus
Jesus
is Isa, etc. The Torah
Torah
given to Moses (Musa) is called Tawrat, the Psalms
Psalms
given to David
David
(Dawud) is the Zabur, the Gospel
Gospel
given to Jesus
Jesus
is Injil.[1] In Islam, prophets are commonly exclusively male, thus none of the seven Jewish Prophetesses are mentioned in the Quran
Quran
as prophets. Unique to Islam
Islam
is Muhammad
Muhammad
( Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn ʿAbdullāh), who Muslims believe is the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khatam an-Nabiyyin, i.e. the last prophet); and the Quran, revealed to Muhammad
Muhammad
but not written down by him,[5] which Muslims believe is unique among divine revelations as the only correct one protected by God
God
from distortion or corruption,[6] destined to remain in its true form until the Last Day.[7] Muslims believe Muhammad
Muhammad
to be the last prophet, although after the prophets there will still be saints.[8] In Muslim
Muslim
belief, every prophet in Islam
Islam
preached the same main Islamic beliefs, the Oneness of God, worshipping of that one God, avoidance of idolatry and sin, and the belief in the Day of Resurrection or the Day of Judgement and life after death. Each came to preach Islam
Islam
at different times in history and some told of the coming of the final Islamic prophet and messenger of God, who would be named "Ahmed" commonly known as Muhammad.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Characteristics

2.1 Status 2.2 Numbers 2.3 Female prophets

3 Scriptures and other gifts

3.1 Holy books 3.2 Holy gifts

4 Prophets and messengers

4.1 Prophethood in Ahmadiyya

5 Other persons

5.1 Other special persons in the Qur'an 5.2 Prophets in Islamic literature

6 See also 7 Notes 8 External links

Etymology[edit] In Arabic
Arabic
and Hebrew,[9] the term nabī ( Arabic
Arabic
plural form:anbiyāʼ) means "prophet". Forms of this noun occur 75 times in the Quran. The term nubuwwah (meaning "prophethood") occurs five times in the Quran. The terms rasūl (plural: rusul) and mursal (plural: mursalūn) denote "messenger" or "apostle" and occur more than 300 times. The term for a prophetic "message", risālah (plural: risālāt), appears in the Quran
Quran
in ten instances.[10] The Syriac form of rasūl Allāh (literally: "messenger of God"), s̲h̲eliḥeh d-allāhā, occurs frequently in the apocryphal Acts of St. Thomas. The corresponding verb for s̲h̲eliḥeh—s̲h̲alaḥ, occurs in connection with the prophets in the Hebrew Bible.[11][12][13][14] The words "prophet" (Arabic: نبي nabī) and "messenger" (Arabic: رسول rasūl) appear several times in the Old Testament
Old Testament
and the New Testament. The following table shows these words in different languages:[15]

Prophet and Messenger in the Bible

Arabic Arabic
Arabic
Pronunciation English Greek Greek pronunciation Strong Number Hebrew Hebrew pronunciation Strong Number

نبي Nabi Prophet προφήτης prophētēs G4396 נביא navi /nəvi/ H5030

رسول Rasul Messenger, Prophet ἄγγελος, ἀπόστολος ä'n-ge-los, ä-po'-sto-los G32, G652 מלאך (מַלְאָךְ) mal'akh H4397,H7971

In the Hebrew Bible, the word navi ("spokesperson, prophet") occurs more commonly, and the Hebrew word mal'akh ("messenger") refers to Angels in Judaism. According to Judaism, Haggai, Zachariah, and Malachi
Malachi
were the last prophets, all of whom lived at the end of the 70-year Babylonian exile. With them, the authentic period of Nevuah ("prophecy") died,[16] and nowadays only the "Bath Kol" (בת קול, lit. daughter of a voice, "voice of God") exists (Sanhedrin 11a). In the New Testament, however, the word "messenger" becomes more frequent, sometimes in association with the concept of a prophet.[17] "Messenger" may refer to Jesus, to his Apostles and to John the Baptist. But the last book of the Old Testament, the Book of Malachi, speaks of a messenger that Christian
Christian
commentators interpret as a reference to the future prophet John the Baptist
John the Baptist
(Yahya).[18] Characteristics[edit] In Muslim
Muslim
belief, every Islamic prophet preached Islam. The beliefs of charity, prayer, pilgrimage, worship of God
God
and fasting are believed to have been taught by every prophet who has ever lived.[19] The Quran itself calls Islam
Islam
the "religion of Abraham" (Ibrahim)[20] and refers to Jacob
Jacob
(Yaqub) and the Twelve Tribes of Israel as being Muslim.[21] The Quran
Quran
says

The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah—the which We have sent by inspiration to thee—and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: Namely, that ye should remain steadfast in religion, and make no divisions therein:... — Quran, sura 42 (Ash-Shura), ayah 13[22]

Status[edit] The Quran
Quran
speaks of the Islamic prophets as being the greatest human beings of all time.[19] A prophet, in the Muslim
Muslim
sense of the term, is a person whom God
God
specially chose to teach the faith of Islam.[19] Some were called to prophesy late in life, in Muhammad's case at the age of 40.[23] Others, such as John the Baptist, were called to prophesy while still at a young age and Jesus
Jesus
prophesied while still in his cradle.[24] Ibn Arabi
Ibn Arabi
regarded the prophets as a logos, representing a particular aspect of the universal Logos
Logos
united in Muhammad.[25] The Quran
Quran
verse 4:69 lists various virtuous groups of human beings, among whom prophets (including messengers) occupy the highest rank. Verse 4:69 reads:[10]

All who obey Allah
Allah
and the messenger are in the company of those on whom is the Grace of Allah—of the prophets (who teach), the sincere (lovers of Truth), the witnesses (who testify), and the Righteous (who do good): Ah! what a beautiful fellowship! — Quran, sura 4 (An-Nisa), ayah 69[26]

Biblical stories retold in the Quran
Quran
in the Arabic language
Arabic language
(e.g., Job, Moses, Joseph
Joseph
(Yusuf) etc.) certainly differ from the Jewish Hebrew Bible, the Greek Old Testament
Old Testament
and the Greek New Testament, in that the Quran
Quran
always demonstrates that it is "God's practice" (sunnat Allah) to make faith triumph finally over the forces of evil and adversity. "We have made the evil ones friends to those without faith."[27] "Assuredly God
God
will defend those who believe."[28][29] Thus the Islamic Isa did not die on the cross like the Christian Jesus, but deceived his enemies and ascended to heaven. According to orthodox Sunni doctrine, prophets are unlike other human beings (including "the companions" of the Prophet, the members of Muhammad's family, and Sufi saints) in that they are "protected from major and minor wrongdoing" (Ma'soom). However, they also "share no divine attributes", and possess "no knowledge or power" other than that granted to them by God.[30] Numbers[edit] Muslims believe that many prophets existed, including many not mentioned in the Quran. The Quran
Quran
itself refers to at least four other prophets but does not name them.[31][32] One less-than-sound hadith states there have been 124,000 prophets,[33][34] while another scholarly source states that "their exact numbers are not known with any kind of certainty."[30] Female prophets[edit] Most mainstream Sunni scholars agree that prophets were males only.[35] Still, some like Ibn Hazm, Qartubi, Ibn Hajir, and al Ash‘ari thought that the verses that mention angels speaking to Mary are proofs of her prophet hood.[36][37] Also, Ibn Hajir interprets the Hadith
Hadith
"Many among men attained perfection but among women none attained the perfection except Mary, the daughter of `Imran and Asiya, the wife of Pharaoh." He said perfection is prophet hood in turn his claim that Mary and Asiya
Asiya
were prophets.[38] Scriptures and other gifts[edit] Holy books[edit] See also: Islamic holy books The revealed books are the records which Muslims believe were dictated by God
God
to various Islamic prophets throughout the history of mankind, all these books promulgated the code and laws of Islam. The belief in all the revealed books is an article of faith in Islam
Islam
and Muslims must believe in all the scriptures to be a Muslim. Muslims believe the Quran, the final holy scripture, was sent because all the previous holy books had been either corrupted or lost.[39] Nonetheless, Islam speaks of respecting all the previous scriptures, even in their current forms.[40] The Quran
Quran
mentions some Islamic scriptures by name, which came before the Quran:

Tawrat (Torah): According to the Quran, the Tawrat (Torah) was revealed to Moses,[41] but Muslims believe that the current Pentateuch, although it retains the main message,[42] has suffered corruption over the years. Moses
Moses
and his brother Haroon (Aaron) used the Torah
Torah
to preach the message to the Children of Israel. The Quran implies that the Torah
Torah
is the longest-used scripture, with the Jewish people still using the Torah
Torah
today, and that all the Hebrew prophets would warn the people of any corruptions that were in the scripture.[43] Jesus, in Muslim
Muslim
belief, was the last prophet to be taught the Mosaic Law in its true form. Zabur
Zabur
(Psalms): The Quran
Quran
mentions the Psalms
Psalms
as being the holy scripture revealed to David. Scholars have often understood the Psalms to have been holy songs of praise.[44] The current Psalms
Psalms
are still praised by many Muslim
Muslim
scholars,[45] but Muslims generally assume that some of the current Psalms
Psalms
were written later and are not divinely revealed. Book of Enlightenment: The Quran
Quran
mentions a Book of Enlightenment,[46] which has alternatively been translated as Scripture of Enlightenment or the Illuminating Book. It mentions that some prophets, in the past, came with clear signs from God
God
as well as this particular scripture. Books of Divine Wisdom: The Quran
Quran
mentions certain Books of Divine Wisdom,[47] translated by some scholars as Books of Dark Prophecies, which are a reference to particular books vouchsafed to some prophets, wherein there was wisdom for man. Some scholars have suggested that these may be one and the same as the Psalms
Psalms
as their root Arabic
Arabic
word, Zubur, comes from the same source as the Arabic
Arabic
Zabur
Zabur
for the Psalms. İnjil (Gospel): The İnjil (Gospel) was the holy book revealed to Jesus, according to the Quran. Although many lay Muslims believe the Injil refers to the entire New Testament, scholars have clearly pointed out that it refers not to the New Testament
New Testament
but to an original Gospel, which was sent by God, and was given to Jesus.[48] Therefore, according to Muslim
Muslim
belief, the Gospel
Gospel
was the message that Jesus, being divinely inspired, preached to the Children of Israel. The current canonical Gospels, in the belief of Muslim
Muslim
scholars, are not divinely revealed but rather are documents of the life of Jesus, as written by various contemporaries, disciples and companions. These Gospels contain portions of Jesus's teachings but do not represent the original Gospel, which was a single book written not by a human but was sent by God.[49] Scrolls of Abraham: The Scrolls of Abraham
Abraham
are believed to have been one of the earliest bodies of scripture, which were vouchsafed to Abraham,[50] and later used by Ishmael
Ishmael
and Isaac. Although usually referred to as 'scrolls', many translators have translated the Arabic Suhuf as 'Books'.[51] The Scrolls of Abraham
Abraham
are now considered lost rather than corrupted, although some scholars have identified them with the Testament of Abraham, an apocalyptic piece of literature available in Arabic
Arabic
at the time of Muhammad. Scrolls of Moses: These scrolls, containing the revelations of Moses, which were perhaps written down later by Moses, Aaron
Aaron
and Joshua, are understood by Muslims to refer not to the Torah
Torah
but to revelations aside from the Torah. Some scholars have stated that they could possibly refer to the Book of the Wars of the Lord,[52] a lost text spoken of in the Hebrew Bible.[53]

Holy gifts[edit]

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The Quran
Quran
mentions various divinely-bestowed gifts given to various prophets. These may be interpreted as books or forms of celestial knowledge. Although all prophets are believed by Muslims to have been immensely gifted, special mention of "wisdom" or "knowledge" for a particular prophet is understood to mean that some secret knowledge was revealed to him. The Quran
Quran
mentions that Abraham
Abraham
prayed for wisdom and later received it.[54] It also mentions that Joseph[55] and Moses[56] both attained wisdom when they reached full age; David received wisdom with kingship, after slaying Goliath;[57] Lot (Lut received wisdom whilst prophesying in Sodom and Gomorrah;[58] John the Baptist received wisdom while still a mere youth;[59] and Jesus received wisdom and was vouchsafed the Gospel.[60] Prophets and messengers[edit] All messengers mentioned in the Quran
Quran
are also prophets, but not all prophets are messengers.[61]

Prophets and messengers in the Qur'an

Name Prophet Messenger Ulul'Azm (Archprophet) Book Sent to Law (Sharia) Judeo- Christian
Christian
Equivalent Chronological Order

Harun ✓ [62]

Pharaoh
Pharaoh
and his establishment

Aaron 15

Ibrahim ✓ [63] ✓ [64] ✓ [65] Scrolls of Abraham
Abraham
[50] The people of Ibrahim [66] ✓ [67] Abraham 6

Adam ✓ [68]

Adam 1

Dawud ✓ [69]

Zabur
Zabur
(Psalms) [70]

David 17

Ilyas ✓ [69] ✓ [71]

The people of Elias [72]

Elijah 19

Al-Yasa ✓ [69]

Elisha 20

Idris ✓ [73]

Enoch 2

Dhul-Kifl ✓ [74]

Ezekiel 16

Hud ✓ [75] ✓ [75]

ʿĀd [76]

Eber 4

Ishaq ✓ [77]

Isaac 9

Ismail ✓ [78] ✓ [78]

Ishmael 8

Yaqub ✓ [77]

Jacob 10

Shoaib ✓ [79] ✓ [79]

Midian
Midian
[80]

Jethro 13

Isa ✓ [81] ✓ [82] ✓ [83][84] Injil (Gospel) [85] The Children of Israel
Children of Israel
[86] ✓ [67] Jesus 24

Ayub ✓ [87]

Job 12

Yahya ✓ [88]

John the Baptist 23

Yusuf ✓ [87] ✓ [89]

Joseph 11

Yunus ✓ [69] ✓ [90]

The people of Younis [91]

Jonah 21

Lut ✓ [92] ✓ [93]

The people of Lot [94]

Lot 7

Nuh ✓ [69] ✓ [95] ✓ [83][84]

The people of Noah
Noah
[96] ✓ [67] Noah 3

Muhammad ✓ [97][98] ✓ [99] ✓ [65] Quran
Quran
[100] Whole Mankind and Jinn
Jinn
[101] ✓ [67]

25

Musa ✓ [102] ✓ [102] ✓ [83][84] Tawrah (Torah) Suhoof Musa (scrolls of Moses)[41] Pharaoh
Pharaoh
and his establishment [103] ✓ [67] Moses 14

Saleh ✓ [104] ✓ [104]

Thamud [105]

Salah 5

Sulayman ✓ [69]

Solomon 18

Zakariya ✓ [69]

Zechariah 22

To believe in God's messengers (Rusul) means to be convinced that God sent men as guides to fellow human beings and jinn (khalq) to guide them to the truth.

Prophethood in Ahmadiyya[edit] Main article: Prophethood (Ahmadiyya) The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community does not believe that messengers and prophets are different individuals. They interpret the Quranic words warner (nadhir), prophet, and messenger as referring to different roles that the same divinely appointed individuals perform. Ahmadiyya distinguish only between law-bearing prophets and non-law-bearing ones. They believe that although law-bearing prophethood ended with Muhammad, non-law-bearing prophethood subordinate to Muhammad continues. The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Community recognizes Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908) as such a prophet of God
God
and the promised Messiah
Messiah
and Imam
Imam
Mahdi
Mahdi
of the latter days.[106] Other persons[edit] The Qur'an mentions 25 prophets by name but also tells that God (Allah) sent many other prophets and messengers, to all the different nations that have existed on Earth. Many verses in the Qur'an discuss this:

"We did aforetime send messengers before thee: of them there are some whose story We have related to thee, and some whose story We have not related to thee...."[107] "For We assuredly sent amongst every People a messenger, ..."[108]

Other special persons in the Qur'an[edit]

Caleb (Kaleb): In the Quran
Quran
Caleb is mentioned in the 5th surah of the Quran
Quran
(5:20-26). Dhul-Qarnayn: Dhul-Qarnayn, often identified with Alexander the Great or Cyrus the Great, is a revered ruler in Islam. Joachim (Imran): The Family of Imran (Arabic: آل عمران) is the 3rd chapter of the Quran. Imran is Arabic
Arabic
for the biblical figure Amram, the father of Moses
Moses
and Aaron, who is regarded by Muslims as being the ancestor of Mary (Maryām) and Jesus
Jesus
through his son Aaron. In Muslim
Muslim
belief, however, the Christian
Christian
Joachim has been attributed the name Imran as well. Khidr: The Quran
Quran
also mentions the mysterious Khidr
Khidr
(but does not name him), identified at times with Melchizedek, who is the figure that Moses
Moses
accompanies on one journey. Although most Muslims regard him as an enigmatic saint or an angel,[109] some see him as a prophet as well.[110] Luqman: The Quran
Quran
mentions the sage Luqman in the chapter named after him, but does not clearly identify him as a prophet. The most widespread Islamic belief[111] views Luqman as a saint, but not as a prophet. The Arabic
Arabic
term wali ( Arabic
Arabic
ولي, plural Awliyā' أولياء) is commonly translated into English as "Saint". However, the wali should not be confused with the Christian
Christian
tradition of sainthood. A key difference is that the wali continues what a prophet taught without any change. However, other Muslims regard Luqman as a prophet as well.[112] Mary (Maryam): A few scholars (such as Ibn Hazm)[113] see Maryam (Mary) as a nabi and a prophetess, since God
God
sent her a message via an angel. The Quran, however, does not explicitly identify her as a prophet. Islamic belief regards her as one of the holiest of women, but not as a prophet.[114] Three persons of the town: These three unnamed person, who were sent to the same town, are referenced in chapter 36 of the Quran.[115] Saul (Talut): Saul is not considered a prophet, but a divinely appointed king. Sons of Jacob: These men are sometimes not considered to be prophets, although most exegesis scholars consider them to be prophets, citing the hadith of Muhammad
Muhammad
and their status as prophets in Judaism. The reason that some do not consider them as prophets is because of their behaviour with Yusuf (Joseph) and that they lied to their father.

Prophets in Islamic literature[edit] Numerous other prophets have been mentioned by scholars in the Hadith, exegesis, commentary as well as in the famous collections of Qisas Al-Anbiya (Stories of the Prophets). These prophets include:

Qabil and Habil (Cain and Abel)[116] Danial (Daniel)[117] Elizabeth (Alyassabat)[118] Hosea[119] Isaiah
Isaiah
(Ishiya)[120] Jeremiah
Jeremiah
(Irmiya)[121] Seth
Seth
(Sheeth) (Khidir)[122] Shem[123] Zechariah, son of Berekiah[116]

See also[edit]

Biblical and Quranic narratives False prophet Major prophets in the Bible Table of prophets of Abrahamic religions Twelve Minor Prophets

Notes[edit]

^ a b c Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. pp. 559–560. ISBN 9780816054541. Retrieved 22 June 2015.  ^ Shaatri, A. I. (2007). Nayl al Rajaa' bisharh' Safinat an'najaa'. Dar Al Minhaj. ^ Quran 30:47 ^ Quran 2:285 ^ Denffer, Ahmad
Ahmad
von (1985). Ulum al-Qur'an : an introduction to the sciences of the Qur an (Repr. ed.). Islamic Foundation. p. 37. ISBN 0860371328.  ^ Understanding the Qurán - Page xii, Ahmad
Ahmad
Hussein Sakr - 2000 ^ Quran 15:9 ^ Neal Robinson Christ in Islam
Islam
and Christianity SUNY Press 1990 ISBN 978-0-791-40558-1 page 58 ^ The Hebrew root nun-vet-alef ("navi") is based on the two-letter root nun-vet which denotes hollowness or openness; to receive transcendental wisdom, one must make oneself "open". Cf. Rashbam's comment to Genesis 20:7 ^ a b Uri Rubin, "Prophets and Prophethood", Encyclopedia of the Qur'an ^ Exodus 3:13-14, 4:13 ^ Isaiah
Isaiah
6:8 ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
1:7 ^ A. J. Wensinck, "Rasul", Encyclopaedia of Islam ^ Strong's Concordance ^ According to the Vilna Gaon, based on the opinion that Nechemyah died in Babylon
Babylon
before 9th Tevet 3448 (313 BCE). Nechemya was governor of Persian Judea under Artaxerxes I of Persia
Artaxerxes I of Persia
in the 5th century BCE. The Book of Nehemiah
Book of Nehemiah
describes his work in rebuilding Jerusalem during the Second Temple period. Gaon, Vilna. "Babylonian Talmud". San.11a, Yom.9a/Yuch.1.14/Kuz.3.39,65,67/Yuch.1/Mag.Av.O.C.580.6.  ^ Hebrews
Hebrews
3:1; John 17:3; Matthew 11:10; Mark 1:2; Ephesians 3:5, 4:11; First Epistle to the Corinthians
First Epistle to the Corinthians
28:12 ^ Albert Barnes under Malachi
Malachi
2:7 and 3:1 ^ a b c Wheeler, Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam
Islam
and Judaism, "Prophets" ^ Quran 3:67 ^ Quran 2:123–133 ^ Quran 42:13 ^ Wheeler, Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam
Islam
and Judaism, "Noah" ^ Quran 19:30–33 ^ Rom Landau The Philosophy of Ibn 'Arabi Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-1-135-02970-8 page 56 ^ Quran 4:69 ^ Quran 7:27 ^ Quran 22:49–133 ^ Rosskeen Gibb,, Hamilton Alexander; Pellat, Charles; Schacht, Joseph; Lewis,, Bernard (1973). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 84.  ^ a b Al-Amriki, Yusuf Talal Ali; Ullah, Qazi Thanaa (1985). Essential Hanafi Handbook of Fiqh. Lahore, Pakistan: Kazi Publications. pp. 23–25.  ^ Quran 2:247 ^ Quran 36:12 ^ "Evidence of 124,000 Prophets/Messengers (peace be upon them) in Islam". Islam
Islam
beta. Retrieved 22 June 2015. [unreliable source?] ^ Muṭahharī, Ayatullah Murtadha (2006). Islam
Islam
and Religious Pluralism - Second Edition. World Federation of the KSIMC. p. vi. Retrieved 22 June 2015.  ^ "There were no female prophets - Islam
Islam
web - English". www.islamweb.net. Retrieved 2015-11-27.  ^ "Surat 'Ali `Imran [3:42] - The Noble Qur'an - القرآن الكريم". legacy.quran.com. Retrieved 2015-11-27.  ^ http://islamqa.info/en/158044With regard to Prophethood, some of the scholars – such as Abu’l-Hasan al-Ash‘ari, al-Qurtubi and Ibn Hazm – were of the view that there were some female Prophets! including Maryam bint ‘Imraan. Their evidence is the verses in which it says that Allah, may He be exalted, sent revelation to the mother of Moosa, for example, and what it says about the angels speaking to Maryam (peace be upon her), and also what it says about Allah, may He be exalted, having chosen her above the women of the world. ^ http://islamqa.info/en/7181The scholars differed as to the meaning of the perfection of women. Some said, it refers to Prophethood. Ibn Hajar said in "al-Fath": "… it is as if he said: No women attained Prophethood except for So and so and So and so." (al-Fath, 6/447). ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, Cyril Glasse, "Holy Books" ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, Cyril Glasse[page needed] ^ a b Quran 53:36 ^ Quran 87:18–19 ^ Quran 5:44 ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, "Psalms" ^ Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary[page needed]; Martin Lings, Mecca[page needed]; Abdul Malik, In Thy Seed[page needed] ^ Quran 3:184 and 35:25 ^ Quran 3:184 ^ Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary, Appendix: "On the Injil" ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, "Injil" ^ a b Quran 87:19 ^ Marmaduke Pickthall, The Meaning of the Glorious Quran[page needed]; Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary[page needed] ^ Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary[page needed] ^ Numbers 21:14 ^ Quran 26:83 ^ [Quran 10:22] ^ Quran 28:14 ^ Quran 2:251 ^ Quran 21:74 ^ Quran 19:14 ^ Quran 3:48 ^ Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 38. Retrieved 24 June 2015.  ^ Quran 19:53 ^ Quran 19:41 ^ Quran 9:70 ^ a b Quran 2:124 ^ Quran 22:43 ^ a b c d e Quran 42:13 ^ Quran 2:31 ^ a b c d e f g Quran 6:89 ^ Quran 17:55 ^ Quran 37:123 ^ Quran 37:124 ^ Quran 19:56 ^ Quran 21:85–86 ^ a b Quran 26:125 ^ Quran 7:65 ^ a b Quran 19:49 ^ a b Quran 19:54 ^ a b Quran 26:178 ^ Quran 7:85 ^ Quran 19:30 ^ Quran 4:171 ^ a b c Quran 46:35 ^ a b c Quran 33:7 ^ Quran 57:27 ^ Quran 61:6 ^ a b Quran 4:89 ^ Quran 3:39 ^ Quran 40:34 ^ Quran 37:139 ^ Quran 10:98 ^ Quran 6:86 ^ Quran 37:133 ^ Quran 7:80 ^ Quran 26:107 ^ Quran 26:105 ^ Page 50 "As early as Ibn Ishaq (85-151 AH) the biographer of Muhammad, the Muslims identified the Paraclete - referred to in John's ... "to give his followers another Paraclete that may be with them forever" is none other than Muhammad." ^ Quran
Quran
33:40 ^ Quran 33:40 ^ Quran 42:7 ^ Quran 7:158 ^ a b Quran 19:51 ^ Quran 43:46 ^ a b Quran 26:143 ^ Quran 7:73 ^ Ahmad, Mirzā Ghulām (September 1904). "My Claim to Promised Messiahship". Review of Religions. 3 (9). ISSN 0034-6721.  As reproduced in Ahmad, Mirzā Ghulām (January 2009). "My Claim to Promised Messiahship" (PDF). Review of Religions. 104 (1): 16. ISSN 0034-6721.  ^ Quran 40:78 ^ Quran 16:36 ^ Jill Caskey, Adam
Adam
S. Cohen, Linda Safran Confronting the Borders of Medieval Art BRILL 2011 ISBN 978-9-004-20749-3 page 124 ^ A-Z of Prophets in Islam, B. M. Wheeler, "Khidr" ^ A-Z of Prophets in Islam, B. M. Wheeler, "Luqman" ^ Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam, Cyril Glasse, "Prophets in Islam" ^ Ibn Hazm
Ibn Hazm
on women's prophethood Archived 12 March 2005 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Beyond The Exotic: Women's Histories In Islamic Societies, p. 402. Ed. Amira El-Azhary Sonbol. Syracuse University Press, 2005. ISBN 9780815630555 ^ Quran 36:13–21 ^ a b The Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Note 364: "Examples of the Prophets slain were: "the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar" (Matt. 23:35) ^ Wheeler, B. M. "Daniel". Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Daniel is not mentioned by name in the Qur'an but there are accounts of his prophethood in later Muslim
Muslim
literature...  ^ Women in the Qur'ān, Traditions, and Interpretation. Oxford University Press. 1994. pp. 68–69.  ^ Abdullah Yusuf Ali
Abdullah Yusuf Ali
refers to Hosea
Hosea
8:14 for his notes on Q. 5:60 ^ Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam
Islam
and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, "Appendix II" ^ Tafsir
Tafsir
al-Qurtubi, vol 3, p 188; Tafsir
Tafsir
al-Qummi, vol 1, p 117. ^ Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, "Adam" ^ A-Z of Prophets in Islam
Islam
and Judaism, Appendix: "List of Prophets in Islam"

External links[edit]

Prophets in Islam

v t e

Prophets in the Quran

آدم إدريس نوح هود صالح إبراهيم لوط إسماعيل

Adam Adam

Idris Enoch (?)

Nuh Noah

Hud Eber
Eber
(?)

Saleh Salah
Salah
(?)

Ibrahim Abraham

Lut Lot

Ismail Ishmael

إسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب شُعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود

Is'haq Isaac

Yaqub Jacob

Yusuf Joseph

Ayyub Job

Shuayb Jethro (?)

Musa Moses

Harun Aaron

Dhul-Kifl Ezekiel
Ezekiel
(?)

Daud David

سليمان إلياس إليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى مُحمد

Sulaiman Solomon

Ilyas Elijah

Al-Yasa Elisha

Yunus Jonah

Zakaria Zechariah

Yahya John

Isa Jesus

Muhammad Muhammad

Note: Muslims believe that there were many prophets sent by God
God
to mankind. The Islamic prophets above are only the ones mentioned by name in the Quran.

v t e

Extra-Quranic Prophets of Islam

In Stories of the Prophets

Enoch Eber Khidr Joshua Samuel Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Ezra Daniel

In Islamic tradition

Seth Shem Eli Ahijah Shemaiah Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Urijah Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah Berechiah Samī Joel Amos Obadiah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Malachi Hanzalah Khaled bin Sinan

In Quranic exegesis

Abel Saduq, Masduq, and Shalum Hosea Zechariah, son of Berechiah

v t e

Islam
Islam
topics

Outline of Islam

Beliefs

God
God
in Islam Tawhid Muhammad

In Islam

Prophets of Islam Angels Revelation Predestination Judgement Day

Five Pillars

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

History Leaders

Timeline of Muslim
Muslim
history Conquests Golden Age Historiography Sahaba Ahl al-Bayt Shi'a Imams Caliphates

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Córdoba Fatimid Almohad Sokoto Ottoman

Religious texts

Quran Sunnah Hadith Tafsir Seerah

Denominations

Sunni Shia Ibadi Black Muslims Ahmadiyya Quranism Non-denominational

Life Culture

Animals Art Calendar Children Clothing Holidays Mosques Madrasas Moral teachings Music Philosophy Political aspects Qurbani Science

medieval

Social welfare Women LGBT Islam
Islam
by country

Law Jurisprudence

Economics

Banking Economic history Sukuk Takaful Murabaha Riba

Hygiene

Ghusl Miswak Najis Tayammum Toilet Wudu

Marriage Sex

Marriage contract Mahr Mahram Masturbation Nikah Nikah Mut‘ah Zina

Other aspects

Cleanliness Criminal Dhabiĥa Dhimmi Divorce Diet Ethics Etiquette Gambling Gender segregation Honorifics Hudud Inheritance Jizya Leadership Ma malakat aymanukum Military

POWs

Slavery Sources of law Theological

baligh kalam

 Islamic studies

Arts

Arabesque Architecture Calligraphy Carpets Gardens Geometric patterns Music Pottery

Medieval science

Alchemy and chemistry Astronomy Cosmology Geography and cartography Mathematics Medicine Ophthalmology Physics

Philosophy

Early Contemporary Eschatology Theological

Other areas

Astrology Creationism (evolution) Feminism Inventions Liberalism and progressivism Literature

poetry

Psychology Shu'ubiyya Conversion to mosques

Other religions

Christianity

Mormonism Protestantism

Hinduism Jainism Judaism Sikhism

Related topics

Apostasy Criticism of Islam Cultural Muslim Islamism

Criticism Post-Islamism Qutbism Salafi movement

Islamophobia

Incidents

Islamic terrorism Islamic view of miracles Domestic violence Nursing Persecution of Muslims Quran
Quran
and miracles Symbolism

Islam
Islam
portal Category

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron
Aaron
and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah
Surah
Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (titl

.