Fiqh (/fɪk/; Arabic: فقه [fɪqh]) is Islamic jurisprudence.
While sharia is believed by Muslims to represent divine law as
revealed in the
Quran and the
Sunnah (the teachings and practices of
Islamic prophet Muhammad), fiqh is the human understanding of the
sharia—sharia expanded and developed by interpretation (ijtihad)
Sunnah by Islamic jurists (ulama) and implemented
by the rulings (fatwa) of jurists on questions presented to them. Thus
conceptually, whereas sharia is considered immutable and infallible,
fiqh is considered fallible and changeable.
Fiqh deals with the
observance of rituals, morals and social legislation in Islam. In the
modern era, there are four prominent schools (madh'hab) of fiqh within
Sunni practice, plus two (or three) within
Shi'a practice. A person
trained in fiqh is known as a faqīh (plural fuqaha).
Figuratively, fiqh means knowledge about Islamic legal rulings from
their sources. Thus the figurative definition of fiqh is taken from
its literal one in the sense that deriving religious rulings from
their sources necessitates the mujtahid (an individual who exercises
ijtihad) to have a deep understanding in the different discussions of
jurisprudence. A faqīh must look deep down into a matter and not
suffice himself with just the apparent meaning, and a person who only
knows the appearance of a matter is not qualified as a faqīh.
On the studies of fiqh, it is traditionally divided into Uṣūl
al-fiqh (principles of Islamic jurisprudence, lit. the roots of fiqh),
the methods of legal interpretation and analysis, and Furūʿ al-fiqh
(lit. the branches of fiqh), the elaboration of rulings on the basis
of these principles. Furūʿ al-fiqh is the product of the
application of Uṣūl al-fiqh and the total product of human efforts
at understanding the divine will. A hukm (plural aḥkām) is a
particular ruling in a given case.
2.1 Diagram of early scholars
3.1 Component categories
3.2 Methodologies of jurisprudence
3.3 Fields of jurisprudence
3.4 Schools of jurisprudence
4 Possible links with Western law
5 See also
8 Further reading
The word fiqh is an
Arabic term meaning "deep understanding":470 or
"full comprehension". Technically it refers to the body of Islamic law
extracted from detailed Islamic sources (which are studied in the
principles of Islamic jurisprudence) and the process of gaining
Islam through jurisprudence. The historian Ibn Khaldun
describes fiqh as "knowledge of the rules of God which concern the
actions of persons who own themselves connected to obey the law
respecting what is required (wajib), sinful (haraam), recommended
(mandūb), disapproved (makrūh) or neutral (mubah)". This
definition is consistent amongst the jurists.
In Modern Standard Arabic, fiqh has come to mean jurisprudence in
general, be it Islamic or secular. It is thus possible to speak of
John Roberts as an expert in the common law fiqh of the
United States, or of Egyptian legal scholar Abd El-Razzak El-Sanhuri
as an expert in the civil law fiqh of Egypt.
Main article: Sharia
Islamic economics in the world
The history of Islamic jurisprudence is "customarily divided into
the first period ending with the death of
Muhammad in 11 AH.
second period "characterized by personal interpretations" of the canon
Sahabah or companions of Muhammad, lasting until 50 A.H.
from 50 AH until the early second century AH there was competition
between a "a traditionalist approach to jurisprudence" in western
Islam was revealed and a "rationalist approach in
the "golden age of classical Islamic jurisprudence" from the "early
second to the mid-fourth century when the eight "most significant"
Sunni and Shi'i jurisprudence emerged."
from the mid-fourth century to mid-seventh AH Islamic jurisprudence
was "limited to elaborations within the main juristic schools".
the "dark age" of Islamic jurisprudence stretched from the fall of
Baghdad in the mid-seventh AH (1258 CE) to 1293 AH/1876 CE.
In 1293 AH (1876 CE) the Ottomans codified
Hanafi jurisprudence in the
Majallah el-Ahkam-i-Adliya. Several "juristic revival movements"
influenced by "exposure to Western legal and technological progress"
followed until the mid-20th century CE.
Muhammad Abduh and Abd
El-Razzak El-Sanhuri were products of this era.
The most recent era has been that of the "Islamic revival", which has
been "predicated on rejection of Western social and legal advances"
and the development of specifically Islamic states, social sciences,
economics, and finance.
The formative period of Islamic jurisprudence stretches back to the
time of the early Muslim communities. In this period, jurists were
more concerned with issues of authority and teaching than with theory
Progress in theory and methodology happened with the coming of the
early Muslim jurist
Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i (767–820), who
codified the basic principles of Islamic jurisprudence in his book
ar-Risālah. The book details the four roots of law (Qur'an, Sunnah,
ijma, and qiyas) while specifying that the primary Islamic texts (the
Qur'an and the hadith) be understood according to objective rules of
interpretation derived from scientific study of the Arabic
Secondary sources of law were developed and refined over the
subsequent centuries, consisting primarily of juristic preference
(istihsan), laws of the previous prophets (shara man qablana),
continuity (istishab), extended analogy (maslaha mursala), blocking
the means (sadd al-dhari'ah), custome urf and saying of a companion
Diagram of early scholars
Quran set the rights, the responsibilities and the rules for
people and for societies to adhere to, like not dealing in interest.
Muhammad then provided an example, which is recorded in the hadith
books, showing people how he practically implemented these rules in a
society. After the passing of Muhammad, there was a need for jurists,
to decide on new legal matters where there is no such ruling in the
Quran or the Hadith, example of
Muhammad regarding a
In the years proceeding Muhammad, the community in Madina continued to
use the same rules. People were familiar with the practice of Muhammad
and therefore continued to use the same rules.
The scholars appearing in the diagram below were taught by Muhammad's
companions, many of whom settled in Madina. Muwatta by Malik
ibn Anas was written as a consensus of the opinion, of these
scholars. The Muwatta by
Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas quotes 13
hadiths from Imam Jafar al-Sadiq.
Much of the knowledge we have about
Muhammad is narrated through Aisha
the wife of Muhammad, also a renowned scholar of her time. Aisha
raised and taught her nephew Qasim ibn
Abu Bakr after her
Abu Bakr was killed by the Syrians.
Muhammad ibn Abu Bakrs mother was from Alis family and
Farwah bint al-Qasim
Farwah bint al-Qasim was married to
and was the mother of Jafar al-Sadiq. Therefore, Qasim ibn Muhammad
Abu Bakr was the grand son of
Abu Bakr the first caliph and the
grand father of
Jafar al-Sadiq whose views the twelver Shias follow.
Shia do not accept
Abu Bakr as the first caliph but do
accept his great-great-grandson Jafar al-Sadiq.
Aishas also taught her nephew Urwah ibn Zubayr. He then taught his son
Hisham ibn Urwah, who was the main teacher of
Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas whose
Sunni follow and also taught Jafar al-Sadiq. Qasim ibn
Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr,
Hisham ibn Urwah and
Muhammad al-Baqir taught
Zayd ibn Ali, Jafar al-Sadiq, Abu Hanifa, and Malik ibn Anas.
Imam Jafar al-Sadiq, Imam
Abu Hanifa and
Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas worked
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina. Along with Qasim ibn
Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr,
Zayd ibn Ali
Zayd ibn Ali and over 70
other leading jurists and scholars.
Al-Shafi‘i was taught by Malik ibn Anas.
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal was taught
Muhammad al-Bukhari travelled every where collecting
hadith and his father
Ismail ibn Ibrahim was a student of Malik ibn
Early Islamic scholars
Muhammad (570–632) prepared the Constitution of Medina, taught the
Quran, and advised his companions
`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taught
Ali (607-661) fourth caliph taught
Aisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taught
Abd Allah ibn Abbas
Abd Allah ibn Abbas (618-687) taught
Zayd ibn Thabit (610-660) taught
Umar (579-644) second caliph taught
Abu Hurairah (603 – 681) taught
Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taught
Ali (626–680) taught
Abu Bakr (657-725) taught and raised by Aisha
Urwah ibn Zubayr
Urwah ibn Zubayr (died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taught
Said ibn al-Musayyib (637-715) taught
Umar (614-693) taught
Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624-692) taught by Aisha, he then taught
Ibrahim al-Nakha’i taught
Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659–712) taught
Hisham ibn Urwah (667-772) taught
Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taught
Salim ibn Abd-Allah ibn
Umar ibn Abdul Aziz (682-720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar
Hammad bin ibi Sulman taught
Muhammad al-Baqir (676-733) taught
Farwah bint al-Qasim
Farwah bint al-Qasim Abu Bakr's great grand daughter Jafar's mother
Abu Hanifa (699 — 767) wrote Al
Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar,
jurisprudence followed by Sunni,
Sunni Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi,
Shia and originally by the Fatimid and taught
Zayd ibn Ali
Zayd ibn Ali (695-740)
Muhammad Al-Baqir (702–765) Ali's and Abu Bakr's great
great grand son taught
Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas (711 – 795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early
Medina period now mostly followed by
Sunni in Africa and taught
Al-Waqidi (748 – 822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa
al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn Anas
Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and
history books, student of Malik ibn Anas
Abu Yusuf (729-798) wrote Usul al-fiqh
Muhammad al-Shaybani (749–805)
Al-Shafi‘i (767—820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by
Sunni and taught
Ismail ibn Ibrahim
Ali ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the
Ibn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah,
Isma'il ibn Jafar
Isma'il ibn Jafar (719-775)
Musa al-Kadhim (745-799)
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780—855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
jurisprudence followed by
Sunni and hadith books
Muhammad al-Bukhari (810-870) wrote
Sahih al-Bukhari hadith books
Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj
Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj (815-875) wrote
Sahih Muslim hadith books
Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824-892) wrote
Jami` at-Tirmidhi hadith
Al-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan,
Genealogies of the Nobles
Ibn Majah (824- 887) wrote
Sunan ibn Majah
Sunan ibn Majah hadith book
Abu Dawood (817–889) wrote Sunan
Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote
Kitab al-Kafi hadith
book followed by
Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets
Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari
Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn,
Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna
Ibn Babawayh (923-991) wrote
Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih jurisprudence
Sharif Razi (930-977) wrote
Nahj al-Balagha followed by
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by
Al-Ghazali (1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence
of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on Sufism
Rumi (1207-1273) wrote Masnavi,
Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi
Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi on Sufism
Key: Some of Muhammad's Companions
Key: Taught in Medina
Key: Taught in Iraq
Key: Worked in Syria
Key: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of
compiled books of hadith
Key: Worked in Iran
In the books actually written by these original jurists and scholars,
there are very few theological and judicial differences between them.
Imam Ahmad rejected the writing down and codifying of the religious
rulings he gave. They knew that they might have fallen into error in
some of their judgements and stated this clearly. They never
introduced their rulings by saying, "Here, this judgement is the
judgement of God and His prophet." There is also very little text
actually written down by
Jafar al-Sadiq himself. They all give
priority to the
Qur'an and the
Hadith (the practice of Muhammad). They
felt that the
Quran and the Hadith, the example of
people with almost everything they needed. "This day I have perfected
for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have
approved for you
Islam as religion"
These scholars did not distinguish between each other. They were not
Sunni or Shia. They felt that they were following the religion of
Abraham as described in the
Quran "Say: Allah speaks the truth; so
follow the religion of Abraham, the upright one. And he was not one of
the polytheists" (
Most of the differences are regarding
Sharia laws devised through
Ijtihad where there is no such ruling in the
Quran or the Hadiths of
Muhammad regarding a similar case. As these
jurists went to new areas, they were pragmatic and continued to use
the same ruling as was given in that area during pre-Islamic times, if
the population felt comfortable with it, it was just and they used
Ijtihad to deduce that it did not conflict with the
Quran or the
Hadith. As explained in the Muwatta by Malik ibn Anas. This
made it easier for the different communities to integrate into the
Islamic State and assisted in the quick expansion of the Islamic
To reduce the divergence, ash-
Shafi'i proposed giving priority to the
Qur'an and the
Hadith (the practice of Muhammad) and only then look at
the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma) and analogical reasoning
(qiyas). This then resulted in jurists like Muhammad
al-Bukhari dedicating their lives to the collection of the correct
Hadith, in books like Sahih al-Bukhari. Sahih translates as authentic
or correct. They also felt that Muhammad's judgement was more
impartial and better than their own.
These original jurists and scholars also acted as a counterbalance to
the rulers. When they saw injustice, all these scholars spoke out
against it. As the state expanded outside Madina, the rights of the
different communities, as they were constituted in the Constitution of
Medina still applied. The
Quran also gave additional rights to the
citizens of the state and these rights were also applied. Ali, Hassan
and Hussein ibn
Ali gave their allegiance to the first three caliphs
because they abided by these conditions. Later
Ali the fourth caliph
wrote in a letter "I did not approach the people to get their oath of
allegiance but they came to me with their desire to make me their Amir
(ruler). I did not extend my hands towards them so that they might
swear the oath of allegiance to me but they themselves extended their
hands towards me". But later as fate would have it (Predestination
in Islam) when Yazid I, an oppressive ruler took power, Hussein ibn
Ali the grand son of
Muhammad felt that it was a test from God for him
and his duty to confront him. Then Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, Qasim ibn
Muhammad ibn Abu Bakrs cousin confronted the
Umayyad rulers after
Ali was betrayed by the people of Kufa and killed by
Syrian Roman Army now under the control of the
Yazid I the Umayyad
Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr then took on the Umayyad's and
expelled their forces from
Hijaz and Iraq. But then his forces were
depleted in Iraq, trying to stop the Khawarij. The Ummayad's then
moved in. After a lengthy campaign, on his last hour Abd Allah ibn
al-Zubayr asked his mother Asma' bint
Abu Bakr the daughter of Abu
Bakr the first caliph for advice. Asma' bint
Abu Bakr replied to her
son, she said: "You know better in your own self, that if you are
upon the truth and you are calling towards the truth go forth, for
people more honourable than you have been killed and if you are not
upon the truth, then what an evil son you are and you have destroyed
yourself and those who are with you. If you say, that if you are upon
the truth and you will be killed at the hands of others, then you will
not truly be free".
Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr left and was later also
killed and crucified by the Syrian Roman Army now under the control of
the Umayyads and led by Hajjaj.
Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr the son of Abu
Bakr the first caliph and raised by
Ali the fourth caliph was also
killed by the Ummayads.
Aisha then raised and taught his son Qasim
Abu Bakr who later taught his grandson Jafar
During the early Ummayad period, there was more community involvement.
Quran and Muhammad's example was the main source of law after
which the community decided. If it worked for the community, was just
and did not conflict with the
Quran and the example of Muhammad, it
was accepted. This made it easier for the different communities, with
Central Asia and North African backgrounds to
integrate into the Islamic State and that assisted in the quick
expansion of the Islamic State. The scholars in Madina were consulted
on the more complex judicial issues. The
Sharia and the official more
centralized schools of fiqh developed later, during the time of the
Legal systems of the world
The sources of fiqh in order of importance are
Ijma, i.e. collective reasoning and consensus amongst authoritative
Muslims of a particular generation, and its interpretation by Islamic
Qiyas, i.e. analogy which is deployed if
Ijma or historic collective
reasoning on the issue is not available.
Qur'an gives clear instructions on many issues, such as how to
perform the ritual purification (wudu) before the obligatory daily
prayers (salat), but on other issues, some Muslims believe the Qur'an
alone is not enough to make things clear. For example, the Qur'an
states one needs to engage in daily prayers (salat) and fast (sawm)
during the month of Ramadan but Muslims believe they need further
instructions on how to perform these duties. Details about these
issues can be found in the traditions of Muhammad, so
Sunnah are in most cases the basis for (Shariah).
Some topics are without precedent in Islam's early period. In those
cases, Muslim jurists (Fuqaha) try to arrive at conclusions by other
Sunni jurists use historical consensus of the community (Ijma);
a majority in the modern era also use analogy (Qiyas) and weigh the
harms and benefits of new topics (Istislah), and a plurality utilizes
juristic preference (Istihsan). The conclusions arrived at with the
aid of these additional tools constitute a wider array of laws than
Sharia consists of, and is called fiqh. Thus, in contrast to the
sharia, fiqh is not regarded as sacred and the schools of thought have
differing views on its details, without viewing other conclusions as
sacrilegious. This division of interpretation in more detailed issues
has resulted in different schools of thought (madh'hab).
This wider concept of Islamic jurisprudence is the source of a range
of laws in different topics that guide Muslims in everyday life.
Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) covers two main areas:
Rules in relation to actions, and,
Rules in relation to circumstances surrounding actions.
These types of rules can also fall into two groups:
Dealings & Transactions (with people) (Mu`amalaat)
Rules in relation to actions ('amaliyya — عملية) or "decision
Rules in relation to circumstances (wadia') comprise:
Permit / Enforced (rukhsah, azeemah)
Valid / Corrupt / Invalid (sahih, fasid, batil)
In time / Deferred / Repeat (adaa, qadaa, i'ada)
Methodologies of jurisprudence
Main article: Usul al-fiqh
The modus operandi of the Muslim jurist is known as usul al-fiqh
("principles of jurisprudence").
There are different approaches to the methodology used in
jurisprudence to derive Islamic law from the primary sources. The main
methodologies are those of the Sunni,
Sunni and Shi'ite are divided into smaller sub-schools, the
differences among the Shi'ite schools is considerably greater.
Ibadites only follow a single school without divisions.
While using court decisions as legal precedents and case law are
central to Western law, the importance of the institution of fatawa
(non-binding answers by Islamic legal scholars to legal questions) has
been called "central to the development" of Islamic jurisprudence.
This is in part because of a "vacuum" in the other source of Islamic
law, qada` (legal rulings by state appointed Islamic judges) after the
fall of the last caliphate the Ottoman Empire. While the practice
Islam dates back to the time of Muhammad, according to at least one
Muhammad El-Gamal), it is "modeled after the Roman system of
responsa," and gives the questioner "decisive primary-mover advantage
in choosing he question and its wording."
Arguments for and against reform
Each school (madhhab) reflects a unique al-urf or culture (a cultural
practice that was influenced by traditions), that the classical
jurists themselves lived in, when rulings were made. Some suggest that
the discipline of isnad, which developed to validate hadith made it
relatively easy to record and validate also the rulings of jurists.
This, in turn, made them far easier to imitate (taqlid) than to
challenge in new contexts. The argument is, the schools have been more
or less frozen for centuries, and reflect a culture that simply no
longer exists. Traditional scholars hold that religion is there to
regulate human behavior and nurture people's moral side and since
human nature has not fundamentally changed since the beginning of
Islam a call to modernize the religion is essentially one to relax all
laws and institutions.
Early shariah had a much more flexible character, and some modern
Muslim scholars believe that it should be renewed, and that the
classical jurists should lose special status. This would require
formulating a new fiqh suitable for the modern world, e.g. as proposed
by advocates of the Islamization of knowledge, which would deal with
the modern context. This modernization is opposed by most conservative
ulema. Traditional scholars hold that the laws are contextual and
consider circumstance such as time, place and culture, the principles
they are based upon are universal such as justice, equality and
respect. Many Muslim scholars argue that even though technology may
have advanced, the fundamentals of human life have not.
Fields of jurisprudence
Schools of jurisprudence
Main article: Madhhab
There are several schools of fiqh thought (Arabic: مذهب
maḏhab; pl. مذاهب maḏāhib)
Map of the
Muslim world with the main madh'habs.
The schools of
Islam are each named by students of the classical
jurist who taught them. The
Sunni schools (and where they are commonly
Hanafi (Turkey, the Balkans, Central Asia, Indian subcontinent, China
Maliki (North Africa,
West Africa and several of the Arab states of
the Persian Gulf)
Shafi'i (Kurdistan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Egypt, East Africa, Yemen,
and southern parts of India)
Hanbali (Saudi Arabia) see Wahhabism
Zahiri (minority communities in
Morocco and Pakistan)
Qurtubi No longer exists
Laythi No longer exists but there are a few texts left of it.
The schools of
Twelver Shia: Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, etc.)
Entirely separate from both the
Shia traditions, Khawarij
Islam has evolved its own distinct school.
These schools share many of their rulings, but differ on the
particular hadiths they accept as authentic and the weight they give
to analogy or reason (qiyas) in deciding difficulties.
Possible links with Western law
Main article: Sharia: Classic Islamic law
A number of important legal institutions were developed by Muslim
jurists during the classical period of Islam, known as the Islamic
Golden Age. One such institution was the Hawala, an early informal
value transfer system, which is mentioned in texts of Islamic
jurisprudence as early as the 8th century.
Hawala itself later
influenced the development of the agency in common law and in civil
laws such as the aval in French law and the avallo in Italian law.
The "European commenda" (Islamic Qirad) used in European civil law may
have also originated from Islamic law.
Waqf in Islamic law, which developed during the 7th–9th
centuries, bears a notable resemblance to the trusts in the English
trust law. For example, every
Waqf was required to have a waqif
(settlor), mutawillis (trustee), qadi (judge) and beneficiaries.
The trust law developed in
England at the time of the Crusades, during
the 12th and 13th centuries, was introduced by Crusaders who may have
been influenced by the
Waqf institutions they came across in the
The Islamic lafif was a body of twelve members drawn from the
neighbourhood and sworn to tell the truth, who were bound to give a
unanimous verdict, about matters "which they had personally seen or
heard, binding on the judge, to settle the truth concerning facts in a
case, between ordinary people, and obtained as of right by the
plaintiff." The only characteristic of the English jury which the
Islamic lafif lacked was the "judicial writ directing the jury to be
summoned and directing the bailiff to hear its recognition." According
to Professor John Makdisi, "no other institution in any legal
institution studied to date shares all of these characteristics with
the English jury." It is thus likely that the concept of the lafif may
have been introduced to
England by the Normans, who conquered both
England and the Emirate of Sicily, and then evolved into the modern
Several other fundamental common law institutions may have been
adapted from similar legal institutions in Islamic law and
jurisprudence, and introduced to
England by the
Normans after the
Norman conquest of
England and the Emirate of Sicily, and by Crusaders
during the Crusades. In particular, the "royal English contract
protected by the action of debt is identified with the Islamic Aqd,
the English assize of novel disseisin is identified with the Islamic
Istihqaq, and the English jury is identified with the Islamic lafif."
Other English legal institutions such as "the scholastic method, the
licence to teach", the "law schools known as
Inns of Court
Inns of Court in England
and Madrasas in Islam" and the "European commenda" (Islamic Qirad) may
have also originated from Islamic law. The methodology of legal
precedent and reasoning by analogy (Qiyas) are also similar in both
the Islamic and common law systems. These influences have led some
scholars to suggest that Islamic law may have laid the foundations for
"the common law as an integrated whole".
Mizan, a comprehensive treatise on the contents of
Islam written by
Javed Ahmed Ghamidi.
Sources of Islamic law
List of Islamic terms in Arabic
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Outline of Islam
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Ma malakat aymanukum
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