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Islamabad
Islamabad
(/ɪzˈlɑːməˌbɑːd/; Urdu: اسلام آباد‬‎ Islāmābād [ɪsˌlɑːmɑːˈbɑːd̪]) is the capital city of Pakistan
Pakistan
located within the federal Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory. With a population of 2.01 million, it is the 9th largest city of Pakistan, while the larger Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area
Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area
is the third largest in Pakistan
Pakistan
with a population exceeding four million.[5][6][7] The city is the political seat of Pakistan and is administered by the Islamabad
Islamabad
Metropolitan Corporation, supported by the Capital Development Authority
Capital Development Authority
(CDA). Islamabad
Islamabad
is located in the Pothohar Plateau
Pothohar Plateau
in the northeastern part of the country, between Rawalpindi District
Rawalpindi District
and the Margalla Hills National Park to the north. The region has historically been a part of the crossroads of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
with the Margalla Pass acting as the gateway between the two regions.[8] Islamabad
Islamabad
was built during the 1960s to replace Karachi
Karachi
as Pakistan's capital. The city's master-plan divides the city into eight zones, including administrative, diplomatic enclave, residential areas, educational sectors, industrial sectors, commercial areas, and rural and green areas. The city is known for the presence of several parks and forests, including the Margalla Hills National Park
Margalla Hills National Park
and Shakarparian
Shakarparian
Park.[9] The city is home to several landmarks, including the Faisal Mosque, the largest mosque in South Asia[10] and the fourth largest in the world. Other landmarks include the Pakistan's National Monument and Democracy Square.[11][12][13] Islamabad
Islamabad
is a beta- world city;[14] it is categorised as very high on the Human Development Index, the highest in the country. The city has the highest cost of living in Pakistan, and its population is dominated by middle and upper middle class citizens.[15][16] The city is home to twenty universities, including the Quaid-e-Azam University, PIEAS, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
and NUST.[17] The city is one of the safest in Pakistan, and has an expansive surveillance system with 1,900 CCTV
CCTV
cameras.[18][19]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Construction and development 2.3 Recent history

3 Geography and climate

3.1 Climate

4 Cityscape

4.1 Civic administration 4.2 Sectors 4.3 Islamabad/ Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Metropolitan Area 4.4 Architecture

5 Demographics 6 Economy 7 Culture 8 Education 9 Health care 10 Transport

10.1 Air 10.2 Public transport 10.3 Private transport 10.4 Roadways

11 Sports 12 Notable people 13 Twin towns and sister cities 14 See also 15 References 16 External links

Etymology[edit] The name of the city, Islamabad
Islamabad
is derived from two words, Islam
Islam
and abad, meaning "City of Islam". Islam
Islam
is an Arabic word which refers to the religion of Islam
Islam
and -abad is a Persian place name that means inhabited place or city.[20] History[edit] Main article: History of Islamabad Early history[edit] Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory, located on the Pothohar Plateau
Pothohar Plateau
of the Punjab region, is considered one of the earliest sites of human settlement in Asia.[21] Some of the earliest Stone Age artefacts in the world have been found on the plateau, dating from 100,000 to 500,000 years ago. Rudimentary stones recovered from the terraces of the Soan River
Soan River
testify to the endeavours of early man in the inter-glacial period.[22] Items of pottery and utensils dating back to prehistory have been found.[23] Excavations have revealed evidence of a prehistoric culture. Relics and human skulls have been found dating back to 5000 BC that show this region was home to Neolithic
Neolithic
people who settled on the banks of the Swaan River,[21] who developed small communities in the region at around 3000 BC.[22][24] One end of the Indus Valley Civilization flourished here between the 23rd and 18th centuries BC. Later the area was an early settlement of the Aryan
Aryan
community.[21] A Buddhist town once existed in the region.[25] Many great armies such as those of Zahiruddin Babur, Genghis Khan, Timur
Timur
and Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
used the corridor through Islamabad
Islamabad
on their way to invade the Indian Subcontinent.[21]

15th century Pharwala
Pharwala
Fort beside the Swaan River

The popular Shrine of Meher Ali Shah
Shrine of Meher Ali Shah
was completed immediately before construction began on the future capital city just east of the shrine.

The caves at Shah Allah Ditta, on Islamabad's outskirts, were part of an ancient Buddhist monastic community

The restored village of Saidpur predates the surrounding city of Islamabad.

Construction and development[edit]

Islamabad's urban form was designed to be radically different from typical South Asian cities, and features spacious avenues in a forest-like setting.

Main article: Developments in Islamabad When Pakistan
Pakistan
gained independence in 1947, the southern port city of Karachi
Karachi
was its first national capital. In the 1960s, Islamabad
Islamabad
was constructed as a forward capital for several reasons.[26] Traditionally, development in Pakistan
Pakistan
was focused on the colonial centre of Karachi, and President Ayub Khan wanted it equally distributed. Moreover, Karachi
Karachi
was located at the southern end of the country, making it vulnerable to attacks from the Arabian Sea. Pakistan
Pakistan
needed a capital that was easily accessible from all parts of the country.[27][28] Karachi, a business centre, was also considered unsuitable partly because of intervention of business interests in government affairs.[29] The newly selected location of Islamabad
Islamabad
was closer to the army headquarters in Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
and the disputed territory of Kashmir
Kashmir
in the north.[21] In 1958, a commission was constituted to select a suitable site for the national capital with particular emphasis on location, climate, logistics, and defence requirements along with other attributes. After extensive study, research, and a thorough review of potential sites, the commission recommended the area northeast of Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
in 1959.[27][30] A Greek firm of architects, Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis, designed the master plan of the city based on a grid plan which was triangular in shape with its apex towards the Margalla Hills.[31] The capital was not moved directly from Karachi
Karachi
to Islamabad; it was first shifted temporarily to Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
in the early sixties and then to Islamabad
Islamabad
when the essential development work was completed in 1966.[32] Recent history[edit]

The Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus
Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus
was built in 2015 to connect Islamabad
Islamabad
with neighbouring Rawalpindi.

Islamabad
Islamabad
has attracted people from all over Pakistan, making it one of the most cosmopolitan and urbanised cities of Pakistan.[33] As the capital city it has hosted a number of important meetings, such as the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
summit.[34] Year 2014 has brought in major changes in Islamabad. Construction of the Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus
Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus
began on 28 February 2014 which was completed in March 2015, with 60 buses plying on the route. The Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Development Authority took care of the project with a cost of approximately Rs 24 billion, which was shared by both the Federal government and the provincial government of Punjab.[35] In October 2005, the city suffered some damage due to the 2005 Kashmir
Kashmir
earthquake which had a magnitude of 7.6.[36] Islamabad
Islamabad
has experienced a series of terrorist incidents including the July 2007 Siege of Lal Masjid (Red Mosque), the June 2008 Danish embassy bombing, and the September 2008 Marriott bombing.[37] In 2011, four terrorism incidents occurred in the city, killing four people, including the murder of the then Punjab Governor Salmaan Taseer.[38] Geography and climate[edit] Main article: Geography of Islamabad

Margalla Hills, Islamabad

Islamabad's verdant cityscape merges directly with the Margalla Hills

Constitution Avenue

Islamabad's deciduous trees change colours in autumn

Islamabad
Islamabad
is located at 33°26′N 73°02′E / 33.43°N 73.04°E / 33.43; 73.04 at the northern edge of the Pothohar Plateau and at the foot of the Margalla Hills
Margalla Hills
in Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory. Its elevation is 540 metres (1,770 ft).[39][40] The modern capital and the ancient Gakhar city of Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
stand side by side and are commonly referred to as the Twin Cities,[41] where no exact boundary exists between the two cities.[29] To the northeast of the city lies the hill station of Murree, and to the north lies the Haripur District
Haripur District
of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Kahuta
Kahuta
lies on the southeast, Taxila, Wah Cantt, and Attock District
Attock District
to the northwest, Gujar Khan, Rawat, and Mandrah
Mandrah
on the southeast, and the metropolis of Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
to the south and southwest. Islamabad
Islamabad
is located 120 kilometres (75 mi) SSW of Muzaffarabad, 185 kilometres (115 mi) east of Peshawar, 295 kilometres (183 mi) NNW of Lahore, and 300 kilometres (190 mi) WSW of Srinagar, the capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The city of Islamabad
Islamabad
expanses an area of 906 square kilometres (350 sq mi).[42] A further 2,717 square kilometres (1,049 sq mi) area is known as the Specified Area, with the Margala Hills in the north and northeast. The southern portion of the city is an undulating plain. It is drained by the Kurang River, on which the Rawal Dam is located.[43] Climate[edit]

Islamabad's annual precipitation allows for the growth of lush forests in the city's hills.

Main article: Climate of Islamabad The climate of Islamabad
Islamabad
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cwa), with five seasons: Winter (November–February), Spring (March and April), Summer (May and June), Rainy Monsoon (July and August) and Autumn (September and October). The hottest month is June, where average highs routinely exceed 38 °C (100.4 °F). The wettest month is July, with heavy rainfalls and evening thunderstorms with the possibility of cloudburst and flooding. The coolest month is January. Islamabad's micro-climate is regulated by three artificial reservoirs: Rawal, Simli, and Khanpur Dam. The latter is located on the Haro River
Haro River
near the town of Khanpur, about 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Islamabad. Simli Dam is 30 kilometres (19 mi) north of Islamabad. 220 acres (89 ha) of the city consists of Margalla Hills
Margalla Hills
National Park. Loi Bher Forest is situated along the Islamabad
Islamabad
Highway, covering an area of 1,087 acres (440 ha).[44] The highest monthly rainfall of 743.3 mm (29.26 in) was recorded during July 1995.[45] Winters generally feature dense fog in the mornings and sunny afternoons. In the city, temperatures stay mild, with snowfall over the higher elevations points on nearby hill stations, notably Murree
Murree
and Nathia Gali. The temperatures range from 13 °C (55 °F) in January to 38 °C (100 °F) in June. The highest recorded temperature was 46.6 °C (115.9 °F) on 23 June 2005 while the lowest temperature was −6 °C (21.2 °F) on 17 January 1967.[46][47] The city has recorded snowfall. On 23 July 2001, Islamabad
Islamabad
received a record-breaking 620 mm (24 in) of rainfall in just 10 hours. It was the heaviest rainfall in Islamabad
Islamabad
in the past 100 years and the highest rainfall in 24 hours as well.[48][49]

Climate data for Islamabad
Islamabad
(1961–1990)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 30.1 (86.2) 30.0 (86) 34.4 (93.9) 40.6 (105.1) 45.6 (114.1) 46.6 (115.9) 45.0 (113) 42.0 (107.6) 38.1 (100.6) 37.8 (100) 32.2 (90) 28.3 (82.9) 46.6 (115.9)

Average high °C (°F) 17.7 (63.9) 19.1 (66.4) 23.9 (75) 30.1 (86.2) 35.3 (95.5) 38.7 (101.7) 35.0 (95) 33.4 (92.1) 33.5 (92.3) 30.9 (87.6) 25.4 (77.7) 19.7 (67.5) 28.6 (83.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) 10.1 (50.2) 12.1 (53.8) 16.9 (62.4) 22.6 (72.7) 27.5 (81.5) 31.2 (88.2) 29.7 (85.5) 28.5 (83.3) 27.0 (80.6) 22.4 (72.3) 16.5 (61.7) 11.6 (52.9) 21.3 (70.3)

Average low °C (°F) 2.6 (36.7) 5.1 (41.2) 9.9 (49.8) 15.0 (59) 19.7 (67.5) 23.7 (74.7) 24.3 (75.7) 23.5 (74.3) 20.6 (69.1) 13.9 (57) 7.5 (45.5) 3.4 (38.1) 14.1 (57.4)

Record low °C (°F) −6.1 (21) −2.2 (28) −0.3 (31.5) 5.1 (41.2) 10.5 (50.9) 15.0 (59) 17.8 (64) 17.0 (62.6) 13.3 (55.9) 5.7 (42.3) −0.6 (30.9) −4.1 (24.6) −6.1 (21)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 56.1 (2.209) 73.5 (2.894) 89.8 (3.535) 61.8 (2.433) 39.2 (1.543) 62.2 (2.449) 267.0 (10.512) 309.9 (12.201) 98.2 (3.866) 29.3 (1.154) 17.8 (0.701) 37.3 (1.469) 1,142.1 (44.966)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 195.7 187.1 202.3 252.4 311.9 300.1 264.4 250.7 262.2 275.5 247.9 195.6 2,945.8

Source #1: NOAA (normals)[50]

Source #2: PMD (extremes)[51]

Cityscape[edit]

Islamabad
Islamabad
Zones

Zones in Islamabad

Zone Area

acres km2

I 54,958.25 222.4081

II 9,804.92 39.6791

III 50,393.01 203.9333

IV 69,814.35 282.5287

V 39,029.45 157.9466

Source: Lahore
Lahore
Real Estate[52]

Civic administration[edit] See also: Mayor of Islamabad, Islamabad
Islamabad
Metropolitan Corporation, and Capital Development Authority The main administrative authority of the city is the Islamabad Metropolitan Corporation (IMC) with some help from Capital Development Authority (CDA), which oversees the planning, development, construction, and administration of the city.[53][54] Islamabad Capital Territory is divided into eight zones: Administrative Zone, Commercial District, Educational Sector, Industrial Sector, Diplomatic Enclave, Residential Areas, Rural Areas and Green Area.[55] Islamabad city is divided into five major zones: Zone I, Zone II, Zone III, Zone IV, and Zone V. Out of these, Zone IV is the largest in area.[52] Zone I consists mainly of all the developed residential sectors while Zone II consists of the under-developed residential sectors. Each residential sector is identified by a letter of the alphabet and a number, and covers an area of approximately 2 km × 2 km (​1 1⁄4 mi × ​1 1⁄4 mi). The sectors are lettered from A to I, and each sector is divided into four numbered sub-sectors.[56] Sectors[edit] Main article: Sectors of Islamabad Series A, B, and C are still underdeveloped. The D series has seven sectors (D-11 to D-17),[52] of which only sector D-12 is completely developed. This series is located at the foot of Margalla Hills.[55] The E Sectors are named from E-7 to E-17.[52] Many foreigners and diplomatic personnel are housed in these sectors.[55] In the revised Master Plan of the city, CDA has decided to develop a park on the pattern of Fatima Jinnah Park
Fatima Jinnah Park
in sector E-14. Sectors E-8 and E-9 contain the campuses of Bahria University, Air University, and the National Defence University.[57][58][59] The F and G series contains the most developed sectors. F series contains sectors F-5 to F-17; some sectors are still under-developed.[52] F-5 is an important sector for the software industry in Islamabad, as the two software technology parks are located here. The entire F-9 sector is covered with Fatima Jinnah Park. The Centaurus
The Centaurus
complex is a major landmark of the F-8 sector.[55] G sectors are numbered G-5 through G-17.[52] Some important places include the Jinnah Convention Centre and Serena Hotel in G-5, the Red Mosque in G-6, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Institute of Medical Sciences, the largest medical complex in the capital, located in G-8,[55] and the Karachi
Karachi
Company shopping center in G-9. The H sectors are numbered H-8 through H-17.[52] The H sectors are mostly dedicated to educational and health institutions. National University of Sciences and Technology covers a major portion of sector H-12.[55] The I sectors are numbered from I-8 to I-18. With the exception of I-8, which is a well-developed residential area, these sectors are primarily part of the industrial zone. Currently two sub-sectors of I-9 and one sub-sector of I-10 are used as industrial areas. CDA is planning to set up Islamabad
Islamabad
Railway Station in Sector I-18 and Industrial City in sector I-17.[55] Zone III consists primarily of the Margalla Hills
Margalla Hills
and Margalla Hills
Margalla Hills
National Park. Rawal Lake
Rawal Lake
is in this zone. Zone IV and V consist of Islamabad
Islamabad
Park, and rural areas of the city. The Soan River
Soan River
flows into the city through Zone V.[52]

Islamabad
Islamabad
skyline

Islamabad/ Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Metropolitan Area[edit] Main article: Islamabad- Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
metropolitan area When the master plan for Islamabad
Islamabad
was drawn up in 1960, Islamabad
Islamabad
and Rawalpindi, along with the adjoining areas, was to be integrated to form a large metropolitan area called Islamabad/Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area. The area would consist of the developing Islamabad, the old colonial cantonment city of Rawalpindi, and Margalla Hills National Park, including surrounding rural areas.[60][61] However, Islamabad
Islamabad
city is part of the Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory, while Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
is part of Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
District, which is part of province of Punjab .[62] Initially, it was proposed that the three areas would be connected by four major highways: Murree
Murree
Highway, Islamabad
Islamabad
Highway, Soan Highway, and Capital Highway. However, to date only two highways have been constructed: Kashmir
Kashmir
Highway (the former Murree
Murree
Highway) and Islamabad Highway.[61] Plans of constructing Margalla Avenue are also underway.[63] Islamabad
Islamabad
is the hub all the governmental activities while Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
is the centre of all industrial, commercial, and military activities. The two cities are considered sister cities and are highly interdependent.[60]

Mega Mall of Islamabad
Islamabad
The Centaurus

PTET & ISE Tower

Pakistan
Pakistan
Secretariat

Star and Crescent Monument near the start of Shakarparian

Faisal Mosque

Daman-e-Koh
Daman-e-Koh
Park

Sunset over the Lake View Park

view of Blue Area, the commercial hub of the city.

Blue Area

Pakistan
Pakistan
Monument

Constitution Avenue in Islamabad

Saidpur villagekami

Architecture[edit] See also: List of tallest buildings in Islamabad Islamabad's architecture is a combination of modernity and old Islamic and regional traditions. The Saudi-Pak Tower is an example of the integration of modern architecture with traditional styles. The beige-coloured edifice is trimmed with blue tile works in Islamic tradition, and is one of Islamabad's tallest buildings. Other examples of intertwined Islamic and modern architecture include Pakistan Monument and Faisal Mosque. Other notable structures are: Secretariat Complex designed by Gio Ponti, Prime Minister’s secretariat based on Mughal architecture
Mughal architecture
and the National Assembly by Edward Durell Stone.[30] The murals on the inside of the large petals of Pakistan Monument
Pakistan Monument
are based on Islamic architecture.[64] The Shah Faisal Mosque
Faisal Mosque
is a fusion of contemporary architecture with a more traditional large triangular prayer hall and four minarets, designed by Vedat Dalokay, a Turkish architect and built with the help of funding provided by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia.[65] The architecture of Faisal Mosque
Faisal Mosque
is unusual as it lacks a dome structure. It is a combination of Arabic, Turkish, and Mughal architectural traditions.[66] The Centaurus
The Centaurus
is an example of modern architecture under construction in Islamabad. The seven star hotel was designed by WS Atkins PLC.[67] The newly built Islamabad Stock Exchange Towers is another example of modern architecture in the city.[68] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1972 77,000 —    

1981 204,000 +164.9%

1998 529,180 +159.4%

2017 1,014,825 +91.8%

Source: [69][70]

Main article: Demographics of Islamabad The mother tongue of the majority of the population is Punjabi, at 68% and the major dialect is Pothohari. 15% of the population are Pashto speakers, 18% speak other languages.[71] The total migrant population of the city is 1 million, with the majority (691,977) coming from Punjab. Around 210,614 of the migrated population came from Sindh
Sindh
and rest from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Azad Kashmir. Smaller populations emigrated from Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Balochistan, and Gilgit–Baltistan.[72] The majority of the population lies in the age group of 15–64 years, around 59.38%. Only 2.73% of the population is above 65 years of age; 37.90% is below the age of 15.[73] Islamabad
Islamabad
has the highest literacy rate in Pakistan, at 88%.[74] 9.8% of the population has done intermediate education (equivalent to grades 11 and 12). 10.26% have a bachelor or equivalent degree while 5.2% have a master or equivalent degree.[75] The labour force of Islamabad
Islamabad
is 185,213[76] and the unemployment rate is 15.70%.[77] Islam
Islam
is the largest religion in the city, with 95.53% of the population Muslim. In rural areas this percentage is 98.80%. Per 1998 census in urban areas the percentage of Muslims is 97.83%. The second largest religion is Christianity, with 4.07% of the population, 0.94% in rural areas and 5.70% in the city. Hinduism
Hinduism
accounts for 0.02% of the population, and other minorities 0.03%.[78] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Islamabad

Islamabad
Islamabad
Stock Exchange

Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited

Islamabad
Islamabad
is a net contributor to the Pakistani economy, as whilst having only 0.8% of the country's population, it contributes 1% to the country's GDP.[79] Islamabad
Islamabad
Stock Exchange, founded in 1989, is Pakistan's third largest stock exchange after Karachi
Karachi
Stock Exchange and Lahore
Lahore
Stock Exchange, and was merged to form Pakistan
Pakistan
Stock Exchange.[80] The exchange had 118 members with 104 corporate bodies and 18 individual members. The average daily turnover of the stock exchange is over 1 million shares.[81] According to the World Bank's Doing Business Report
Doing Business Report
of 2010, Islamabad was ranked as the best place to start a business in Pakistan.[82] Islambad's businesses are Pakistan's most compliant for paying tax dues.[83] As of 2012[update], Islamabad
Islamabad
LTU (Large Tax Unit) was responsible for Rs 371 billion in tax revenue, which amounts to 20% of all the revenue collected by Federal Board of Revenue.[84] Islamabad
Islamabad
has seen an expansion in information and communications technology with the addition two Software Technology Parks, which house numerous national and foreign technological and information technology companies. Some jobs have relocated from India
India
to Islamabad.[85] Awami Markaz IT Park houses 36 IT companies, while Evacuee Trust house 29 companies.[86] Islamabad
Islamabad
will see its third IT Park by 2020, which will be built with assistance from South Korea.[87] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Islamabad Islamabad
Islamabad
is home to many migrants from other regions of Pakistan
Pakistan
and has a cultural and religious diversity of considerable antiquity. Due to its location on the Pothohar Plateau, remnants of ancient cultures and civilisations such as Aryan, Soanian, and Indus Valley civilisation can still be found in the region. A 15th-century Gakhar fort, Pharwala
Pharwala
Fort is located near Islamabad.[88][89] Rawat Fort
Rawat Fort
in the region was built by the Gakhars
Gakhars
in 16th century and contains the grave of the Gakhar chief, Sultan Sarang Khan.[89] Saidpur village is supposedly named after Said Khan, the son of Sarang Khan. The 500-year-old village was converted into a place of Hindu worship by a Mughal commander, Raja Man Singh. He constructed a number of small ponds: Rama kunda, Sita kunda, Lakshaman kunda, and Hanuman kunda.[90] The region is home to a small Hindu temple that is preserved, showing the presence of Hindu people in the region. The shrine of Sufi mystic Pir Meher Ali Shah
Pir Meher Ali Shah
is located at Golra Sharif, which has a rich cultural heritage of the pre-Islamic period. Archaeological remains of the Buddhist era can also still be found in the region.[91] The shrine of Bari Imam
Bari Imam
was built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Thousands of devotees from across Pakistan
Pakistan
attend the annual Urs
Urs
of Bari Imam. The event is one of the largest religious gatherings in Islamabad. In 2004, the Urs
Urs
was attended by more than 1.2 million people.[92] The Lok Virsa Museum
Lok Virsa Museum
in Islamabad
Islamabad
preserves a wide variety of expressions of folk and traditional cultural legacy of Pakistan. It is located near the Shakarparian
Shakarparian
hills and boasts a large display of embroidered costumes, jewellery, musical instruments, woodwork, utensils and folkloristic objects from the region and other parts of Pakistan.[93] Education[edit] See also: List of educational institutions in Islamabad

Quaid-i-Azam University

Islamabad
Islamabad
boasts the highest literacy rate in Pakistan
Pakistan
at 88%,[74] and has some of the most advanced educational institutes in the country.[94] A large number of public and private sector educational institutes are present here. The higher education institutes in the capital are either federally chartered or administered by private organisations and almost all of them are recognised by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. High schools and colleges are either affiliated with the Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education or with the UK universities education boards, O/A Levels, or IGCSE. According to Academy of Educational Planning and Management's report, in 2009 there were a total of 913 recognised institutions in Islamabad
Islamabad
(31 pre-primary, 2 religious, 367 primary, 162 middle, 250 high, 75 higher secondary and intermediate colleges, and 26 degree colleges).[95] There are seven teacher training institutes in Islamabad
Islamabad
with a total enrolment of 604,633 students and 499 faculty.[95]

National University of Sciences and Technology

The Gender Parity Index in Islamabad
Islamabad
is 0.93 compared to the 0.95 national average. There are 178 boys only institutes, 175 girls only, and 551 mixed institutes in Islamabad.[95] Total enrolment of students in all categories is 267,992; 138,272 for boys and 129,720 for girls.[95] There are 16 recognised universities in Islamabad
Islamabad
with a total enrolment of 372,974 students and 30,144 teachers.[95] Most of the top ranked universities; National University of Sciences and Technology, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
and Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences, also have their headquarters in the capital.[17] The world's second largest general university by enrolment, Allama Iqbal Open University
Allama Iqbal Open University
is located in Islamabad
Islamabad
for distance education. Other universities include Air University, Bahria University, Center for Advanced Studies in Engineering, Federal Urdu University
Federal Urdu University
of Arts, Science and Technology, Hamdard University, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Capital University of Science & Technology, National Defence University, Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University, National University of Modern Languages, Iqra University, International Islamic University, Virtual University of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah University The University of Lahore, Abasyn University
Abasyn University
and The Millennium University College.

Universities and Colleges in Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory

NUST Center for Advanced Studies in Engineering Foundation University Institute of Space Technology International Islamic University Mohammad Ali Jinnah University National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences Pakistan
Pakistan
Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences Quaid-i-Azam University SZABIST [University of Lahore]] University College of Islamabad [Abasyn university]] Roots Ivy College

Health care[edit]

Pakistan
Pakistan
Institute of Medical Sciences

Islamabad
Islamabad
has the lowest rate of infant mortality in the country at 38 deaths per thousand compared to the national average of 78 deaths per thousand.[96] Islamabad
Islamabad
has both public and private medical centres. The largest hospital in Islamabad
Islamabad
is Pakistan
Pakistan
Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) hospital. It was established in 1985 as a teaching and doctor training institute. PIMS functions as a National Reference Center and provides specialised diagnostic and curative services.[97] The hospital has 30 major medical departments.[98] PIMS is divided into five administrative branches. Islamabad
Islamabad
Hospital is the major component with a 592-bed facility and 22 medical and surgical specialties.[99] The Children's Hospital is a 230-bed hospital completed in 1985. It contains six major facilities: Surgical and Allied Specialties, Medical and Allied Specialties, Diagnostic Facilities, Operation Theatre, Critical Care (NICU, PICU, Isolation & Accident Emergency), and a Blood Bank.[100] The Maternal and Child Health Care Center is a training institute with an attached hospital of 125 beds offering different clinical and operational services.[101] PIMS consists of five academic institutes: Quaid-e-Azam Postgraduate Medical College, College of Nursing, College of Medical Technology, School of Nursing, and Mother and Child Health Center.[102] PAEC General Hospital and teaching institute, established in 2006, is affiliated with the Pakistan
Pakistan
Atomic Energy Commission.[103] The hospital consists of a 100[103]-bed facility and 10 major departments: Obstetrics
Obstetrics
and Gynecology, Pediatric, General Medicine, General Surgery, Intensive Care Unit/Coronary Care Unit, Orthopedics, Ophthalmology, Pathology, Radiology, and Dental Department.[104] Shifa International Hospital is a teaching hospital in Islamabad
Islamabad
that was founded in 1987 and became a public company in 1989. The hospital has 70 qualified consultants in almost all specialties, 150 IPD beds and OPD facilities in 35 different specialisations.[105] According to the Federal Bureau of Statistics of the Government of Pakistan, in 2008 there were 12 hospitals, 76 dispensaries, and 5 Maternity and Child Welfare Centers in the city with a total of 5,158 beds.[106] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Islamabad

Islamabad
Islamabad
Metro Bus

Air[edit] Islamabad
Islamabad
is connected to major destinations around the world through Benazir Bhutto International Airport, previously known as Islamabad International Airport.[107] The airport is the third largest in Pakistan
Pakistan
and is located outside Islamabad, in Chaklala, Rawalpindi.[108] In fiscal year 2004–2005, over 2.88 million passengers used Benazir Bhutto International Airport
Benazir Bhutto International Airport
and 23,436 aircraft movements were registered.[109] The Islamabad
Islamabad
Gandhara International Airport was built west of the city at a cost of $400 million and is expected to be operational by December 2017. This will be the first green field airport in Pakistan
Pakistan
with an area of 3,600-acre (15 km2).[110] Public transport[edit]

Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus
Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus
near The Centaurus.

The Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus
Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metrobus
is a 24 km (14.9 mi) bus rapid transit system that serves the twin cities of Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
and Islamabad
Islamabad
in Pakistan. It uses dedicated bus lanes for all of its route covering 24 bus stations. Metro Bus has Unique existing in Pakistan
Pakistan
that was the project given by Turkey
Turkey
to Pakistan. This Service covers a huge distance from city Saddar, Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
to Pak-Secretariat, Islamabad. This Service is very reliable and is producing consistent results as Labor force as well as students are using this govt. provided service on daily basis. It has reduced the time consumption by reducing the route. Now this bus service is being extended to more areas in Islamabad
Islamabad
that include areas near G-13 and H-12. Work is currently being done to keep it along the Kashmir Highway.[111]. Private transport[edit] People use private transport like Taxi, Careem
Careem
and Uber
Uber
for their local journey. In March, 2016 Careem
Careem
become functional Islamabad
Islamabad
and Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
with an exciting services of Taxi. Roadways[edit] M-2 Motorway is 367 km (228 mi) long and connect Islamabad and Lahore.[112] M-1 Motorway connects Islamabad
Islamabad
with Peshawar
Peshawar
and is 155 km (96 mi) long.[112] Islamabad
Islamabad
is linked to Rawalpindi through the Faizabad Interchange, which has a daily traffic volume of about 48,000 vehicles.[113] Sports[edit]

Islamabad
Islamabad
Golf Club

Jinnah Sports Stadium

Islamabad
Islamabad
has a multi-purpose Sports Complex opposite Aabpara. The complex includes Liaquat Gymnasium for indoor games, Mushaf Squash Complex and Jinnah Stadium for outdoor games, which is a venue for regular national and international events. 2004 SAF Games were held in the stadium. There is another Multipurpose Sports Complex in the F6 Markaz. Offered facilities include Tennis courts, a basketball court with fibre-glass boards and a Futsal
Futsal
ground which introduced artificial turf to the people of Islamabad. Major sports in the city include Cricket, Football, Squash, Hockey, Table Tennis, Rugby and Boxing.[114] The city is home to Islamabad United
Islamabad United
which won the first ever Pakistan
Pakistan
Super League in 2016.[115] Islamabad
Islamabad
also has various rock climbing spots in the Margalla Hills.[116] Swimming pools of Pakistan
Pakistan
Sports Complex are good. There are three pools for children. These facilities attract a large gathering on weekends. Few swimmers, however, demand more hygienic conditions in showers and rest rooms.[117] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Islamabad Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

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Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Pakistan

Amman, Jordan[118] Beijing, China[119] Seoul, South Korea[120] Jakarta, Indonesia
Indonesia
1984, Restarted in 2010[121] Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates[122]

See also[edit]

Islamabad
Islamabad
portal Pakistan
Pakistan
portal

Birds of Islamabad Climate of Islamabad Developments in Islamabad List of people from Islamabad

References[edit]

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Faisalabad
best place to do business in Pakistan". The Express Tribune. June 30, 2010.  ^ "Doing Business in Islamabad". Doing Business. Doing Business (World Bank). 2010. Retrieved 25 December 2017.  ^ "Rs 371bn revenue target: FBR hails LTU Islamabad's performance". Business Recorder. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.  ^ Mishra, Siddhartha (27 November 2017). "Noida to Islamabad". Outlook India. Retrieved 25 December 2017.  ^ Pakistan
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External links[edit]

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Articles related to Islamabad

v t e

Territory of Islamabad
Islamabad
topics

History

History of the Punjab History of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa History of Pakistan Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis Ayub Khan Yahya Khan 2005 Kashmir
Kashmir
earthquake Siege of Lal Masjid

Administration

Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory Islamabad
Islamabad
Metropolitan Corporation Capital Development Authority Mayor of Islamabad

Sectors

Diplomatic Enclave Pakistan
Pakistan
Secretariat A-17 A-18 B-17 B-18 C-15 C-16 C-17 C-18 D-10 D-11 D-12 D-13 D-14 D-15 D-16 D-17 D-18 E-7 E-8 E-9 E-10 E-11 E-12 E-13 E-14 E-15 E-16 E-17 E-18 F-5 F-6 F-7 F-8 F-9 F-10 F-11 F-12 F-13 F-14 F-15 F-16 F-17 F-18 G-5 G-6 G-7 G-8 G-9 G-10 G-11 G-12 G-13 G-14 G-15 G-16 G-17 G-18 H-8 H-9 H-10 H-11 H-12 H-13 H-14 H-15 H-16 H-17 H-18 I-8 I-9 I-10 I-11 I-12 I-13 I-14 I-15 I-16 I-17 I-18

Geography

Koral Rawalpindi Model Town Humak Pothohar Plateau Margalla Hills Gakhar Simly Dam Golra Sharif Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
(1901–2010) Punjab Birds Fauna of Islamabad Flora of Islamabad

Economy and transport

Developments in Islamabad Blue Area State Bank of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto International Airport Karakoram Highway Grand Trunk Road Constitution Avenue Faizabad Interchange Islamabad
Islamabad
Chamber of Commerce & Industry Islamabad
Islamabad
Highway Islamabad
Islamabad
railway station Golra Sharif
Golra Sharif
Junction railway station Islamabad
Islamabad
Stock Exchange Seventh Avenue Ninth Avenue Territorial Highways of Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory

Demographics and culture

List of people from Islamabad Punjabis Muhajirs Pashtuns Aiwan-e-Sadr Parliament of Pakistan Supreme Court of Pakistan Faisal Mosque Fatima Jinnah Park Islamabad
Islamabad
Zoo Golra Sharif Daman-e-Koh Pakistan
Pakistan
Museum of Natural History Lok Virsa Museum

Education

Educational institutions Air University Al-Huda Institute Allama Iqbal Open University Bahria University Center for Advanced Studies in Engineering COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Federal Urdu University Hamdard University International Islamic University Mohammad Ali Jinnah University National Defence University Foundation University, Islamabad National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences National University of Modern Languages National University of Sciences and Technology Institute of Space Technology Iqra University Quaid-i-Azam University Shifa College of Medicine Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology

Sports

Islamabad
Islamabad
Leopards Islamabad
Islamabad
United

v t e

Neighbourhoods of Islamabad

Administrations: Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory

Cities

Golra Sharif Islamabad
Islamabad
(capital) Nilore

Towns & councils

Arazi Masnali Ali Pur Baggonal Mohra Baghwala Mohra Bann Na Mohra Banniwala Mohra Barli Na Canoiwala Mohra Chak Mirza Chak Shahzad Changa Chhanni Darial Dhakkiwala Mohra Dhangdev Saiyidan Dharyala Sagna Dhok Allahdad Khan Dhok Madad Khan Dhok Mochian Dhok Tapialian Duman Dungi Gaurean Na Mohra Gekkhar Suna Ghabutra Gujaran Na Mohra Hajian Ki Dhok Jhanga Bangial Jhangi Hamid Jhangi Sayedan Karam Singh Khablain Na Mohra Khojian Ka Mohra Kilawala Mohra Koral Kortana Luni Mawaran Maira Sumbal Jaffar Matua Banglara Mian Haji Sahib Mochianwala Mohra Model Town Humak Mohra Ghamiaran Mohra Nabi Shah Mohra Nagrial Mohra Ni Luni Mohra Saiyidan Na Jo Na Mohra Nagail Sohal Nawa Shah Noorpur Shahan, Islamabad Padhana Gujar Pakka Di Saral Pind Begwal Phadia An Na Mohra Phulgran Porana Bhagpur Rwat Saidpur Shah Allah Ditta Shai Mehr Ali Sihala Sohala Na Mohra Sohan Sohawa Mirza Talu Na Mohra Tar Khanan Na Mohra Tarlai Kalan Tumair Umnaka

Localities

Alipur Farash Bani Gala Barki Badhal Chak Shahzad Defence Hadwala Gujaran Hoon Dhamial Jagiot Kuri Malakpur Azizal Mehrabadi Maira Begwal

Website: Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory

v t e

Capitals in Pakistan

Federal/national

Islamabad

Former (federal/national)

Karachi

Provincial

Karachi
Karachi
(Sindh) Lahore
Lahore
(Punjab) Peshawar
Peshawar
(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) Quetta
Quetta
(Balochistan)

Territorial

Gilgit
Gilgit
(Gilgit–Baltistan) Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
(Azad Kashmir) Parachinar
Parachinar
(FATA)

v t e

Major cities in Pakistan

Islamabad
Islamabad
Capital Territory

Islamabad*

Punjab

Attock Bahawalpur Burewala Chakwal Chiniot Faisalabad Gujar Khan Gujranwala Gujrat Jhang Jhelum Kasur Kharian Lahore** Mianwali Multan Murree Rahim Yar Khan Rawalpindi Sadiqabad Sahiwal Sargodha Sheikhupura Sialkot Taxila Toba Tek Singh

Sindh

Badin Hyderabad Jacobabad Karachi** Khairpur Larkana Mirpurkhas Nawabshah Sukkur Thatta

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
& FATA

Abbottabad Bannu Battagram Chitral Charsada D.I.Khan Haripur Kohat Mansehra Mardan Nowshera Peshawar** Swat Swabi Timergara Tank

Balochistan

Chaman Gwadar Khuzdar Quetta** Ziarat

Azad Kashmir

Bagh Bhimber Kotli Mirpur Muzaffarabad** Rawalakot

Gilgit–Baltistan

Gilgit Skardu

*Federal capital **Provincial/Territorial capitals

v t e

Million-plus cities in Pakistan

Faisalabad Gujranwala Hyderabad Islamabad Karachi Lahore Multan Peshawar Quetta Rawalpindi Sargodha

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 127845974 LCCN: n80162

.