Islam is the most adhered religion in Indonesia, with 87.2% of
Indonesian population identifying themselves as
Muslim in 2010
Indonesia has the largest
Muslim population in the
world, with approximately 225 million Muslims.
In terms of denomination, absolute majority adheres to
while there are around one million Shias (0.5%), who are concentrated
around Jakarta, and about 400,000 Ahmadi Muslims (0.2%). In
terms of Islamic schools of jurisprudence, based on demographic
statistics, 99% of Indonesian Muslims mainly follow the Shafi'i
school, although when asked, 56% does not adhere to any specific
school. Trends of thought within
Indonesia can be broadly
categorized into two orientations; "modernism" which closely adheres
to orthodox theology while embracing modern learning, and
"traditionalism" which tends to follow the interpretations of local
religious leaders and religious teachers at Islamic boarding schools
(pesantren). There is also a historically important presence of
syncretic form of
Islam known as kebatinan.
Indonesia is roughly considered gradually spread through
merchant activities by
Muslim traders, adoption by local rulers
and the influence of mysticism since the 13th century.
During the late colonial era, it was adopted as a rallying banner
against colonialism. Today, although
Indonesia has an overwhelming
Muslim majority, it is not an Islamic state, but constitutionally a
secular state whose government officially recognizes six formal
2.1 Division of
Islam in Indonesia
2.3 Other branches
3.1 Spread of
3.2 Early modern period (1600-1945)
3.3 Post-independence (1945-)
5.1.2 Gender segregation
Shari'a in Aceh
7 See also
10 Further reading
Map showing religious composition of Indonesia.
Islam is shown in
light and dark Green.
Islam represents the spiritual faith of 87.18%
Muslims constitute a majority in most regions of Java, Sumatra, West
Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi, coastal areas of Kalimantan, and North
Maluku. Muslims form distinct minorities in Papua, Bali, East Nusa
Tenggara, parts of North Sumatra, most inland areas of Kalimantan, and
North Sulawesi. Together, these non-
Muslim areas originally
constituted more than one third of
Indonesia prior to the massive
transmigration effort sponsored by the
Suharto government and recent
spontaneous internal migration.
Internal migration has altered the demographic makeup of the country
over the past three decades. It has increased the percentage of
Muslims in formerly predominantly
Christian eastern parts of the
country. By the early 1990s, Christians became a minority for the
first time in some areas of the Maluku Islands. While
government-sponsored transmigration from heavily populated
Madura to less populated areas contributed to the increase in the
Muslim population in the resettlement areas, no evidence suggests that
the Government intended to create a
Muslim majority in Christian
areas, and most
Muslim migration seemed spontaneous. Regardless of its
intent, the economic and political consequences of the transmigration
policy contributed to religious conflicts in Maluku, Central Sulawesi,
and to a lesser extent in Papua.
The headquarter of Nahdlatul Ulama, an influential traditionalist
Islam movement in the country.
Islamic schools and branches
Islamic schools and branches in
Indonesia reflects the activity of
Islamic doctrines and organizations operating in Indonesia. In terms
Indonesia is a majority
Sunni country with minority
of other sects such as
Islam and Ahmadiyya. In terms of Islamic
schools of jursiprudence,
Shafi'i school is dominant in
large. Proliferation of Shafi’i school is considered owing to the
Arab merchants from the southern
Arabian Peninsula following this
school of jurisprudence.
Islam in Indonesia
Classical documentations divide Indonesian Muslims between "nominal"
Muslims, or abangan, whose lifestyles are more oriented toward
non-Islamic cultures, and "orthodox" Muslims, or santri, who adhere to
the orthodox Islamic norms.
Abangan was considered an indigenous blend
of native and Hindu-Buddhist beliefs with Islamic practices sometimes
also called Javanism, kejawen, agama Jawa, or kebatinan. On Java,
santri was not only referred to a person who was consciously and
exclusively Muslim, but it also described persons who had removed
themselves from the secular world to concentrate on devotional
activities in Islamic schools called pesantren—literally "the place
of the santri". The terms and precise nature of this differentiation
were in dispute throughout the history, and today it is considered
Pesantren Tebuireng in Jombang.
Pesantren is Indonesian Islamic
boarding school where santri (students) stay and study Islamic
teachings and other knowledges.
In contemporary era, often the distinction is made between
"traditionalism" and "modernism". Traditionalism, exemplified by the
civil society organization Nahdlatul Ulama, is known as an ardent
Islam Nusantara; a distinctive brand of
Islam that has
undergone interaction, contextualization, indigenization,
interpretation and vernacularization according to socio-cultural
condition of Indonesia.
Nusantara promotes moderation,
compassion, anti-radicalism, inclusiveness and tolerance. On the
other spectrum is modernism which is inspired heavily by Islamic
Modernism, and the civil society organization
Muhammadiyah is known as
the ardent proponent. Modernist Muslims advocate the reformism of
Islam in Indonesian, which is perceived as deviated from the
historical Islamic orthodoxy. They emphasize the authority of the
Qur'an and the Hadiths, and oppose syncretism and taqlid to the ulema.
This division however, also has been considered oversimplification in
Indonesian Muslims reading the
Quran in Masjid Istiqlal, Jakarta,
There are also various other forms and adaptations of
by local cultures which hold different norms and perceptions
throughout the archipelago. The principal example is a syncretic
Islam known as kebatinan, which is an amalgam of animism,
Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic — especially
Sufi — beliefs. This
loosely organised current of thought and practice was legitimised in
the 1945 constitution and, in 1973, when it was recognised as
Kepercayaan kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa (Indonesian: Believer of One
Supreme God) that somewhat gained the status as one of the agama,
Suharto counted himself as one of its adherents. The
Kebatinan or Kepercayaan have no certain prophet, sacred book, nor
distinct religious festivals and rituals; it has more to do with each
adherent's internalised transcendental vision and beliefs in their
relations with the supreme being. As the result there is an
inclusiveness that the kebatinan believer could identify themselves
with one of six officially recognised religions, at least in their
identity card, and still maintain their kebatinan belief and way of
Kebatinan is generally characterised as
mystical, and some varieties were concerned with spiritual
self-control. Although there were many varieties circulating in 1992,
kebatinan often implies pantheistic worship because it encourages
sacrifices and devotions to local and ancestral spirits. These spirits
are believed to inhabit natural objects, human beings, artefacts, and
grave sites of important wali (
Muslim saints). Illness and other
misfortunes are traced to such spirits, and if sacrifices or
pilgrimages fail to placate angry deities, the advice of a dukun or
healer is sought. Kebatinan, while it connotes a turning away from the
militant universalism of orthodox Islam, moves toward a more
internalised universalism. In this way, kebatinan moves toward
eliminating the distinction between the universal and the local, the
communal and the individual.
Ahmadiyya in Indonesia
More recent currents of Islamic thoughts that taken roots include
Islamism. Today, the leading Islamic political party in
Prosperous Justice Party
Prosperous Justice Party (PKS) which is known for serving as a
regional wing of
Muslim Brotherhood movement in Indonesia.:34
Despite often being labeled as extremism,
seen expansion within Indonesian society especially since the
A small minority subscribe to the
Islam and Ahmadiyya. There are
around one million
Shia Muslims, or 0.5% of country's population, who
are concentrated around Jakarta. Historical
Shia community is
considered a descendant of the minority segment of Hadhrami
immigrants, and it was spread from
Aceh where originally a center of
Islam in Indonesia. In the contemporary era, interests toward
Islam grew after the Iranian Islamic Revolution, since which a
Shia publications were translated into Indonesian.
Another minority Islamic sect is Ahmadiyya. The Association of
Religion Data Archives estimates that there are around 400,000 Ahmadi
Muslims in Indonesia, spread over 542 branches across the country.
Ahmadiyya history in
Indonesia began since the missionary activity
during the 1920s, established the movement in Tapaktuan, Aceh.
Shia and Ahmadi Muslims have been facing increasing intolerance
and persecutions by reactionary and radical Islamic groups.
Jong Islamieten Bond (Young
Muslim Union) delegates in Youth Pledge.
In Indonesia, civil society organizations have historically held
distinct and significant weight within the
Muslim society, and these
various institutions have contributed greatly in the both intellectual
discourse and public sphere for the culmination of new thoughts and
sources for communal movements.:18–19 75% of 200 million
Indonesian Muslims identify either as
Nahdlatul Ulama or Muhammadiyah,
making these organizations a 'steel frame' of Indonesian civil
Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), the largest traditionalist organisation, focuses
on many of the activities such as social, religious and education and
indirectly operates a majority of the country's Islamic boarding
schools. Claiming 40 to 60 million followers, NU is the country's
largest organisation and perhaps the world's largest Islamic
group. Founded in 1926, NU has a nationwide presence but
remains strongest in rural Java. It follows the ideology of Ahle
Sunnah wal Jamaah with
Imam Ghazali and Junaid Bagdadi. Many
NU followers give great deference to the views, interpretations, and
instructions of senior NU religious figures, alternately called
"Kyais" or "Ulama." The organisation has long advocated religious
moderation and communal harmony. On the political level, NU, the
progressive Consultative Council of Indonesian Muslims (Masyumi), and
two other parties were forcibly streamlined into a single Islamic
political party in 1973 — the
United Development Party
United Development Party (PPP). Such
cleavages may have weakened NU as an organised political entity, as
demonstrated by the withdrawal of the NU from active political
competition, but as a popular religious force NU
showed signs of good health and a capacity to frame national debates.
Muhammadiyah head office in Jakarta. It is the second largest Muslim
organisation in Indonesia.
The leading national modernist social organisation, Muhammadiyah, has
branches throughout the country and approximately 29 million
followers. Founded in 1912,
Muhammadiyah runs mosques, prayer
houses, clinics, orphanages, poorhouses, schools, public libraries,
and universities. On 9 February, Muhammadiyah's central board and
provincial chiefs agreed to endorse the presidential campaign of a
Muhammadiyah chairman. This marked the organisation's first
formal foray into partisan politics and generated controversy among
A number of smaller Islamic organisations cover a broad range of
Islamic doctrinal orientations. At one end of the ideological spectrum
lies the controversial
Islam Liberal Network (JIL), which aims to
promote a pluralist and more liberal interpretation of Islamic
Equally controversial are groups at the other end of this spectrum
such as Hizbut Tahrir
Indonesia (HTI), which advocates a pan-Islamic
caliphate and the full implementation of shari'a, the Indonesian
Mujahedeen Council (MMI), which advocates implementation of shari'a as
a precursor to an Islamic state, and the sometimes violent Islamic
Defenders Front (FPI). Countless other small organisations fall
between these poles. Another small organisation, the Indonesian
Islamic Propagation Institute (LDII) continues to grow.
Main article: Spread of
Islam in Indonesia
Banda Aceh's Grand
Aceh province, where saw the earliest
arrival of Islam.
There are evidence of
Muslim traders entering
Indonesia as early
as the 8th century. However, it was not until the end of the
13th century that the spread of
Islam began. At first,
Muslim traders, and then the missionary
activity by scholars, and it was further aided by the adoption by the
local rulers and the conversion of the elites. The missionaries
had originated from several countries and regions, initially from the
South Asia such as
Gujarat and other
Southeast Asia such as
Champa, and later from the southern
Arabian Peninsula such as the
In the 13th century, Islamic polities began to emerge on the northern
coast of Sumatra. Marco Polo, on his way home from China in 1292,
reported at least one
Muslim town. The first evidence of a Muslim
dynasty is the gravestone, dated AH 696 (AD 1297), of Sultan Malik al
Saleh, the first
Muslim ruler of Samudera Pasai Sultanate. By the end
of the 13th century,
Islam had been established in Northern Sumatra.
In general, local traders and the royalty of major kingdoms were the
first to adopt the new religion. The spread of
Islam among the ruling
class was precipitated as
Muslim traders married the local women, with
some of the wealthier traders marrying into the families of the ruling
elite. Indonesian people as local rulers and royalty began to adopt
it, and subsequently, their subjects mirrored their conversion.
Although the spread was slow and gradual, the limited evidence
suggests that it accelerated in the 15th century, as the military
Malacca Sultanate in the
Malay Peninsula and other Islamic
Sultanates dominated the region aided by episodes of
Muslim coup such
as in 1446, wars and superior control of maritime trading and ultimate
By the 14th century,
Islam had been established in northeast Malaya,
Brunei, the southwestern Philippines and among some courts of coastal
East and Central Java; and the 15th in Malacca and other areas of the
Malay Peninsula. The 15th century saw the decline of
Hindu Javanese Majapahit Empire, as
Muslim traders from Arabia, India,
Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, and also China began to dominate the
regional trade that once controlled by Javanese Majapahit traders.
Ming dynasty provided systematic support to Malacca. Ming
Chinese Zheng He's voyages (1405 to 1433) is credited for creating
Muslim settlement in
Palembang and north coast of Java.
Malacca actively encouraged the conversion to
Islam in the region,
while Ming fleet actively established Chinese-Malay
in northern coastal Java, thus created a permanent opposition to the
Hindus of Java. By 1430, the expeditions had established Muslim
Arab and Malay communities in northern ports of
Java such as
Semarang, Demak, Tuban, and Ampel; thus
Islam began to gain a foothold
on the northern coast of Java. Malacca prospered under Chinese Ming
protection, while the Majapahit were steadily pushed back.
Muslim kingdoms during this time included Samudera Pasai in
Malacca Sultanate in eastern Sumatra, Demak
Sultanate in central Java, Gowa
Sultanate in southern Sulawesi, and
the sultanates of Ternate and Tidore in the
Maluku Islands to the
Indonesia's historical inhabitants were animists, Hindus, and
Buddhists. Through assimilation related to trade, royal
conversion, and conquest, however,
Buddhism as the dominant religion of
Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. During this process, "cultural
influences from the Hindu-Buddhist era were mostly tolerated or
incorporated into Islamic rituals."
Islam didn't obliterate the
preexisting culture; rather, it incorporated and embedded the local
customs and non-Islamic elements among rules and arts, and reframed
them as the Islamic traditions.
In part, the strong presence of
Sufism has been considered a major
enabler of this syncretism between
Islam and other religions. Sufism
retained strong influence especially among the Islamic scholars
arrived during the early days of the spread of
Islam in Indonesia, and
Sufi orders such as Naqshbandiyah and
Qadiriyya have attracted
newly Indonesian converts, proceeded to branch into different local
Sufi mysticism which had proliferated during this course
had shaped the syncretic, eclectic and pluralist nature of
Indonesian during the time. Prolific Sufis from the Indonesian
archipelago were already known in Arabic sources as far back as the
13th Century. One of the most important Indonesian Sufis from this
time is Hamzah Fansuri, a poet, and writer from the 16th
century.:4 The preeminence of
Islam in Indonesian
continued until the shift of external influence from the
South Asia to
the Arabian Peninsula, whose scholars brought more orthodox teachings
and perceptions of Islam.
The gradual adoption of
Islam by Indonesians was perceived as a threat
by some ruling powers. As port towns adopted Islam,
it undermined the waning power of the east Javanese Hindu/Buddhist
Majapahit kingdom in the 16th century. Javanese rulers eventually fled
to Bali, where over 2.5 million Indonesians practiced their version of
Hinduism. Unlike coastal Sumatra, where
Islam was adopted by elites
and masses alike, partly as a way to counter the economic and
political power of the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms, in the interior of
Java the elites only gradually accepted Islam, and then only as a
formal legal and religious context for Javanese spiritual culture. The
eastern islands remained animist largely until adopting
Christianity in the 17th and 18th centuries, whereas
Hindu majority. By the late 15th century, the Majapahit
Java had begun its decline. This last
Hindu kingdom in Java
fell under the rising power of the Islamized
Sultanate of Demak in the
1520s; in 1527, the
Muslim ruler renamed newly conquered Sunda Kelapa
as Jayakarta meaning "precious victory" which was eventually
contracted to Jakarta.
Java then began to spread formally,
building on the spiritual influences of the revered
Sufi saints Wali
Songo (or Nine Saints).
Despite being one of the most significant developments in Indonesian
history, historical evidence is fragmentary and uninformative such
that understandings of the coming of
Indonesia are limited;
there is considerable debate amongst scholars about what conclusions
can be drawn about the conversion of Indonesian peoples. The
primary evidence, at least of the earlier stages of the process, are
gravestones and a few travelers' accounts, but these can only show
that indigenous Muslims were in a certain place at a certain time.
This evidence is not sufficient to comprehensively explain more
complicated matters such as how lifestyles were affected by the new
religion or how deeply it affected societies.
Early modern period (1600-1945)
Mosque in Pati, Central Java, incorporating the European architectural
style introduced during the colonial era.
The Dutch entered the region in the 17th century due to its lucrative
wealth established through the region's natural resources and
trade.[b] The entering of the Dutch resulted in a monopoly of the
central trading ports. However, this helped the spread of Islam, as
Muslim traders relocated to the smaller and remoter ports,
Islam into the rural provinces. Towards the beginning
of the 20th century "
Islam became a rallying banner to resist
During this time the introduction of steam-powered transportation and
printing technology was facilitated by European expansion. As a
result, the interaction between
Indonesia and the rest of the Islamic
world, in particular the Middle East, had significantly
increased.:2 In Mecca, the number of pilgrims grew exponentially
to the point that Indonesians were markedly referred as "rice of the
Hejaz." The exchange of scholars and students was also increased.
Around two hundred Southeast Asian students, mostly Indonesian, were
Cairo during the mid-1920s, and around two thousand
Saudi Arabia were Indonesian origin. Those who returned
Middle East had become the backbone of religious training in
Concurrently, numbers of newly founded religious thoughts and
movements in the Islamic world had inspired the Islamic current in
Indonesia as well. In particular,
Islamic Modernism was inspired by
the Islamic scholar
Muhammad 'Abduh to return to the original
scripture of the religion. Modernist movement in
criticized the syncretic nature of
Indonesia and advocated
for the reformism of
Islam and the elimination of perceived un-Islamic
elements within the traditions. The movement also aspired for
incorporating the modernity into Islam, and for instance, they "built
schools that combined an Islamic and secular curriculum" and was
unique in that it trained women as preachers for women. Through
the activities of the reformers and the reactions of their opponents,
Indonesian society became more firmly structured along communal
(aliran) rather than class lines.
Java during Dutch colonial periods.
Reformist movements had especially taken roots in the Minangkabau area
of West Sumatra, where its ulema played an important role in the early
reform movement.:353 Renowned Minangkabau imam in Mecca, Ahmad
Khatib al-Minangkabawi had contributed greatly to the reformist
training. He was singlehandedly responsible for educating many of the
Muslim figures during this time. In 1906, Tahir bin
Jalaluddin, a disciple of al-Minangkabawi, published al-Iman, the
Malay newspaper in Singapore. Five years later followed publication of
Al-Munir magazine by Abdullah Ahmad in Padang. In the first 20th
Muslim modernist school arose in West Sumatra, such as
Adabiah (1909), Diniyah Putri (1911), and
Sumatera Thawalib (1915).
The movement had also attained its supporter base in Java. In
Haji Misbach published the monthly paper
Medan Moeslimin and the periodical
Islam Bergerak. In Jogjakarta,
Ahmad Dahlan, also a disciple of al-Minangkabawi, established
Muhammadiyah in 1911, spearheading the creation of Islamic mass
Muhammadiyah rapidly expanded its influence across the
Abdul Karim Amrullah
Abdul Karim Amrullah establishing the West Sumatra
chapter in 1925 for instance. Other modernist organizations include
Al-Irshad Al-Islamiya (1914) and PERSIS (1923). Soon after,
Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) was founded in 1926 by Hasyim
Asy'ari, another disciple of al-Minangkabawi, in response to the
perceived growing threat of reformist waves.:356 Other
traditionalist organizations include Union for Islamic Education
(PERTI) (1930) and Lombok-based Nahdlatul Wathan (1953).
Combination of reformist thoughts and the growing sense of sovereignty
had led to the brief development of
Islam as a vehicle for the
political struggle against the Dutch colonialism. The earliest example
is Padri movement from Minangkabau. Padri movement was inspired by
Wahhabism during its inception, and aimed at purification of
Indonesia reciprocally. The movement eventually turned into a struggle
against Dutch colonialism during the
Padri War (1803-1837). One of
the leaders, Tuanku
Imam Bonjol, is declared a National Hero of
Indonesia. In the early 20th century, Sarekat
developed as the first mass nationalist organization against
Islam as a common identity
among vast and diverse ethnic and cultural compositions throughout the
archipelago, especially against the perceived enemy of the Christian
masters. The educational institutions such as
Jamiat Kheir also
supported the development. In the process,
Islam gave the sense of
identity which contributed to the cultivation of Indonesian
nationalism. Under this circumstance, early Indonesian nationalists
were eager to reflect themselves as a part of the ummah (worldwide
Islamic community). They also had interests in Islamic issues such as
Caliphate and the movements such as pan-Islamism.
For these reasons, Dutch colonial administration saw
Islam as a
potential threat and treated the returning pilgrims and students from
Middle East with particular suspicion. Similar
Union of Indonesian Muslims
Union of Indonesian Muslims (PERMI)
faced severe crackdown by the Dutch colonial government, leading to
the arrest of its members including Rasuna Said.
Islam as a vehicle of Indonesian nationalism, however, had gradually
waned in the face of the emergence of secular nationalism and more
radical political thoughts such as communism. The inner struggle among
Islam between the reformists and the traditionalists had also
contributed to its decline. This had created a vacuum within the
Muslim community for the leadership role, which filled by civil
society organizations such as Muhammadiyah, NU, more puritanical
PERSIS and Al-Irshad Al-Islamiya. These organizations upheld
non-political position and concentrated on the social reforms and
proselytization. This trend persisted during the Japanese occupation
as well, whose occupational administration took the ambivalent stance
Islam was considered both as a potential friend against
Western imperialism and a potential foe against their vision of
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
Eid al-Fitr mass prayer in Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta, the largest
mosque in Southeast Asia, completed in 1978.
Indonesia declared independence in 1945, it became the second
largest Muslim-majority state in the world. Following the separation
Pakistan in 1971, it emerged as the most populous
country with the
Muslim majority in the world. Post-independence had
seen the greatest upheaval of the
Muslim society on various aspects of
society. This owes to the independence, increased literacy and
educational attainment of Muslims, funding from the
Middle East and
all the more accelerated exchange between other
Subsequent development of the
Muslim society had brought Indonesia
even closer to the center of Islamic intellectual activity. Numbers of
scholars and writers have contributed to the development of Islamic
interpretations within the Indonesian context, often through the
intellectual exchange between the foreign contemporaries. Abdul
Malik Karim Amrullah (Hamka) was a modernist writer and religious
leader who is credited for
Tafsir al-Azhar. It was the first
comprehensive Qur'anic exegesis (tafsir) written in the Indonesian
language, which attempted at construing Islamic principles within the
Harun Nasution was a pioneering scholar
adhered to the humanist and rationalist perspectives in Indonesian
intellectual landscape, advocating for a position described as
Nurcholish Madjid (Cak Nur) was a highly
influential scholar who is credited for cultivating the modernist and
reformist discourse, influenced largely by
philosopher Fazlur Rahman.
Abdurrahman Wahid (Gus Dur), later
president of Indonesia, went through the Islamic education at the
University of Baghdad, and later became the central figure of the
liberal Islamic trend in Indonesia.
Quraish Shihab compiled Tafsir
Al-Mishbah which is considered a standard of Indonesian Islamic
interpretation among mainstream Indonesian Islamic intellectuals.
Post-independence had also seen an expansion in the activity of
Islamic organizations, especially regarding missionary activities
Islamization of lifestyles. The Ministry of Religion
reported that as late as the 1960s, only minority of Muslims were
practicing daily prayers and almsgiving. This status had drastically
changed through the course of endeavor by the organizations such as
Dawah Council (DDII) lead by Mohammad Natsir, not
to mention aforementioned Muhammadiyah, NU, and PERSIS. Among
Islamic clergy, Indonesian
Ulema Council (MUI) has been operating as
an authority regarding the legislative and juridical issues of Islam,
and responsible for guiding the general direction of Islamic life in
Indonesia, primarily through the issuance of fatwa. More recently,
organizations such as DDII and
LIPIA have been acting as instruments
of the propagation of
Wahhabism with funding from Saudi
Arabia and other Gulf monarchies. On the political
arena, the coalition of
Muhammadiyah and NU have established the
Masyumi Party, which served as a mainstream Islamic political party
until its dissolution in 1960. Meanwhile, militant Islamic
organizations such as Darul Islam, Laskar Jihad, and Jemaah Islamiyah
had also seen its growth, aided mostly by the foreign funding as
Upon independence, there was significant controversy surrounding the
Islam in politics, and this had caused enormous tensions. The
contentions were mainly surrounding the position of
Islam in the
constitution of Indonesia. Islamic groups have aspired for the supreme
Islam within the constitutional framework by the inclusion
Jakarta Charter which obliges
Muslim to abide by shari'a. This
was denied by the
Sukarno regime with the implementation of the more
pluralist constitution heeding to the ideology of Pancasila, which
deemed as non-Islamic. Eventually, "
Indonesia adopted a civil code
instead of an Islamic one." However, the struggle for the
constitutional amendment continued. The hostility against the Sukarno
regime was manifested on various other occasions. Most notably the
anti-communist genocide perpetuated actively by Ansor Youth Movement,
the youth wing of NU (which was initially supportive of the Sukarno
regime) and other Islamic groups. Muslims adhere to the syncretic
Islam known as
Abangan had also become the target of this mass
Communism was considered hostile by Muslims due to
perceived atheistic nature and the tendency of landowners being local
In the New Order years (the
Suharto regime), there was an
intensification of religious belief among Muslims. The Suharto
regime, initially hoped as the ally of Islamic groups, quickly became
the antagonist following its attempt at reformation of educational and
marital legislation to more secular-oriented code. This met strong
opposition, with marriage law left as Islamic code as a result.
Suharto had also attempted at consolidating Pancasila as the only
state ideology, which was also turned down by the fierce resistance of
Islamic groups. Under the
Suharto regime, containment of
a political ideology had led to all the Islamic parties forcibly unite
under one government-supervised Islamic party, the United Development
Party (PPP). Certain Islamic organizations were incorporated by
Suharto regime, most notably MUI, DDII, and Indonesian Association
Muslim Intellectuals (ICMI) in order to absorb the political Islam
for the regime's gain. With Suharto's resignation in 1998, "the
structure that repressed religion and society collapsed."
Abdurrahman Wahid, colloquially known as Gus Dur, was a leader of
Nahdlatul Ulama and the fourth president of Indonesia.
During the beginning of the Reformasi (reformation) era, the
ascendance of Islamic political parties had led to the election of
Abdurrahman Wahid, the leader of NU, as the fourth president of
Indonesia, and the appointment of Amien Rais, the leader of
Muhammadiyah, as the chairman of the People's Consultative Assembly.
This era was briefly marked by the collapse of social order, erosion
of central administrative control and the breakdown of law
enforcement. They resulted in violent conflicts in which Islamic
groups were involved, including separatism of
Aceh where more
conservative form of
Islam is favored, and sectarian clashes between
Muslims and Christians in Maluku and Poso. With the collapse of the
establishment, MUI began distancing themselves from the government and
attempted to exercise wider influence toward the Islamic civil society
in Indonesia. This led to the issuance of controversial 2005 fatwa
condemning the notion of liberalism, secularism and pluralism, and
subsequent criticism by progressive intellectuals. Political
transition from the authoritarianism to democracy, however, went
relatively smoothly owing considerably to the commitment of tolerance
by the mass organizations such as NU and Muhammadiyah. This made
Muslim civil society a key part of Indonesia’s democratic
Currently, Muslims are considered fully represented in the
democratically elected parliament. There are numbers of active
Islamic political parties, namely Muhammadiyah-oriented National
Mandate Party (PAN), NU-oriented National Awakening Party
Prosperous Justice Party
Prosperous Justice Party (PKS). The
democratization had resulted in diversification of religious influence
as well, with the relative decline in influence of established
institutions such as NU and Muhammadiyah, and rise of smaller
scale organizations and individual preachers such as Abdullah
Gymnastiar (Aa Gym) and Yusuf Mansur. During the early 2000s, the
Abu Bakar Bashir
Abu Bakar Bashir who was in exile during the
as a spiritual leader of
Indonesia resulted in the series
of bombing attacks,[c] which have been largely contained recently.
Indonesia is analyzed in various ways, with
certain analysis consider it as becoming more conservative,[d]
while others deem it as "too big to fail" for the
radicalization. Conservative development has seen the
emergence of vigilante group
Islamic Defenders Front
Islamic Defenders Front (FPI),
Ahmadiyya exemplified by MUI’s fatwa, and
the nationwide protest in 2016 against the incumbent governor of
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Ahok) accused of blasphemy.
Liberal development has seen the emergence of groups such as Liberal
Islamic Network (JIL), formation of
Nusantara as a collective
identity of pluralist Islam, and the declining support for the
Islamist political parties.
Several artistic traditions in Indonesia, many of which existed since
the pre-Islamic era, have absorbed Islamic influence and evolved in
the form of artistic expression and attachment of religious
Batik besurek from Bengkulu,
Sumatra which draws inspiration from
Indonesian dyeing art of
Batik has incorporated Islamic influence,
through the inclusion of motifs and designs revering the Islamic
artistic traditions such as
Islamic calligraphy and Islamic interlace
patterns, and the religious codes prescribing the avoidance of the
depictions of human images. Islamic influence of batik is especially
pronounced in the batik tradition situated around the Javanese region
Cirebon which forms the part of coastal Javanese batik heritage,
the Central Sumatran region of
Jambi which had thriving trade
relations with Javanese coastal cities, and the South Sumatran region
Bengkulu where the strong sense of Islamic identity was cultivated.
Jambi batik influenced the formation of
Malaysian batik tradition
which also encompasses the Islamic characters such as the adoption of
the plants, floral motifs and geometrical designs, and the avoidance
of interpretation of human and animal images as idolatry.
Minangkabau batik tradition is known for batiak tanah liek (clay
batik), which uses clay as a dye for the fabric, and embraces the
animal and floral motifs.
Bengkulu batik tradition is known for
batik besurek, which literary means "batik with letters" as they draw
inspiration from Arabic calligraphy. Islamic batik tradition
Buraq as well, an Islamic mythical creature from
the heavens which transported the Islamic prophet Muhammad from Mecca
Jerusalem and back during the Isra and Mi'raj.
Indonesian performing art of
Wayang has a variety known as Wayang
sadat which has deployed
Wayang for religious teachings of Islam.
There is also
Wayang Menak which is derived from Javanese-Islamic
literature Serat Menak which is a Javanese rendering of Malay Hikayat
Amir Hamzah, which ultimately derived from Persian Hamzanama, tells
the adventure of Amir Hamzah, the uncle of the Islamic prophet
Muhammad. In Lombok, vernacular
Wayang Kulit is known as Wayang
Sasak, which incorporates puppets similar to the Javanese ringgits and
based on the adventures of
Amir Hamzah as well.
Islam began spreading in Indonesia, the display of God or gods in
human form was prohibited, and thus this style of painting and shadow
play was suppressed. King
Raden Patah of Demak, Java, wanted to see
the wayang in its traditional form but failed to obtain permission
Muslim religious leaders. Religious leaders attempted to skirt
Muslim prohibition by converting the wayang golek into wayang
purwa made from leather and displayed only the shadow instead of the
puppets themselves.
Saman dance originated in
Arab and Persian dance and
musical styles. It was historically performed during the Islamic
prophet Muhammad's birthday.
History of dance in
Indonesia can be roughly divided into the
Hindu-Buddhist period and Islamic period. During the Islamic period,
the vernacular and dharmic dances continued to be popular and
tolerated. Artists and performers were using the styles of
Hindu-Buddhist era but incorporated stories with Islamic implications
and more modest clothing that conformed to the Islamic teaching. This
change is markedly seen in Tari Persembahan from Jambi, in which the
dancers are still adorned with the intricate gold of the
Hindu/Buddhist era but the clothing is more modest. Newer styles of
dance were introduced in the Islamic period, including
Zapin dances of
Malay people and
Saman dance in Aceh, which adopted dance
styles and music typical of
Arab and Persia, and combined them with
indigenous styles to form a newer generation of dance in the era of
Saman dance was initially performed during the Islamic
missionary activity (dawah) or during the certain customary events
such as the commemoration of the Islamic prophet Muhammad's birthday,
and today more commonly performed during any official events. The
adoption of Persian and
Arab musical instruments, such as rebana,
tambur, and gendang drums that has become the main instrument in
Islamic dances, as well as the chant that often quotes Islamic chants.
Main article: Indonesian Islamic architecture
See also: List of mosques in Indonesia
The architecture of
Indonesia after the spread of
prominently characterized by the religious structure with the
combination of Islamic implications and Indonesian architectural
traditions. Initial forms of the mosque, for example, were
predominantly built in the vernacular Indonesian architectural style
which employs Hindu, Buddhist or Chinese architectural elements, and
notably didn't equip orthodox form of Islamic architectural elements
such as dome and minaret. Vernacular style mosques in
distinguished by its tall timber multi-level roofs known as tajug,
similar to the pagodas of Balinese
Hindu temples and derived from
Indian and Chinese architectural styles. Another characteristic of
Javanese style mosque is the usage of gamelan drum instrument bedug as
a substitute of prayer call (adhan).
Bedug is often installed in the
roofed front porch attached to the building known as serambi.
commonly used for prayer call or the signal during
the Javanese mosques up until today. Prominent examples of mosques
with vernacular Javanese designs are Demak
Mosque in Demak, built in
1474, and the Menara Kudus
Mosque in Kudus, built in 1549, whose
minaret is thought to be the watchtower of an earlier
Vernacular style mosques in Minangkabau area is distinguished by its
multi-layer roof made of fiber resembling Rumah Gadang, the
Minangkabau residential building. Prominent examples of mosques with
vernacular Minangkabau designs are Bingkudu Mosque, founded in
1823 by the Padris, and Jami
Mosque of Taluak, built in 1860. In West
Sumatra, there is also a tradition of multi-purpose religious
architecture known as surau which is often built in vernacular
Minangkabau style as well, with three- or five-tiered roofs and
woodcarvings engraved in the facade. Vernacular style mosques in
Kalimantan is influenced by the Javanese counterparts, exemplified by
the Banjar architecture which employs three- or five-tiered roof with
the steep top roof, compared to the relatively low-angled roof of
Javanese mosque, and the employment of stilts in some mosques, a
separate roof on the mihrab. Prominent examples including Heritage
Mosque of Banua Lawas and Jami
Mosque of Datu Abulung, both in South
It was only after the 19th century the mosques began incorporating
more orthodox styles which were imported during the Dutch colonial
era. Architectural style during this era is characterized by
Indo-Islamic or Moorish Revival architectural elements, with
onion-shaped dome and arched vault.
Minaret was not introduced to full
extent until the 19th century, and its introduction was
accompanied by the importation of architectural styles of Persian and
Ottoman origin with the prominent usage of calligraphy and geometric
patterns. During this time, many of the older mosques built in
traditional style were renovated, and small domes were added to their
square hipped roofs. Simultaneously, eclectic architecture integrating
European and Chinese styles was introduced as well. Prominent examples
Indonesian Islamic architecture
Indonesian Islamic architecture with foreign styles including
Mosque in Banda Aceh, completed in 1881, designed
in Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, and Great
Mosque of Palembang
in Palembang, initially completed in 1798, and later expanded with
integrating Chinese, Malay and European architectural styles
Demak Mosque, vernacular Javanese style
Mosque of Taluak, vernacular Minangkabau style main building with
later addition Indo-Persian style minaret
Mosque of Palembang, fusion of Chinese, Malay and European
Muslim men wearing peci and sarung standing in prayer.
The peci, songkok, or kopiah in Java, is a velvet cap with
generally black color worn by
Muslim men. It is originated within the
Malay culture and can be traced back to the Ottoman fez. It is worn
during the formal occasions, including Islamic religious occasions
such as Idul Fitr and Idul Adha, as well as congregational prayers
when visiting mosques.
The sarong is the popular garment worn mostly by
Muslim men, notably
in Java, Bali,
Sumatra and Kalimantan. It is a large tube or length of
fabric, often wrapped around the waist, and the fabric often has woven
plaid or checkered patterns, or brightly colored by means of batik or
ikat dyeing. Many modern sarongs have printed designs, often depicting
animals or plants. It is mostly worn as a casual wear but often worn
during the congregational prayers as well. The baju koko, also known
as baju takwa, is a traditional Malay-Indonesian
Muslim shirt for men,
worn usually during the formal religious occasions, such as Idul Fitr
festival or Friday prayers. It is often worn with the sarong and peci.
The kerudung is an Indonesian
Muslim women's hijab, which is a loosely
worn cloth over the head. Unlike completely covered counterpart of
jilbab, parts of hairs and neck are still visible. The jilbab is a
Muslim women's hijab, adopted from Middle Eastern
style, and usually worn by more conservative
Muslim women. Unlike
kerudung, hair and neck are completely covered.
Jilbab in Indonesian
context means headscarf and does not designate the long overgarment as
implied in the
Muslim society in other countries.
This section is incomplete. (November 2017)
During Idul Fitri, family get together to enjoy lebaran feast where
ketupat and various special dishes are served.
Muslim holy days celebrated in
Indonesia include the Isra and Mi'raj,
Idul Fitr, Idul Adha, the Islamic New Year, and the Prophet's
The Government has a monopoly on organising the hajj pilgrimage to
Mecca, and in February, following the latest hajj, the Department of
Religious Affairs drew sharp criticism for mismanaging the
registration of approximately 30,000 prospective pilgrims after they
had paid the required fees. The Government
unilaterally expanded the country's quota of 205,000 pilgrims,
claiming it had informal approval from the Saudi Government, an
assertion that proved incorrect. Members of the House of
Representatives have sponsored a bill to set up an independent
institution, thus ending the department's monopoly.
Main article: Tabuik
Tabuik is a
Shia Islamic occasion in Minangkabau region, particularly
in the city of
Pariaman and it is a part of the
Shia days of
remembrance among the local community.
Tabuik refers to the towering
funeral biers carried during the commemoration. The event has been
performed every year since the
Day of Ashura
Day of Ashura in 1831, when the
practice was introduced to the region by the
Shia sepoy troops from
India who were stationed—and later settled—there during the
British Raj. The festival enacts the
Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala and plays
the tassa and dhol drums.
This section is incomplete. (October 2017)
To a significant degree, the striking variations in the practice and
Islam — in a much less austere form than that
practiced in the
Middle Eastern communities — reflect Indonesia's
Indonesian Muslimah (female Muslim) do enjoy social, education and
career freedom, significantly greater than their counterparts in Saudi
or Iran. It is normal, socially acceptable and safe for a female
Muslim to go out, drive, work or study in some mixed environs
independently without any male relative chaperone. Women's higher
employment rate is also an important difference between Indonesian and
Middle Eastern cultures.
Compared to their
Middle Eastern counterparts, majority of
Indonesia has a more relaxed view and a moderate outlook on social
relations. They do not practice strict sex segregation in public
spaces, as sex segregation is usually limited to religious settings,
and only enforced in mosque during prayer. In public and Islamic
school, it is common for boys and girls students to study together in
their classroom. Some pesantren boarding schools do practice sex
segregation. Nevertheless, amid the recent advent of Wahabi and Salafi
influences, minority of Indonesian Muslims adheres to a more strict
and orthodox version which practice sex segregation in public places.
This is done as far as avoiding contacts between opposite sexes, for
example some women that wearing hijab might refuse to shake hands or
converse with men.
Although it has an overwhelming
Muslim majority, the country is not an
Islamic state. Article 29 of Indonesia’s Constitution however
affirms that “the state is based on the belief in the one supreme
God.”[e] Over the past 50 years, many Islamic groups have opposed
this secular and pluralist direction, and sporadically have sought to
establish an Islamic state. However, the country's mainstream Muslim
community, including influential social organisations such as
Muhammadiyah and NU, reject the idea. Proponents of an Islamic state
argued unsuccessfully in 1945 and throughout the parliamentary
democracy period of the 1950s for the inclusion of language (the
Jakarta Charter") in the Constitution's preamble making it obligatory
for Muslims to follow shari'a.
Islamist political movement aspired to form an Islamic state,
established Darul Islam/Tentara
Indonesia (DI/TII) in 1949,
which launched an armed rebellion against the Republic throughout the
1950s. The outbreak of
Islamic state took place in multiple provinces,
started in West
Java led by Kartosoewirjo, the rebellion also spread
to Central Java, South
Sulawesi and Aceh. The
Islamist armed rebellion
was successfully cracked down in 1962. The movement has alarmed the
Soekarno administration to the potential threat of political Islam
against the Indonesian Republic.
Suharto regime, the Government prohibited all advocacy of
an Islamic state. With the loosening of restrictions on freedom of
speech and religion that followed the fall of
Suharto in 1998,
proponents of the "
Jakarta Charter" resumed advocacy efforts. This
proved the case prior to the 2002 Annual Session of the People's
Consultative Assembly (MPR), a body that has the power to change the
Constitution. The nationalist political parties, regional
representatives elected by provincial legislatures, and appointed
police, military, and functional representatives, who together held a
majority of seats in the MPR, rejected proposals to amend the
Constitution to include shari'a, and the measure never came to a
formal vote. The MPR approved changes to the Constitution that
mandated that the Government increase "faith and piety" in education.
This decision, seen as a compromise to satisfy
Islamist parties, set
the scene for a controversial education bill signed into law in July
Shari'a in Aceh
Further information: Islamic criminal law in
Islam in Aceh
Shari'a generated debate and concern during 2004, and many of the
issues raised touched on religious freedom.
Aceh remained the only
part of the country where the central Government specifically
authorised shari'a. Law 18/2001 granted
Aceh special autonomy and
included authority for
Aceh to establish a system of shari'a as an
adjunct to, not a replacement for, national civil and criminal law.
Before it could take effect, the law required the provincial
legislature to approve local regulations ("qanun") incorporating
shari'a precepts into the legal code. Law 18/2001 states that the
shari'a courts would be "free from outside influence by any side."
Article 25(3) states that the authority of the court will only apply
to Muslims. Article 26(2) names the national Supreme Court as the
court of appeal for Aceh's shari'a courts.
Aceh is the only province that has shari'a courts. Religious leaders
responsible for drafting and implementing the shari'a regulations
stated that they had no plans to apply criminal sanctions for
violations of shari'a. Islamic law in Aceh, they said, would not
provide for strict enforcement of fiqh or hudud, but rather would
codify traditional Acehnese Islamic practice and values such as
discipline, honesty, and proper behaviour. They claimed enforcement
would not depend on the police but rather on public education and
Because Muslims make up the overwhelming majority of Aceh's
population, the public largely accepted shari'a, which in most cases
merely regularised common social practices. For example, a majority of
Aceh already covered their heads in public. Provincial and
district governments established shari'a bureaus to handle public
education about the new system, and local Islamic leaders, especially
Aceh and Pidie, called for greater government promotion of
shari'a as a way to address mounting social ills. The imposition of
martial law in
Aceh in May 2003 had little impact on the
implementation of shari'a. The Martial Law Administration actively
promoted shari'a as a positive step toward social reconstruction and
reconciliation. Some human rights and women's rights activists
complained that implementation of shari'a focused on superficial
issues, such as proper Islamic dress, while ignoring deep-seated moral
and social problems, such as corruption.
Ahmadiyya in Indonesia
In 1980 the
Indonesian Council of Ulamas
Indonesian Council of Ulamas (MUI) issued a "fatwa" (a
legal opinion or decree issued by an Islamic religious leader)
declaring that the Ahmadis are not a legitimate form of
Islam. In the past, mosques and other facilities
belonging to Ahmadis had been damaged by offended Muslims in
Indonesia; more recently, rallies have been held demanding that the
sect be banned and some religious clerics have demanded Ahmadis be
Islam in East Java
Islam in West Sumatra
Religion in Indonesia
^ The government officially recognizes six religions: Islam,
Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and
Confucianism; although the government also officially recognizes
Indonesian indigenous religions.
Maluku Islands in the Indonesian archipelago were known as the
"spice islands". The country's natural spices, including nutmeg,
pepper, clove, were highly prized. Other popular trade items of the
area include sandalwood, rubber and teak.
^ See 2002
Bali bombings, 2003 Marriott Hotel bombing
^ “Conservatism” in this sense connotes the adherence toward the
perceived orthodoxy of Islamic principles, rather than the commitment
to the Indonesian cultural and societal traditions. Therefore under
this framing, it may entail the proponents of conservatism advocating
for the societal changes, while the proponents of liberalism opposing
^ The Indonesian Constitution provides "all persons the right to
worship according to their own religion or belief" and states that
"the nation is based upon belief in one supreme God." The Government
generally respects these provisions; however, some restrictions exist
on certain types of religious activity and on unrecognised religions.
The Ministry of Religious Affairs recognizes official status of six
faiths: Islam, Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, Hinduism,
Confucianism. Religious organisations other than the six recognised
faiths can register with the Government, but only with the Ministry
for Culture and Tourism and only as social organisations. This
restricts certain religious activities. Unregistered religious groups
cannot rent venues to hold services and must find alternative means to
practice their faiths. Atheism and agnosticism are not explicitly
outlawed but socially stigmatised.
^ "Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut" [Population by
Region and Religion]. Sensus Penduduk 2010. Jakarta, Indonesia: Badan
Pusat Statistik. 15 May 2010. Retrieved 20 November 2011. Religion is
belief in Almighty God that must be possessed by every human being.
Religion can be divided into Muslim, Christian, Catholic, Hindu,
Buddhist, Hu Khong Chu, and Other Religion.
Christian 16528513 (6.96), Catholic 6907873 (2.91), Hindu
4012116 (1.69), Buddhist 1703254 (0.72),
Confucianism 117091 (0.05),
Other 299617 (0.13), Not Stated 139582 (0.06), Not Asked 757118
(0.32), Total 237641326
^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
^ a b Reza, Imam. "
Shia Muslims Around the World". Archived from the
original on 22 May 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2009. approximately 400,000
persons who subscribe to the Ahmadiyya
^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2008". US Department of
State. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
^ a b
^ Religious clash in
Indonesia kills up to six, Straits Times, 6
^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World’s Muslims: Unity and
Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9
August 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
^ a b Rhoads Murphey (1992). A history of Asia. HarperCollins.
^ Burhanudin, Jajat; Dijk, Kees van (31 January 2013). "
Indonesia: Contrasting Images and Interpretations". Amsterdam
University Press – via Google Books.
^ Lamoureux, Florence (1 January 2003). "Indonesia: A Global Studies
Handbook". ABC-CLIO – via Google Books.
^ a b c d e f g h i Martin, Richard C. (2004). Encyclopedia of Islam
Muslim World Vol. 2 M-Z. Macmillan.
^ Yang, Heriyanto (August 2005). "The History and Legal Position of
Confucianism in Post Independence Indonesia" (PDF). Marburg Journal of
Religion. 10 (1): 8. Retrieved 2 October 2006.
^ "Pemerintah Setuju Penghayat Kepercayaan Tertulis di Kolom Agama
KTP". Detikcom. 2017-05-08. Retrieved 2017-07-11.
^ Randall L. Pouwels (2002), Horn and Crescent: Cultural Change and
Traditional Islam, Cambridge University Press,
ISBN 978-0521523097, pp 88-159
^ MN Pearson (2000), The Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, in The History
Islam in Africa
Islam in Africa (Ed: Nehemia Levtzion, Randall Pouwels), Ohio
University Press, ISBN 978-0821412978, Chapter 2
^ Clifford Geertz; Aswab Mahasin; Bur Rasuanto (1983). Abangan,
santri, priyayi: dalam masyarakat Jawa, Issue 4 of Siri Pustaka
Sarjana. Pustaka Jaya, original from the University of Michigan,
digitized on 24 Jun 2009.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Von Der Mehden, Fred R.
(1995). "Indonesia.". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of
the Modern Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
^ "Apa yang Dimaksud dengan
Nahdlatul Ulama (in
Indonesian). 22 April 2015.
^ Heyder Affan (15 June 2015). "Polemik di balik istiIah 'Islam
Indonesia (in Indonesian).
^ Palmier, Leslie H. (September 1954). "Modern
Islam in Indonesia: The
Muhammadiyah After Independence". Pacific Affairs. 27 (3): 257.
^ a b c d e Bruinessen, Martin van, Contemporary Developments in
Islam Explaining the 'Conservative Turn' . ISEAS
Publishing, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2017.
^ Hasan, Noorhaidi, The Salafi Movement in Indonesia. Project Muse,
2007. Retrieved October 3, 2017.
^ Reza, Imam. "
Shia Muslims Around the World". Archived from the
original on 22 May 2009. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
^ "Indonesia". The Association of Religious Data. Retrieved April 26,
^ Ahmad Najib Burhani (December 18, 2013). "The
Ahmadiyya and the
Study of Comparative Religion in Indonesia: Controversies and
Islam and Christian–
Muslim Relations. 25. Taylor &
Francis. pp. 143–144.
^ Leonard Leo. International Religious Freedom (2010): Annual Report
to Congress. DIANE Publishing. pp. 261–.
ISBN 978-1-4379-4439-6. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
^ Fatima Zainab Rahman (2014). "State restrictions on the Ahmadiyya
Indonesia and Pakistan:
Islam or political survival?".
Australian Journal of Political Science. Routledge. 49 (3):
^ a b c d Feener, R. Michael.
Muslim legal thought in modern
Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved October 3, 2017.
^ a b Mujani, Saiful and Liddle, R. William. Politics,
Public Opinion. (2004) Journal of Democracy, 15:1, p.109-123.
^ Ranjan Ghosh (4 January 2013). Making Sense of the Secular: Critical
Perspectives from Europe to Asia. Routledge. pp. 202–.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 September 2008.
Retrieved 28 August 2006.
^ Bruinessen, Martin van. "
Islamic state or state Islam? Fifty years
Islam relations in Indonesia" Archived 27 June 2008 at the
Wayback Machine. in Ingrid Wessel (Hrsg.), Indonesien am Ende des 20.
Jahrhunderts. Hamburg: Abera-Verlag, 1996, pp. 19-34.
^  Wakhid Sugiyarto, Study of the 'Santrinisation' process Archived
19 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Negeri Champa, Jejak
Wali Songo di Vietnam. detik travel. Retrieved
October 3, 2017.
^ Raden Abdulkadir Widjojoatmodjo (November 1942). "
Islam in the
Netherlands East Indies". The Far Eastern Quarterly. 2 (1): 48–57.
doi:10.2307/2049278. JSTOR 2049278.
^ a b Audrey Kahin (2015). Historical Dictionary of Indonesia. Rowman
& Littlefield Publishers. pp. 3–5.
^ M.C. Ricklefs (2008). A History of Modern
Indonesia Since C.1200.
Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 17–19, 22, 34–42.
^ AQSHA, DARUL (13 July 2010). "
Zheng He and
Islam in Southeast Asia".
The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved
28 September 2012.
^ Sanjeev Sanyal (6 August 2016). "History of Indian Ocean shows how
old rivalries can trigger rise of new forces". Times of India.
^ Duff, Mark (25 October 2002). "
Islam in Indonesia". BBC News.
^ Feener, Michael R. and Laffan, Michael F.
Sufi Scents across the
Indian Ocean: Yemeni Hagiography and the Earliest History of Southeast
Asian Islam. Archipel 70 (2005), p.185-208.
^ Aquino, Michael. "An Overview of Balinese Culture".
seasia.about.com. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern
Indonesia since c.1300,
2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 3.
^ a b c Ehito Kimura (2002). "
Islam Before and After
^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 285
^ a b Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern
^ Fred R. Von der Mehden, Two Worlds of Islam: Interaction Between
Southeast Asia and the Middle East, 1993
^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern
London: MacMillan. pp. 353–356.
^ Sjafnir Aboe Nain, 2004, Memorie Tuanku
Imam Bonjol (MTIB), transl.,
^ Indonesian State Secretariat, Daftar Nama Pahlawan (1).
^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 56–57.
^ Holt, Peter Malcolm; Ann K. S. Lambton; Bernard Lewis (1977). The
Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 191–192. ISBN 0-521-29137-2.
^ Hj. Rasuna Said. Pahlawan Center. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
^ Wahid 1996, pp. 19-51.
^ Saleh, Modern Trends in Islamic Theological Discourse in 20th
^ Barton (2002), Biografi Gus Dur, LKiS, p.102
^ Abdullah Saeed, Approaches to the
Qur'an in Contemporary Indonesia.
Oxford University Press, 2005, p.78-79. Retrieved 9-9-2017.
^ Gillespie, P 2007, "Current Issues in Indonesian Islam: Analysing
the 2005 Council of Indonesian Ulama
Fatwa N0. 7" Journal of Islamic
Studies Vol 18, No. 2 pp. 202-240.
Saudi Arabia Is Redefining
Islam for the World's Largest Muslim
Nation". 2 March 2017.
^ "In Indonesia, Madrassas of Moderation". 10 February 2015.
^ "Saudi Arabia's 'Lavish' Gift to Indonesia: Radical Islam". 29 April
^ PERLEZ, JANE (July 5, 2003). "Saudis Quietly Promote Strict
Indonesia". New York Times. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 287.
^ Cribb & Kahin 2004, p. 264.
^ Ricklefs (1994), p. 285
^ a b Kersten, Carool.
Indonesia the Contest for Society,
Ideas and Values. (2015) C. Hurst & Co.
^ Moch Nur Ichwan, Towards a Puritanical Moderate Islam: The Majelis
Indonesia and the Politics of Religious Orthodoxy. ISEAS
Publishing. Retrieved 9-9-2017.
^ Hefner, Robert. Civil Islam: Muslims and
Indonesia. (2000) Princeton University Press, p.218.
^ Menchik, Jeremy.
Islam and Democracy in
Indonesia Tolerance without
Liberalism. (2017) Cambridge University Press, p.15.
^ Relasi PAN-Muhammadiyah. Republika. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
^ Nahdlatul Ulama. Berkley Center for Religion, Peace & World
Affairs. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
^ van Bruinessen, Martin. New Leadership, New Policies? The Nahdlatul
Ulama Congress in Makassar. Inside
Indonesia 101, July–September
2010. Online at <www.insideindonesia.org/>.
^ McDonald, Hamish (30 June 2008). "Fighting terror with smart
weaponry". Sydney Morning Herald. p. 17.
Indonesia Kelak Akan Kaku dan Keras? NU.or.id. Retrieved
October 5, 2017.
^ Azra, Azyumardi. ‘
Republika, Thursday, 2 July 2015.
^ M Andika Putra; Raja Eben Lumbanrau (17 January 2017). "Jejak FPI
dan Status 'Napi' Rizieq Shihab". CNN
Indonesia (in Indonesian).
Islam Has Scored a Disquieting Victory in Indonesia's
Normally Secular Politics. TIME. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
Nusantara And Its Critics: The Rise Of NU’s Young Clerics
– Analysis. Eurasia Review. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
^ Platzdasch, Bernhard.
Islamism in Indonesa. ISEAS Publishing,
^ National Geographic Traveller Indonesia, Vol 1, No 6, 2009, Jakarta,
Indonesia, page 54
^ "Figural Representation in Islamic Art". metmuseum.org.
Batik Jambi" (in Indonesian). Padang Ekspres. 16 November
2008. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013. Retrieved 24
^ Poplawska, Marzanna (2004). "
Wayang Wahyu as an Example of Christian
Forms of Shadow Theatre". Asian Theatre Journal. Johns Hopkins
University Press. 21 (2): 194–202. doi:10.1353/atj.2004.0024.
^ "Amir Hamzah, uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, spreader of Islam, and
hero of the Serat Menak". Asian Art Education.
^ a b Gunawan Tjahjono (1998). Indonesian Heritage-Architecture.
Singapore: Archipelago Press. pp. 88–89.
^ Turner, Peter (November 1995). Java. Melbourne: Lonely Planet.
pp. 78–79. ISBN 0-86442-314-4.
^ Dina Fatimah. "KAJIAN Arsitektur pada Masjid Bingkudu di Minangkabau
dilihat dari Aspek Nilai dan Makna" (PDF).
^ Abdullah Mubarok (21 February 2016). "PDIP: Kopiah Bagian Dari
identitas Nasional" (in Indonesian). Inilah.com. Archived from the
original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
^ Yasmin Ahmad Kamil (30 June 2015). "They know what you need for
Raya". The Star. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
^ Bachyul Jb, Syofiardi (2006-03-01). "'Tabuik' festival: From a
religious event to tourism". The
Jakarta Post. Retrieved
^ Pringle, Robert (2010). Understanding
Islam in Indonesia: Politics
and Diversity. Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 9789814260091.
^ Dijk, C. van (Cornelis) (1981). Rebellion under the banner of
Islam : the Darul
Islam in Indonesia. The Hague: M. Nijhoff.
Ahmadiyya (Nearly) banned.
^ "Indonesian Muslims rally for ban on
Ahmadiyya sect". Reuters. 20
This article incorporates public domain material from the
Library of Congress Country Studies website
Ricklefs, M. C. (1991). A History of Modern
Indonesia since c.1300,
Second Edition. MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
Gade, Anna M. Perfection Makes Practice: Learning, Emotion, and the
Recited Qur’ân in Indonesia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press,
Islam in Indonesia
Ismail al-Khalidi al-Minangkabawi
Sunan Gunung Jati
Maulana Malik Ibrahim
Ali Mughayat Syah
Tuanku Nan Tuo
Abdul Karim Amrullah
Tahir bin Jalaluddin
Muhammad Jamil Jambek
Ahmad Khatib al-Minangkabawi
Ulil Abshar Abdalla
Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah
Abu Bakar Bashir
Ahmad Syafi'i Maarif
Muhammad Rizieq Shihab
Said Aqil Siradj
Muhammad Luthfi bin Yahya
Campus Dakwah Institute
Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia
Indonesian Association of
Indonesia Institute of Islamic Dawah
Indonesian Mujahedeen Council
Islamic Defenders Front
Muslim Students' Association
Ansor Youth Movement
Crescent Star Party
Indonesian Islamic Union Party
Indonesian Nahdlatul Community Party
National Awakening Party
National Mandate Party
National Sun Party
Union of Indonesian Muslims
Prosperous Justice Party
Ulema National Awakening Party
United Development Party
Jamaah Ansharut Tauhid
Islam in Indonesia
Ottoman expedition to Aceh
Islamic States in Indonesia
Samudera Pasai Sultanate
Insurgency in Aceh
Maluku sectarian conflict
November 2016 / December 2016 / February 2017
Musabaqah Tilawatil Quran
Pondok Modern Darussalam Gontor
Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta
Islamic criminal law in Aceh
Mosques in Indonesia
History of Indonesia
National Heroes of Indonesia
Islam in Asia
East Timor (Timor-Leste)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Cocos (Keeling) Islan