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Chamacoco is a Zamucoan language spoken in Paraguay
Paraguay
and maybe Brazil by the Chamacoco people. It is also known as Xamicoco or Xamacoco, although the tribe itself prefers the name Ishír, which is also spelled Ishiro or Jewyo.[3] When the term Ishiro (or yshyro or ɨshɨro) is used to refer to the language, it is an abbreviation for Ishir(o) ahwoso, literally meaning 'the words, the language of the Chamacoco people'.[4] It is spoken by a traditionally hunter-gatherer society that has now turned to agriculture. Its speakers are of all ages, and generally do not speak Spanish or Guarani well.[5]

Contents

1 Classification 2 Sample words and phrases 3 References 4 External links

Classification[edit] Chamacoco is classified as a Zamucoan language, along with Ayoreo. Both languages are considered endangered.[6] There is relatively little information about the Zamucoan family. Chamacoco speakers live in the northeastern part of the Chaco Boreal at the origin of the Río Verde in Paraguay.[5] Four dialects of Chamacoco have been identified: Héiwo, in the Fuerte Olimpo
Fuerte Olimpo
area; Ebidóso and Hório, spoken in the Bahía Negra region; and Tomaráho, in the Paraná-Paraíba interior forests.[3] The speakers of Hório and Ebidóso were estimated to be 800 in 1970. less than 200 people spoke Tomaráho then. Back in 1930, over 2000 people were estimated to speak Chamacoco.[3] Verb inflection is based on personal prefixes, the language is tenseless.[7] For example, chɨpɨrme teu dosh means "the kingfisher eats fish", while chɨpɨra teu wichɨ dosht means "the kingfisher will eat fish." Nouns can be divided into possessable and non-possessable. Possessable nouns are characterized by a prefixation whereby the noun agrees with the possessor or genitival modifier.[8] There is no difference between nouns and adjectives in suffixation.[9] The syntaxis is characterized by the presence of para-hypotactical structures.[10] The comparison of inflectional morphology has shown remarkable similarities with Ayoreo and Ancient Zamuco.[11] Sample words and phrases[edit]

matah debich (IPA: a debitʃ) – finger aap (IPA: ap) – fox/lion cub tɨkɨn chɨp owa (IPA: tɪgɪ ʃebɔa) – thank you very much ich amatak (IPA: ɪdʒ amaɹtɔk) – he eats a lot ye takmape (IPA: je taɣmabe) – he does not eat a lot tɨkɨya oyetɨke (IPA: tɪkija ɔɪhetɪgɪ) – I bought a dog for you yok (IPA: jɔk) – I ich takaha (IPA: i taɣaha) – I go

References[edit]

^ Chamacoco at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chamacoco". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ a b c Chamacoco: Orientation. Every Culture. 2008 (retrieved 29 March 2009) ^ Ciucci, Luca 2011. L’amico di D’Annunzio e la tribù perduta: in Sudamerica alla ricerca dei confini di Babele. Normale. Bollettino dell’associazione normalisti, 1-2. 23-28. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-04. Retrieved 2013-07-21.  ^ a b Gordon, Raymond G., Jr., ed. Chamacoco: A Language of Paraguay. Ethnologue. 2005 (retrieved 29 March 2009) ^ Sorosoro: Zamucoan family. ^ Ciucci, Luca 2009. Elementi di morfologia verbale del chamacoco. Quaderni del Laboratorio di Linguistica della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, n.s. 8. [1] ^ Ciucci, Luca 2010. La flessione possessiva del chamacoco. Quaderni del Laboratorio di Linguistica della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, n.s. 9,2. [2] ^ Ciucci, Luca 2013. Chamacoco lexicographical supplement. Quaderni del Laboratorio di Linguistica della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, n.s. 12. [3] ^ Bertinetto, Pier Marco & Luca Ciucci 2012. Parataxis, Hypotaxis and Para-Hypotaxis in the Zamucoan Languages. In: Linguistic Discovery 10.1: 89-111. [4] ^ Ciucci, Luca 2013. Inflectional morphology in the Zamucoan languages. Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. Ph.D. thesis.

External links[edit]

Chamacoco Talking Dictionary Sorosoro Project ELAR archive of Documentation of the Tomarâho variety of Chamacoco, Paraguay

v t e

Languages of Paraguay

Official languages

Spanish Guaraní

Indigenous languages

Guaicuruan

Toba Qom

Mascoian

Angaité Enlhet Enxet Kaskihá Sanapaná Toba-Maskoy

Matacoan

Iyo'wujwa Chorote Maka Nivaclé

Tupi–Guarani

Aché Ava Guarani Pai Tavytera

Zamucoan

Ayoreo Chamacoco

Other European languages

Portuguese German (Plautdietsch) Italian

Sign languages

Paragu

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