The Info List - Isaac Asimov

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ISAAC ASIMOV (/ˈaɪzək ˈæzɪmɒv/ ; born ISAAK OZIMOV; c. January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University . He was known for his works of science fiction and popular science . Asimov was a prolific writer , and wrote or edited more than 500 books and an estimated 90,000 letters and postcards . His books have been published in 9 of the 10 major categories of the Dewey Decimal Classification .

Asimov wrote hard science fiction and, along with Robert A. Heinlein and Arthur C. Clarke , he was considered one of the "Big Three" science fiction writers during his lifetime. Asimov's most famous work is the _Foundation_ Series ; his other major series are the _Galactic Empire_ series and the _Robot_ series . The _Galactic Empire_ novels are explicitly set in earlier history of the same fictional universe as the _Foundation_ series. Later, beginning with _Foundation\'s Edge _, he linked this distant future to the Robot
and Spacer stories, creating a unified "future history " for his stories much like those pioneered by Robert A. Heinlein and previously produced by Cordwainer Smith and Poul Anderson . He wrote hundreds of short stories, including the social science fiction "Nightfall ", which in 1964 was voted by the Science Fiction Writers of America the best short science fiction story of all time. Asimov wrote the _Lucky Starr_ series of juvenile science-fiction novels using the pen name Paul French.

Asimov also wrote mysteries and fantasy , as well as much nonfiction. Most of his popular science books explain scientific concepts in a historical way, going as far back as possible to a time when the science in question was at its simplest stage. He often provides nationalities, birth dates, and death dates for the scientists he mentions, as well as etymologies and pronunciation guides for technical terms. Examples include _Guide to Science _, the three-volume set _ Understanding Physics _, and _Asimov's Chronology
of Science and Discovery_, as well as works on astronomy , mathematics , history , William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
's writing, and chemistry .

Asimov was a long-time member and vice president of Mensa International , albeit reluctantly; he described some members of that organization as "brain-proud and aggressive about their IQs". He took more joy in being president of the American Humanist Association . The asteroid 5020 Asimov , a crater on the planet Mars
, a Brooklyn elementary school, and a literary award are named in his honor.


* 1 Biography

* 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Education and career * 1.3 Personal life * 1.4 Illness and death

* 2 Writings

* 2.1 Overview * 2.2 Science fiction
Science fiction

* 2.3 Popular science
Popular science

* 2.3.1 Coined terms

* 2.4 Other writings * 2.5 Awards and recognition

* 3 Writing style

* 3.1 Characteristics

* 3.2 Limitations

* 3.2.1 Sexuality * 3.2.2 Alien life * 3.2.3 Portrayal of women


* 4.1 Religion * 4.2 Politics * 4.3 Social issues * 4.4 Environment and population * 4.5 Other authors

* 5 Influence * 6 Television, music, and film appearances

* 7 Selected bibliography

* 7.1 Science fiction
Science fiction

* 7.1.1 "Greater Foundation" series * 7.1.2 Lucky Starr series (as Paul French) * 7.1.3 Norby Chronicles (with Janet Asimov) * 7.1.4 Novels not part of a series * 7.1.5 Short-story collections

* 7.2 Mysteries

* 7.2.1 Novels

* 7.2.2 Short-story collections

* Black Widowers series * Other mysteries

* 7.3 Nonfiction

* 7.3.1 Popular science
Popular science
* 7.3.2 Annotations * 7.3.3 Guides * 7.3.4 Autobiography * 7.3.5 Other nonfiction

* 8 References

* 8.1 Notes * 8.2 Sources

* 9 Further reading * 10 External links



Asimov was born between October 4, 1919 and January 2, 1920 in Petrovichi near Klimovichi , then Gomel Governorate in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (now Smolensk Oblast , Russia) to Anna Rachel (née Berman) and Judah Asimov, a family of Jewish millers . His exact date of birth within that range is unknown, but Asimov himself celebrated it on January 2. The family name derives from a word for winter crops , in which his great-grandfather dealt. This word is spelled озимые (_ozimye_) in Russian, and азімыя (_azimiya_) in Belarusian. Phonetically, both words are almost identical because in Russian 'О' in the first unstressed syllable is always pronounced as 'А'. Accordingly, his name originally was Исаак Озимов (_Isaak Ozimov_) in Russian; however, he was later known in Russia as _Ayzek Azimov_ (Айзек Азимов), a Russian Cyrillic adaptation of the American English pronunciation. Asimov had two younger siblings: a sister, Marcia (born Manya, June 17, 1922 – April 2, 2011), and a brother, Stanley (July 25, 1929 – August 16, 1995), who was vice-president of _ New York Newsday _.

In 1921 Asimov and 16 other children in Petrovichi caught double pneumonia ; only Asimov survived.

His family emigrated to the United States when he was three years old. Since his parents always spoke Yiddish and English with him, he never learned Russian, but he remained fluent in Yiddish as well as English. Growing up in Brooklyn
, New York , Asimov taught himself to read at the age of five, and his mother got him into first grade a year early by claiming he was born on September 7, 1919. (In third grade he learned about the "error" and insisted on an official correction to January 2. ) Asimov wrote of his father, "My father, for all his education as an Orthodox Jew, was not Orthodox in his heart", noting that "he didn't recite the myriad prayers prescribed for every action, and he never made any attempt to teach them to me". After becoming established in the U.S., his parents owned a succession of candy stores , in which everyone in the family was expected to work. The candy stores sold newspapers and magazines, a fact that Asimov credited as a major influence in his lifelong love of the written word, as it presented him with an unending supply of new reading material as a child that he could not have otherwise afforded. He became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1928 at the age of eight.


Asimov began reading science fiction pulp magazines at a young age. His father, as a matter of principle, forbade reading the pulps, as he considered them to be trash, but Asimov persuaded him that because the science fiction magazines had "Science" in the title, they must be educational. Around the age of 11, he began to write his own stories, and by age 19, after he discovered science fiction fandom , he was selling stories to the science fiction magazines. John W. Campbell , then editor of _Astounding Science Fiction _, had a strong formative influence on Asimov and eventually became a personal friend.

Asimov attended New York City
New York City
public schools from age 5, including Boys High School in Brooklyn
. Graduating at 15, he went on to Seth Low Junior College, a branch of Columbia University
Columbia University
in Downtown Brooklyn
designed to absorb some of the Jewish and Italian-American students who applied to Columbia College , then the institution's primary undergraduate school for men with quotas on the number of admissions from those ethnic groups. Originally a zoology major, Asimov switched to chemistry after his first semester as he disapproved of "dissecting an alley cat". After Seth Low Junior College closed in 1938, Asimov finished his BS degree at University Extension (later the Columbia University
Columbia University
School of General Studies ) in 1939. Robert A. Heinlein and L. Sprague de Camp with Asimov (right), Philadelphia Navy Yard , 1944

When he failed to secure admission to medical school, Asimov applied to the graduate program in chemistry at Columbia; initially rejected and then only accepted on a probationary basis, he completed his M.A. in chemistry in 1941 and earned a Ph.D. in biochemistry in 1948. In between, he spent three years during World War II
World War II
working as a civilian at the Philadelphia Navy Yard 's Naval Air Experimental Station, living in the Walnut Hill section of West Philadelphia from 1942 to 1945. In September 1945, he was drafted into the U.S. Army ; if he had not had his birth date corrected, he would have been officially 26 years old and ineligible. In 1946 a bureaucratic foul-up caused his military allotment to be stopped, and he was removed from a task force days before it sailed to participate in Operation Crossroads
Operation Crossroads
nuclear weapons tests at Bikini Atoll . He served for almost nine months before receiving an honorable discharge. After completing his doctorate, Asimov joined the faculty of the Boston University School of Medicine , with which he remained associated thereafter. From 1958, this was in a nonteaching capacity, as he turned to writing full-time (his writing income had already exceeded his academic salary). Being tenured , he retained the title of associate professor , and in 1979, the university honored his writing by promoting him to full professor of biochemistry. Asimov's personal papers from 1965 onward are archived at the university's Mugar Memorial Library , to which he donated them at the request of curator Howard Gotlieb.

In 1959, after a recommendation from Arthur Obermayer , Asimov's friend and a scientist on the U.S. missile protection project, Asimov was approached by DARPA to join Obermayer's team. Asimov declined on the grounds that his ability to write freely would be impaired should he receive classified information. However, he did submit a paper to DARPA titled "On Creativity" containing ideas on how government-based science projects could encourage team members to think more creatively.


Asimov married Gertrude Blugerman (1917, Toronto
, Canada – 1990, Boston
, U.S.) on July 26, 1942. The couple lived in an apartment in West Philadelphia , as Asimov was then employed at the Philadelphia Navy Yard (where two of his co-workers were L. Sprague de Camp and Robert A. Heinlein ). They moved to Boston
in May 1949, then to nearby suburbs Somerville in July 1949, Waltham in May 1951, and finally West Newton in 1956. They had two children, David (born 1951) and Robyn Joan (born 1955). In 1970, they separated and Asimov moved back to New York, this time to the Upper West Side of Manhattan
, where he lived for the rest of his life. He immediately began seeing Janet O. Jeppson and married her two weeks after his divorce from Gertrude in 1973.

Asimov was a claustrophile: he enjoyed small, enclosed spaces. In the third volume of his autobiography, he recalls a childhood desire to own a magazine stand in a New York City
New York City
Subway station, within which he could enclose himself and listen to the rumble of passing trains while reading.

Asimov was afraid of flying , only doing so twice in his entire life (once in the course of his work at the Naval Air Experimental Station and once returning home from the army base in Oahu in 1946). Consequently, he seldom traveled great distances. This phobia influenced several of his fiction works, such as the Wendell Urth mystery stories and the _Robot_ novels featuring Elijah Baley . In his later years, Asimov found enjoyment traveling on cruise ships ; on several cruises, he was part of the entertainment program, giving science-themed talks aboard ships such as the RMS _Queen Elizabeth II_ .

Asimov was an able public speaker and was a frequent fixture at science fiction conventions , where he was friendly and approachable. He patiently answered tens of thousands of questions and other mail with postcards and was pleased to give autographs. He was of medium height, stocky, with mutton chop whiskers and a distinct New York accent . His physical dexterity was very poor. He never learned to swim or ride a bicycle; however, he did learn to drive a car after he moved to Boston. In his humor book _Asimov Laughs Again_, he describes Boston
driving as "anarchy on wheels."

Asimov's wide interests included his participation in his later years in organizations devoted to the comic operas of Gilbert and Sullivan and in The Wolfe Pack, a group of devotees of the Nero Wolfe mysteries written by Rex Stout
Rex Stout
. Many of his short stories mention or quote Gilbert and Sullivan. He was a prominent member of the Baker Street Irregulars , the leading Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
society, for whom he wrote an essay arguing that Professor Moriarty's work "The Dynamics of An Asteroid" involved the willful destruction of an ancient civilized planet. He was also a member of the all-male literary banqueting club the Trap Door Spiders , which served as the basis of his fictional group of mystery solvers, the Black Widowers . He later used his essay on Moriarty's work as the basis for a Black Widowers story, "The Ultimate Crime ", which appeared in _More Tales of the Black Widowers _.

In 1984, the American Humanist Association (AHA) named him the Humanist of the Year. He was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto . From 1985 until his death in 1992, he served as president of the AHA, an honorary appointment. His successor was his friend and fellow writer Kurt Vonnegut, Jr
Kurt Vonnegut, Jr
. He was also a close friend of _Star Trek _ creator Gene Roddenberry , and earned a screen credit as "special science consultant" on _Star Trek: The Motion Picture _ for advice he gave during production.

Asimov was a founding member of the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (now the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry ) and is listed in its Pantheon of Skeptics.

Asimov described Carl Sagan
Carl Sagan
as one of only two people he ever met whose intellect surpassed his own. The other, he claimed, was the computer scientist and artificial intelligence expert Marvin Minsky .


Asimov suffered a heart attack in 1977, and had triple bypass surgery in December 1983, during which he contracted HIV
from a blood transfusion. When his HIV
status was understood, his physicians warned that if he publicized it, the anti-AIDS prejudice would likely extend to his family members. When he died in New York City
New York City
on April 6, 1992, he was survived by his brother Stanley, his second wife Janet Asimov, and his children from his first marriage. Stanley reported the cause of death as heart and kidney failure . The family chose not to disclose that these were complications of AIDS, because within two days, on April 8, Arthur Ashe announced his own HIV
infection (also contracted in 1983 from a blood transfusion during heart bypass surgery), which resulted in much public controversy; also doctors continued to insist on secrecy. Ten years later, after most of Asimov's physicians had died, Janet and Robyn Asimov agreed that the HIV
story should be made public; Janet revealed it in her edition of his autobiography _It\'s Been a Good Life _.




Three Laws of Robotics _by Isaac Asimov_ (in culture )


* Roboethics * Ethics
of AI * Machine ethics

* v * t * e

Asimov's career can be divided into several periods. His early career, dominated by science fiction, began with short stories in 1939 and novels in 1950. This lasted until about 1958, all but ending after publication of _ The Naked Sun _. He began publishing nonfiction in 1952, co-authoring a college-level textbook called _ Biochemistry and Human Metabolism_. Following the brief orbit of the first man-made satellite Sputnik I by the USSR in 1957, his production of nonfiction, particularly popular science books, greatly increased, with a consequent drop in his science fiction output. Over the next quarter century, he wrote only four science fiction novels. Starting in 1982, the second half of his science fiction career began with the publication of _Foundation\'s Edge _. From then until his death, Asimov published several more sequels and prequels to his existing novels, tying them together in a way he had not originally anticipated, making a unified series. There are, however, many inconsistencies in this unification, especially in his earlier stories.

Asimov believed his most enduring contributions would be his "Three Laws of Robotics
" and the _Foundation_ series (see _Yours, Isaac Asimov,_ p. 329). Furthermore, the _ Oxford English Dictionary _ credits his science fiction for introducing the words 'positronic ' (an entirely fictional technology), 'psychohistory ' (which is also used for a different study on historical motivations) and 'robotics ' into the English language. Asimov coined the term 'robotics' without suspecting that it might be an original word; at the time, he believed it was simply the natural analogue of words such as mechanics and hydraulics , but for robots . Unlike his word 'psychohistory', the word 'robotics' continues in mainstream technical use with Asimov's original definition. _Star Trek: The Next Generation _ featured androids with "positronic brains " and the first-season episode " Datalore " called the positronic brain "Asimov's dream".


_ The first installment of Asimov's Tyrann_ was the cover story in the fourth issue of _ Galaxy Science Fiction _ in 1951. The novel was issued in book form later that year as _ The Stars Like Dust _. _ The first installment of Asimov's The Caves of Steel _ on the cover of the October 1953 issue of _ Galaxy Science Fiction _, illustrated by Ed Emshwiller

Asimov first began reading the science fiction pulp magazines sold in his family's confectionery store in 1929. In the mid-1930s, he came into contact with science fiction fandom , particularly the circle that became the Futurians . He began writing his first science fiction story, "Cosmic Corkscrew", in 1937; finished it on June 19, 1938, inspired by a visit to the offices of _Astounding Science Fiction _; and personally submitted it to _Astounding_ editor John W. Campbell two days later. Campbell rejected "Cosmic Corkscrew", but encouraged Asimov to keep trying, and Asimov did. In October, he sold the third story he finished, " Marooned Off Vesta ", to _ Amazing Stories _, then a monthly sci-fi magazine edited by Raymond A. Palmer
Raymond A. Palmer
, and it appeared in the March 1939 issue. Two more of his stories appeared that year, "The Weapon Too Dreadful to Use" in the May _Amazing_ and "Trends" in the July _Astounding_. For 1940, ISFDB catalogs seven stories in four different pulp magazines, including one in _Astounding_.

In September 1941, _Astounding_ published the 32nd story Asimov wrote, "Nightfall ", which has been described as one of "the most famous science-fiction stories of all time". In 1968 the Science Fiction Writers of America voted "Nightfall" the best science fiction short story ever written. In his short story collection _Nightfall and Other Stories _, he wrote, "The writing of 'Nightfall' was a watershed in my professional career..... I was suddenly taken seriously and the world of science fiction became aware that I existed. As the years passed, in fact, it became evident that I had written a 'classic'."

"Nightfall" is an archetypal example of social science fiction , a term coined by Asimov to describe a new trend in the 1940s, led by authors including Asimov and Heinlein , away from gadgets and space opera and toward speculation about the human condition .

By 1941, Asimov had begun selling regularly to _Astounding_, which was then the field's leading magazine. From 1943 to 1949, all of his published science fiction appeared in _Astounding_.

In 1942, he published the first of his _Foundation_ stories—later collected in the _Foundation_ trilogy : _Foundation _ (1951), _ Foundation and Empire _ (1952), and _ Second Foundation _ (1953)—which recount the fall of a vast interstellar empire and the establishment of its eventual successor. Taken together, they are his most famous work of science fiction, along with the _Robot_ series . In 1966 they won the Hugo Award for the all-time best series of science fiction novels. Many years later, due to pressure by fans on Asimov to write another, he continued the series with _Foundation\'s Edge _ (1982) and _ Foundation and Earth _ (1986), and then went back to before the original trilogy with _ Prelude to Foundation _ (1988) and _ Forward the Foundation _ (1992). The series features his fictional science of psychohistory , in which the future course of the history of large populations can be predicted.

His "positronic" robot stories —many of which were collected in _I, Robot
_ (1950)—were begun at about the same time. They promulgated a set of rules of ethics for robots (see Three Laws of Robotics ) and intelligent machines that greatly influenced other writers and thinkers in their treatment of the subject. Asimov notes in his introduction to the short story collection _The Complete Robot
_ (1982) that he was largely inspired by the almost relentless tendency of robots up to that time to fall consistently into a Frankenstein plot in which they destroyed their creators.

The robot series has led to film adaptations. With Asimov's collaboration, in about 1977 Harlan Ellison wrote a screenplay of _I, Robot_ that Asimov hoped would lead to "the first really adult, complex, worthwhile science fiction film ever made". The screenplay has never been filmed and was eventually published in book form in 1994. The 2004 movie _I, Robot
_, starring Will Smith
Will Smith
, was based on an unrelated script by Jeff Vintar titled _Hardwired_, with Asimov's ideas incorporated later after the rights to Asimov's title were acquired. (Ironically, the title was not original to Asimov but had previously been used for a story by Eando Binder .) Also, one of Asimov's robot short stories, " The Bicentennial Man ", was expanded into a novel _ The Positronic Man _ by Asimov and Robert Silverberg
Robert Silverberg
, and this was adapted into the 1999 movie _Bicentennial Man _, starring Robin Williams
Robin Williams

Besides movies, his _Foundation_ and _Robot_ stories have inspired other derivative works of science fiction literature, many by well-known and established authors such as Roger MacBride Allen , Greg Bear , Gregory Benford , David Brin , and Donald Kingsbury . At least some of these appear to have been done with the blessing of, or at the request of, Asimov's widow, Janet Asimov .

In 1948, he also wrote a spoof chemistry article , "The Endochronic Properties of Resublimated Thiotimoline ". At the time, Asimov was preparing his own doctoral dissertation , and for the oral examination to follow that. Fearing a prejudicial reaction from his graduate school evaluation board at Columbia University
Columbia University
, Asimov asked his editor that it be released under a pseudonym, yet it appeared under his own name. During his oral examination shortly thereafter, Asimov grew concerned at the scrutiny he received. At the end of the examination, one evaluator turned to him, smiling, and said, "What can you tell us, Mr. Asimov, about the thermodynamic properties of the compound known as thiotimoline". The hysterically laughing Asimov was then led out of the room. After a five-minute or so wait, he was summoned back into the room and congratulated as "Dr. Asimov".

In 1949, book publisher Doubleday 's science fiction editor Walter I. Bradbury accepted Asimov's unpublished novelette "Grow Old Along With Me" (40,000 words) for publication, but requested that it be extended to a full novel of 70,000 words. The book appeared under the Doubleday imprint in January 1950 with the title of _ Pebble in the Sky _. Doubleday went on to publish five more original science fiction novels by Asimov in the 1950s, along with the six juvenile Lucky Starr novels , the latter under the pseudonym of "Paul French". Doubleday also published collections of Asimov's short stories, beginning with _The Martian Way and Other Stories _ in 1955. The early 1950s also saw Gnome Press publish one collection of Asimov's positronic robot stories as _I, Robot
_ and his _Foundation _ stories and novelettes as the three books of the _Foundation trilogy_. More positronic robot stories were republished in book form as _ The Rest of the Robots _.

When new science fiction magazines, notably _Galaxy _ magazine and _The Magazine of Fantasy
and I wrote it in white-heat and scarcely had to change a word. This sort of thing endears any story to any writer.

Then, too, it has had the strangest effect on my readers. Frequently someone writes to ask me if I can give them the name of a story, which they 'think' I may have written, and tell them where to find it. They don't remember the title but when they describe the story it is invariably "The Last Question". This has reached the point where I recently received a long-distance phone call from a desperate man who began, 'Dr. Asimov, there's a story I think you wrote, whose title I can't remember—' at which point I interrupted to tell him it was "The Last Question" and when I described the plot it proved to be indeed the story he was after. I left him convinced I could read minds at a distance of a thousand miles.

In December 1974, former Beatle Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
approached Asimov and asked him if he could write the screenplay for a science-fiction movie musical. McCartney had a vague idea for the plot and a small scrap of dialogue; he wished to make a film about a rock band whose members discover they are being impersonated by a group of extraterrestrials. The band and their impostors would likely be played by McCartney's group Wings , then at the height of their career. Intrigued by the idea, although he was not generally a fan of rock music, Asimov quickly produced a "treatment" or brief outline of the story. He adhered to McCartney's overall idea, producing a story he felt to be moving and dramatic. However, he did not make use of McCartney's brief scrap of dialogue, and probably as a consequence, McCartney rejected the story. The treatment now exists only in the Boston
University archives.

Beginning in 1977, Asimov lent his name to _Isaac Asimov\'s Science Fiction Magazine _ (now _Asimov\'s Science Fiction _) and penned an editorial for each issue. There was also a short-lived _Asimov\'s SF Adventure Magazine _ and a companion _Asimov's Science Fiction Anthology_ reprint series, published as magazines (in the same manner as the stablemates _Ellery Queen\'s Mystery Magazine 's_ and _Alfred Hitchcock\'s Mystery Magazine 's_ "anthologies").


During the late 1950s and 1960s, Asimov shifted gears somewhat, and substantially decreased his fiction output (he published only four adult novels between 1957's _ The Naked Sun _ and 1982's _Foundation\'s Edge _, two of which were mysteries). At the same time, he greatly increased his nonfiction production, writing mostly on science topics; the launch of Sputnik
in 1957 engendered public concern over a "science gap", which Asimov's publishers were eager to fill with as much material as he could write.

Meanwhile, the monthly _Magazine of Fantasy
and Science Fiction _ invited him to continue his regular nonfiction column, begun in the now-folded bimonthly companion magazine _Venture Science Fiction Magazine _, ostensibly dedicated to popular science , but with Asimov having complete editorial freedom. The first of the _F">_ The novelette "Legal Rites", a collaboration with Frederik Pohl
Frederik Pohl
, was the only Asimov story to appear in Weird Tales _

In addition to his interest in science, Asimov was also greatly interested in history. Starting in the 1960s, he wrote 14 popular history books, including _The Greeks: A Great Adventure_ (1965), _The Roman Republic_ (1966), _The Roman Empire_ (1967), _The Egyptians_ (1967) and _The Near East: 10,000 Years of History_ (1968).

He published _Asimov\'s Guide to the Bible _ in two volumes—covering the Old Testament
Old Testament
in 1967 and the New Testament
New Testament
in 1969—and then combined them into one 1,300-page volume in 1981. Complete with maps and tables, the guide goes through the books of the Bible in order, explaining the history of each one and the political influences that affected it, as well as biographical information about the important characters. His interest in literature manifested itself in several annotations of literary works, including _Asimov\'s Guide to Shakespeare _ (1970), _Asimov's Annotated Paradise Lost_ (1974), and _The Annotated Gulliver's Travels_ (1980).

Asimov was also a noted mystery author and a frequent contributor to _Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine_. He began by writing science fiction mysteries such as his Wendell Urth stories, but soon moved on to writing "pure" mysteries. He published two full-length mystery novels, and wrote 66 stories about the Black Widowers , a group of men who met monthly for dinner, conversation, and a puzzle. He got the idea for the Widowers from his own association in a stag group called the Trap Door Spiders and all of the main characters (with the exception of the waiter, Henry, who he admitted resembled Wodehouse's Jeeves) were modeled after his closest friends.

Toward the end of his life, Asimov published a series of collections of limericks , mostly written by himself, starting with _Lecherous Limericks _, which appeared in 1975. _Limericks: Too Gross_, whose title displays Asimov's love of puns , contains 144 limericks by Asimov and an equal number by John Ciardi . He even created a slim volume of Sherlockian limericks. Asimov featured Yiddish humor in _Azazel, The Two Centimeter Demon _. The two main characters, both Jewish, talk over dinner, or lunch, or breakfast, about anecdotes of "George" and his friend Azazel. Asimov's _Treasury of Humor _ is both a working joke book and a treatise propounding his views on humor theory . According to Asimov, the most essential element of humor is an abrupt change in point of view, one that suddenly shifts focus from the important to the trivial, or from the sublime to the ridiculous.

Particularly in his later years, Asimov to some extent cultivated an image of himself as an amiable lecher. In 1971, as a response to the popularity of sexual guidebooks such as _ The Sensuous Woman _ (by "J") and _ The Sensuous Man _ (by "M"), Asimov published _The Sensuous Dirty Old Man_ under the byline "Dr. 'A'" (although his full name was printed on the paperback edition, first published 1972).

Asimov published three volumes of autobiography . _In Memory Yet Green_ (1979) and _In Joy Still Felt_ (1980) cover his life up to 1978. The third volume, _I. Asimov: A Memoir_ (1994), covered his whole life (rather than following on from where the second volume left off). The epilogue was written by his widow Janet Asimov after his death. The book won a Hugo Award in 1995. Janet Asimov edited _It\'s Been a Good Life _ (2002), a condensed version of his three autobiographies. He also published three volumes of retrospectives of his writing, _ Opus 100 _ (1969), _ Opus 200 _ (1979), and _Opus 300_ (1984).

In 1987, the Asimovs co-wrote _How to Enjoy Writing: A Book of Aid and Comfort_. In it they offer advice on how to maintain a positive attitude and stay productive when dealing with discouragement, distractions, rejection, and thick-headed editors. The book includes many quotations, essays, anecdotes, and husband-wife dialogues about the ups and downs of being an author.

Asimov and _ Star Trek
Star Trek
_ creator Gene Roddenberry developed a unique relationship during _Star Trek's_ initial launch in the late 1960s. Asimov wrote a critical essay on _Star Trek's_ scientific accuracy for _ TV Guide _ magazine. Roddenberry retorted respectfully with a personal letter explaining the limitations of accuracy when writing a weekly series. Asimov corrected himself with a follow-up essay to _TV Guide_ claiming that despite its inaccuracies, _Star Trek_ was a fresh and intellectually challenging science fiction television show. The two remained friends to the point where Asimov even served as an advisor on a number of _Star Trek_ projects.

In 1973, Asimov published a proposal for calendar reform , called the World Season Calendar. It divides the year into four seasons (named A–D) of 13 weeks (91 days) each. This allows days to be named, e.g., "D-73" instead of December 1 (due to December 1 being the 73rd day of the 4th quarter). An extra 'year day' is added for a total of 365 days.


Asimov won more than a dozen annual awards for particular works of science fiction and a half dozen lifetime awards. He also received 14 honorary doctorate degrees from universities.

* 1957 – Thomas Alva Edison Foundation Award, for _Building Blocks of the Universe_ * 1960 – Howard W. Blakeslee Award from the American Heart Association for _The Living River_ * 1962 – Boston University 's Publication Merit Award * 1963 – special Hugo Award for "adding science to science fiction" for essays published in the Magazine of Fantasy
and Science Fiction * 1963 – Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences * 1964 – The Science Fiction Writers of America voted "Nightfall" (1941) the all-time best science fiction short story * 1965 – James T. Grady Award of the American Chemical Society (now called the James T. Grady-James H. Stack Award for Interpreting Chemistry
) * 1966 – Best All-time Novel Series Hugo Award for the _Foundation _ series * 1967 – Westinghouse Science Writing Award * 1967 – Edward E. Smith Memorial Award * 1972 – Nebula Award for Best Novel for _ The Gods Themselves _ * 1973 – Hugo Award for Best Novel for _The Gods Themselves_ * 1973 – Locus Award for Best Science Fiction Novel for _The Gods Themselves_ * 1975 – Klumpke-Roberts Award * 1977 – Hugo Award for Best Novelette for _ The Bicentennial Man _ * 1977 – Nebula Award for Best Novelette for _The Bicentennial Man_ * 1981 – An asteroid, 5020 Asimov , was named in his honor * 1983 – Hugo Award for Best Novel for _Foundation\'s Edge _ * 1983 – Locus Award for Best Science Fiction Novel for _Foundation's Edge_ * 1986 – The Science Fiction Writers of America named him its 8th SFWA Grand Master (presented 1987). * 1987 – Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master Award * 1987 – Locus Award for Best Short Story for " Robot
Dreams " * 1992 – Hugo Award for Best Novelette for _Gold _ * 1995 – Hugo Award for Best Non-Fiction Book for _I. Asimov: A Memoir_ * 1996 – A 1946 Retro-Hugo for Best Novel of 1945 was given at the 1996 WorldCon to "The Mule ", the 7th Foundation story, published in _Astounding Science Fiction_ * 1997 – The Science Fiction and Fantasy
Hall of Fame inducted Asimov in its second class of two deceased and two living persons, along with H. G. Wells and following editors Hugo Gernsback and John W. Campbell . * 2009 – A crater on the planet Mars, Asimov , was named in his honor

* 2010 – In the US Congress bill about the designation of the National Robotics
Week as an annual event, a tribute to Isaac Asimov is as follows:

* "Whereas the second week in April each year is designated as `National Robotics
Week', recognizing the accomplishments of Isaac Asimov, who immigrated to America, taught science, wrote science books for children and adults, first used the term robotics, developed the Three Laws of Robotics, and died in April, 1992: Now, therefore, be it resolved..."

* 2015 – Selected as a member of the New York State Writers Hall of Fame .



One of the most common impressions of Asimov's fiction work is that his writing style is extremely unornamented. In 1980, science fiction scholar James Gunn , professor emeritus of English at the University of Kansas wrote of _I, Robot_:

Except for two stories—"Liar! " and "Evidence "—they are not stories in which character plays a significant part. Virtually all plot develops in conversation with little if any action. Nor is there a great deal of local color or description of any kind. The dialogue is, at best, functional and the style is, at best, transparent..... The robot stories and, as a matter of fact, almost all Asimov fiction—play themselves on a relatively bare stage.

Gunn observes places where Asimov's style rises to the demands of the situation; he cites the climax of "Liar!" as an example. Sharply drawn characters occur at key junctures of his storylines: Susan Calvin in "Liar!" and "Evidence", Arkady Darell in _Second Foundation_, Elijah Baley in _ The Caves of Steel _, and Hari Seldon in the _Foundation_ prequels. Asimov addresses this criticism at the beginning of his book _Nemesis _:

I made up my mind long ago to follow one cardinal rule in all my writing—to be 'clear'. I have given up all thought of writing poetically or symbolically or experimentally, or in any of the other modes that might (if I were good enough) get me a Pulitzer prize. I would write merely clearly and in this way establish a warm relationship between myself and my readers, and the professional critics—Well, they can do whatever they wish.

Other than books by Gunn and Patrouch, a relative dearth of "literary" criticism exists on Asimov (particularly when compared to the sheer volume of his output). Cowart and Wymer's _Dictionary of Literary Biography _ (1981) gives a possible reason:

His words do not easily lend themselves to traditional literary criticism because he has the habit of centering his fiction on plot and clearly stating to his reader, in rather direct terms, what is happening in his stories and why it is happening. In fact, most of the dialogue in an Asimov story, and particularly in the Foundation trilogy, is devoted to such exposition. Stories that clearly state what they mean in unambiguous language are the most difficult for a scholar to deal with because there is little to be interpreted.

Gunn's and Patrouch's respective studies of Asimov both take the stand that a clear, direct prose style is still a style. Gunn's 1982 book goes into considerable depth commenting upon each of Asimov's novels published to that date. He does not praise all of Asimov's fiction (nor does Patrouch), but he does call some passages in _The Caves of Steel_ "reminiscent of Proust ". When discussing how that novel depicts night falling over futuristic New York City, Gunn says that Asimov's prose "need not be ashamed anywhere in literary society".

Although he prided himself on his unornamented prose style (for which he credited Clifford D. Simak as an early influence ), Asimov also enjoyed giving his longer stories complicated narrative structures , often by arranging chapters in nonchronological ways. Some readers have been put off by this, complaining that the nonlinearity is not worth the trouble and adversely affects the clarity of the story. For example, the first third of _The Gods Themselves_ begins with Chapter 6, then backtracks to fill in earlier material. (John Campbell advised Asimov to begin his stories as late in the plot as possible. This advice helped Asimov create "Reason ", one of the early _Robot_ stories. See _In Memory Yet Green_ for details of that time period.) Patrouch found that the interwoven and nested flashbacks of _The Currents of Space _ did serious harm to that novel, to such an extent that only a "dyed-in-the-kyrt Asimov fan" could enjoy it. Asimov's tendency to contort his timelines is perhaps most apparent in his later novel _Nemesis_, in which one group of characters lives in the "present" and another group starts in the "past", beginning 15 years earlier and gradually moving toward the time period of the first group.



Asimov was sometimes criticized for the general absence of sexuality (and of extraterrestrial life ) in his science fiction. He claimed he wrote _ The Gods Themselves _ to respond to these criticisms, which often came from New Wave science fiction (and often British) writers. The second part (of three) of the novel is set on an alien world with three sexes, and the sexual behavior of these creatures is extensively depicted.

Alien Life

Asimov once explained that his reluctance to write about aliens came from an incident early in his career when _Astounding_'s editor John Campbell rejected one of his science fiction stories because the alien characters were portrayed as superior to the humans. The nature of the rejection led him to believe that Campbell may have based his bias towards humans in stories on a real-world racial bias. Unwilling to write only weak alien races, and concerned that a confrontation would jeopardize his and Campbell's friendship, he decided he would not write about aliens at all. Nevertheless, in response to these criticisms, he wrote _ The Gods Themselves _, which contains aliens and alien sex. The book won the Nebula Award for Best Novel in 1972, and the Hugo Award for Best Novel in 1973. Asimov said that of all his writings, he was most proud of the middle section of _The Gods Themselves_, the part that deals with those themes.

In the Hugo Award -winning novella "Gold ", Asimov describes an author clearly based on himself who has one of his books (_The Gods Themselves_) adapted into a "compu-drama", essentially photo-realistic computer animation . The director criticizes the fictionalized Asimov ("Gregory Laborian") for having an extremely nonvisual style, making it difficult to adapt his work, and the author explains that he relies on ideas and dialogue rather than description to get his points across.

Portrayal Of Women

Asimov was criticized for a lack of strong female characters in his early work. In his autobiographical writings, such as _Gold _ ("Women and Science Fiction"), he acknowledges this and responds by pointing to inexperience. His later novels, written with more female characters but in essentially the same prose style as his early science-fiction stories, brought this matter to a wider audience. For example, the August 25, 1985 _Washington Post_'s "Book World" section reports of _Robots and Empire_ as follows:

In 1940, Asimov's humans were stripped-down masculine portraits of Americans from 1940, and they still are. His robots were tin cans with speedlines like an old Studebaker
, and still are; the _Robot_ tales depended on an increasingly unworkable distinction between movable and unmovable artificial intelligences , and still do. In the Asimov universe, because it was conceived a long time ago, and because its author abhors confusion, there are no computers whose impact is worth noting, no social complexities, no genetic engineering , aliens, arcologies , multiverses , clones , sin or sex; his heroes (in this case R. Daneel Olivaw , whom we first met as the robot protagonist of _The Caves of Steel_ and its sequels), feel no pressure of information, raw or cooked, as the simplest of us do today; they suffer no deformation from the winds of the Asimov future, because it is so deeply and strikingly orderly.



Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
was an atheist , a humanist , and a rationalist . He did not oppose religious conviction in others, but he frequently railed against superstitious and pseudoscientific beliefs that tried to pass themselves off as genuine science. During his childhood, his father and mother observed Orthodox Jewish traditions, though not as stringently as they had in Petrovichi; they did not, however, force their beliefs upon young Isaac. Thus, he grew up without strong religious influences, coming to believe that the _ Torah
_ represented Hebrew mythology in the same way that the _ Iliad
_ recorded Greek mythology . As his books _Treasury of Humor _ and _Asimov Laughs Again_ record, Asimov was willing to tell jokes involving God, Satan
, the Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
, Jerusalem
, and other religious topics, expressing the viewpoint that a good joke can do more to provoke thought than hours of philosophical discussion.

For a brief while, his father worked in the local synagogue to enjoy the familiar surroundings and, as Isaac put it, "shine as a learned scholar" versed in the sacred writings. This scholarship was a seed for his later authorship and publication of _Asimov\'s Guide to the Bible _, an analysis of the historic foundations for both the Old and New Testaments. For many years, Asimov called himself an atheist ; however, he considered the term somewhat inadequate, as it described what he did not believe rather than what he did. Eventually, he described himself as a "humanist " and considered that term more practical. He did, however, continue to identify himself as a nonobservant Jew, as stated in his introduction to Jack Dann 's anthology of Jewish science fiction, _ Wandering Stars _: "I attend no services and follow no ritual and have never undergone that curious puberty rite, the bar mitzvah . It doesn't matter. I am Jewish."

When asked in an interview in 1982 if he was an atheist, Asimov replied, "I am an atheist, out and out. It took me a long time to say it. I've been an atheist for years and years, but somehow I felt it was intellectually unrespectable to say one was an atheist, because it assumed knowledge that one didn't have. Somehow it was better to say one was a humanist or an agnostic. I finally decided that I'm a creature of emotion as well as of reason. Emotionally I am an atheist. I don't have the evidence to prove that God doesn't exist, but I so strongly suspect he doesn't that I don't want to waste my time." Likewise he said about religious education: "I would not be satisfied to have my kids choose to be religious without trying to argue them out of it, just as I would not be satisfied to have them decide to smoke regularly or engage in any other practice I consider detrimental to mind or body."

In his last volume of autobiography, Asimov wrote, "If I were not an atheist, I would believe in a God who would choose to save people on the basis of the totality of their lives and not the pattern of their words. I think he would prefer an honest and righteous atheist to a TV preacher whose every word is God, God, God, and whose every deed is foul, foul, foul." The same memoir states his belief that Hell
is "the drooling dream of a sadist " crudely affixed to an all-merciful God; if even human governments were willing to curtail cruel and unusual punishments, wondered Asimov, why would punishment in the afterlife not be restricted to a limited term? Asimov rejected the idea that a human belief or action could merit infinite punishment. If an afterlife existed, he claimed, the longest and most severe punishment would be reserved for those who "slandered God by inventing Hell".

Asimov said about using religious motives in his writing: "I tend to ignore religion in my own stories altogether, except when I absolutely have to have it. ...and, whenever I bring in a religious motif, that religion is bound to be seem vaguely Christian because that is the only religion I know anything about, even though it is not mine. An unsympathetic reader might think that I am "burlesquing" Christianity, but I am not. Then too, it is impossible to write science fiction and really ignore religion."


Asimov became a staunch supporter of the Democratic Party during the New Deal , and thereafter remained a political liberal . He was a vocal opponent of the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
in the 1960s and in a television interview during the early 1970s he publicly endorsed George McGovern . He was unhappy about what he considered an "irrationalist" viewpoint taken by many radical political activists from the late 1960s and onwards. In his second volume of autobiography, _In Joy Still Felt_, Asimov recalled meeting the counterculture figure Abbie Hoffman
Abbie Hoffman
. Asimov's impression was that the 1960s\' counterculture heroes had ridden an emotional wave which, in the end, left them stranded in a "no-man's land of the spirit" from which he wondered if they would ever return.

Asimov vehemently opposed Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
, considering him "a crook and a liar". He closely followed Watergate
, and was pleased when the president was forced to resign. Asimov was dismayed over the pardon extended to Nixon by his successor : "I was not impressed by the argument that it has spared the nation an ordeal. To my way of thinking, the ordeal was necessary to make certain it would never happen again."

After Asimov's name appeared in the mid-1960s on a list of people the Communist Party USA "considered amenable" to its goals, the FBI investigated him. Because of his academic background, the bureau briefly considered Asimov as a possible candidate for known Soviet spy ROBPROF, but found nothing suspicious in his life or background.

Though from a Jewish family, Asimov appeared to hold an equivocal attitude towards Israel
. In his first autobiography, he indicates his support for the safety of Israel, though insisting that he was not a Zionist
. In his third autobiography, Asimov stated his opposition to the creation of a Jewish state, on the grounds that he was opposed to the concept of nation-states in general, and supported the notion of a single humanity. Asimov especially worried about the safety of Israel given that it has been created among hostile neighbours, and that Jews have merely created for themselves another "Jewish ghetto".


Asimov considered himself a feminist even before Women\'s Liberation became a widespread movement; he argued that the issue of women's rights was closely connected to that of population control. Furthermore, he believed that homosexuality must be considered a "moral right" on population grounds, as must all consenting adult sexual activity that does not lead to reproduction. He issued many appeals for population control , reflecting a perspective articulated by people from Thomas Malthus through Paul R. Ehrlich .

In a 1988 interview by Bill Moyers
Bill Moyers
, Asimov proposed computer-aided learning , where people would use computers to find information on subjects in which they were interested. He thought this would make learning more interesting, since people would have the freedom to choose what to learn, and would help spread knowledge around the world. Also, the one-to-one model would let students learn at their own pace.


Asimov's defense of civil applications of nuclear power even after the Three Mile Island
Three Mile Island
nuclear power plant incident damaged his relations with some of his fellow liberals. In a letter reprinted in _Yours, Isaac Asimov_, he states that although he would prefer living in "no danger whatsoever" than near a nuclear reactor, he would still prefer a home near a nuclear power plant than in a slum on Love Canal or near "a Union Carbide
Union Carbide
plant producing methyl isocyanate ", the latter being a reference to the Bhopal disaster .

In the closing years of his life, Asimov blamed the deterioration of the quality of life that he perceived in New York City
New York City
on the shrinking tax base caused by the middle-class flight to the suburbs, though he continued to support high taxes on the middle class to pay for social programs. His last nonfiction book, _ Our Angry Earth _ (1991, co-written with his long-time friend, science fiction author Frederik Pohl
Frederik Pohl
), deals with elements of the environmental crisis such as overpopulation , oil dependence , war , global warming , and the destruction of the ozone layer . In response to being presented by Bill Moyers
Bill Moyers
with the question "What do you see happening to the idea of dignity to human species if this population growth continues at its present rate?", Asimov responded:

It's going to destroy it all... if you have 20 people in the apartment and two bathrooms, no matter how much every person believes in freedom of the bathroom, there is no such thing. You have to set up, you have to set up times for each person, you have to bang at the door, aren't you through yet, and so on. And in the same way, democracy cannot survive overpopulation. Human dignity cannot survive it. Convenience and decency cannot survive it. As you put more and more people onto the world, the value of life not only declines, but it disappears.


Asimov stated, both in his autobiography and in several essays, that he enjoyed the writings of J. R. R. Tolkien . He paid tribute to _The Lord of the Rings _ in a " Black Widowers " story. (In his letter to Charlotte and Denis Plimmer, who had previously interviewed him for _Daily Telegraph Magazine_, Tolkien said that he enjoyed the science fiction of Isaac Asimov.)

He admired a number of his contemporaries, in particular fellow science-fiction author and science writer Arthur C. Clarke , with whom he entered into the lighthearted "Treaty of Park Avenue", which stipulated that Clarke was free to refer to himself as the best science fiction writer in the world (Asimov being second-best), provided he admitted that Asimov was the best science writer in the world (Clarke being second-best). He freely acknowledged a number of his fellow writers as superior to himself in talent, saying of Harlan Ellison , "He is (in my opinion) one of the best writers in the world, far more skilled at the art than I am."


Paul Krugman , holder of a Nobel Prize in Economics , has stated Asimov's concept of psychohistory inspired him to become an economist.

John Jenkins, who has reviewed the vast majority of Asimov's written output, once observed:

It has been pointed out that most science fiction writers since the 1950s have been affected by Asimov, either modeling their style on his or deliberately avoiding anything like his style.

Along with such figures as Bertrand Russell and Karl Popper
Karl Popper
, Asimov left his mark as one of the most distinguished interdisciplinarians of the 20th century. "Few individuals," writes James L Christian , "understood better than Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
what synoptic thinking is all about. His almost 500 books--which he wrote as a specialist, a knowledgeable authority, or just an excited layman--range over almost all conceivable subjects: the sciences, history, literature, religion, and of course, science fiction." Asimov explained his quest for holistic knowledge:

"I found myself doing research on a biochemical topic. In that area of study I obtained my Ph.D., and in no time at all I was teaching biochemistry at a medical school. But even that was too wide a subject. From books to nonfiction, to science, to chemistry, to biochemistry--and not yet enough. The orchard had to be narrowed down further. To do research, I had to find myself a niche within biochemistry, so I began work on nucleic acids... And at about that point, I rebelled! I could not stand the claustrophobia that clamped down upon me. I looked with horror, backward and forward across the years, at a horizon that was narrowing down and narrowing down to so petty a portion of the orchard. What I wanted was all the orchard, or as much of it as I could cover in a lifetime of running... I have never been sorry for my stubborn advance toward generalization. To be sure, I can't wander in detail through all the orchard, any more than anyone else can, no matter how stupidly determined I may be to do so. Life is far too short and the mind is far too limited. But I can float over the orchard as in a balloon."


_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (April 2011)_

* _ To Tell The Truth _, CBS
approximately 1968, playing the "real" Isaac Asimov. Only one panel member guessed correctly, on the grounds that Asimov wore glasses and somebody writing so many books would have to wear glasses. * _I Robot
_, A concept album by _ The Alan Parsons Project _ that examined some of Asimov's work * _ The Dick Cavett Show _, four appearances 1968–71 * _ The Nature of Things _ 1969 * " ABC News " coverage of Apollo 11
Apollo 11
, 1969, with Fred Pohl , interviewed by Rod Serling
Rod Serling
* " David Frost " interview program, August 1969. Frost asked Asimov if he had ever tried to find God and, after some initial evasion, Asimov answered, "God is much more intelligent than I am—let him try to find me." * BBC Horizon "It's About Time" (1979): Show hosted by Dudley Moore . * _Target... Earth?_ 1980 * NBC
TV "Speaking Freely" interviewed by Edwin Newman 1982 * ARTS Network talk show hosted by Studs Terkel
Studs Terkel
and Calvin Trillin
Calvin Trillin
, approximately 1982. * _Oltre New York_ 1986 * _Voyage to the Outer Planets and Beyond_ 1986 * _ Bill Moyers
Bill Moyers
interview_ 1988 * _Stranieri in America_ 1988


Main articles: Isaac Asimov bibliography (chronological) and Isaac Asimov bibliography (alphabetical)

Depending on the counting convention used, and including all titles, charts, and edited collections, there may be currently over 500 items in Asimov's bibliography—not counting his individual short stories, individual essays, and criticism. For his 100th, 200th, and 300th books (based on his personal count), Asimov published _ Opus 100 _ (1969), _ Opus 200 _ (1979), and _Opus 300_ (1984), celebrating his writing.

Asimov's books span all major categories of the Dewey Decimal Classification except for category 100, philosophy and psychology . Although Asimov did write several essays about psychology, and forewords for the books _The Humanist Way_ (1988) and _In Pursuit of Truth_ (1982), which were classified in the 100s category, none of his own books was classified in that category.

According to UNESCO
's _Index Translationum database_, Asimov is the world's 24th most-translated author.

An online exhibit in West Virginia University Libraries ' virtually complete Asimov Collection displays features, visuals, and descriptions of some of his over 600 books, games, audio recordings, videos, and wall charts. Many first, rare, and autographed editions are in the Libraries' Rare Book Room. Book jackets and autographs are presented online along with descriptions and images of children's books, science fiction art, multimedia, and other materials in the collection.

For a listing of Asimov's books in chronological order within his future history, see the _Foundation_ series list of books .


"Greater Foundation" Series

Main articles: Isaac Asimov\'s Robot
Series , Isaac Asimov\'s Galactic Empire Series , and Foundation series

The _Robot_ series was originally separate from the _Foundation_ series. The Galactic Empire novels were published as independent stories, set earlier in the same future as _Foundation_. Later in life, Asimov synthesized the _Robot_ series into a single coherent "history" that appeared in the extension of the _Foundation_ series.


* _ The Caves of Steel _. 1954. ISBN 0-553-29340-0 . (first Elijah Baley SF-crime novel) * _ The Naked Sun _. 1957. ISBN 0-553-29339-7 . (second Elijah Baley SF-crime novel) * _ The Robots of Dawn _. 1983. ISBN 0-553-29949-2 . (third Elijah Baley SF-crime novel) * _ Robots and Empire _. 1985. ISBN 978-0-586-06200-5 . (sequel to the Elijah Baley trilogy)


* _ The Currents of Space _. 1952. ISBN 0-553-29341-9 . (Republic of Trantor still expanding) * _ The Stars, Like Dust
The Stars, Like Dust
_. 1951. ISBN 0-553-29343-5 . (long before the Empire) * _ Pebble in the Sky _. 1950. ISBN 0-553-29342-7 . (early Galactic Empire)


* _ Prelude to Foundation _. 1988. ISBN 0-553-27839-8 . (occurs before _Foundation_) * _ Forward the Foundation _. 1993. ISBN 0-553-40488-1 . (occurs after _Prelude to Foundation_ and before _Foundation_)


* _Foundation _. 1951. ISBN 0-553-29335-4 . * _ Foundation and Empire _. 1952. ISBN 0-553-29337-0 . , Published with the title 'The Man Who Upset the Universe' as a 35c Ace paperback, D-125, in about 1952 * _ Second Foundation _. 1953. ISBN 0-553-29336-2 .


* _Foundation\'s Edge _. 1982. ISBN 0-553-29338-9 . * _ Foundation and Earth _. 1986. ISBN 0-553-58757-9 . (last of the Foundation series)

Lucky Starr Series (as Paul French)

Main article: Lucky Starr series

* _ David Starr, Space Ranger _ (1952) * _ Lucky Starr and the Pirates of the Asteroids _ (1953) * _ Lucky Starr and the Oceans of Venus _ (1954) * _ Lucky Starr and the Big Sun of Mercury _ (1956) * _ Lucky Starr and the Moons of Jupiter _ (1957) * _ Lucky Starr and the Rings of Saturn _ (1958)

Norby Chronicles (with Janet Asimov)

Main article: Norby

* _Norby, the Mixed-Up Robot
_ (1983) * _Norby's Other Secret_ (1984) * _ Norby and the Lost Princess_ (1985) * _ Norby and the Invaders_ (1985) * _ Norby and the Queen's Necklace_ (1986) * _ Norby Finds a Villain_ (1987) * _ Norby Down to Earth_ (1988) * _ Norby and Yobo's Great Adventure_ (1989) * _ Norby and the Oldest Dragon_ (1990) * _ Norby and the Court Jester_ (1991)

Novels Not Part Of A Series

Novels marked with an asterisk * have minor connections to the _Foundation_ and _Robot_ series.

* _ The End of Eternity _ (1955) * * _ Fantastic Voyage
Fantastic Voyage
_ (1966) (a novelization of the movie) * _ The Gods Themselves _ (1972) * _ Fantastic Voyage
Fantastic Voyage
II: Destination Brain _ (1987) * (not a sequel to _Fantastic Voyage,_ but a similar, independent story) * _Nemesis _ (1989) * * _Nightfall _ (1990), with Robert Silverberg
Robert Silverberg
(based on _Nightfall_, a 1941 short story written by Asimov) * _Child of Time_ (1992), with Robert Silverberg
Robert Silverberg
(based on _The Ugly Little Boy _, a 1958 short story written by Asimov) * _ The Positronic Man _ (1993) *, with Robert Silverberg
Robert Silverberg
(based on _ The Bicentennial Man _, a 1976 novella written by Asimov)

Short-story Collections

See also: Isaac Asimov short stories bibliography

* _I, Robot
_. 1950. ISBN 0-553-29438-5 . * _ The Martian Way and Other Stories _. 1955. ISBN 0-8376-0463-X . * _ Earth Is Room Enough _. 1957. ISBN 0-449-24125-4 . * _ Nine Tomorrows _. 1959. ISBN 0-449-24084-3 . * _ The Rest of the Robots _. 1964. ISBN 0-385-09041-2 . * _ Through a Glass, Clearly
Through a Glass, Clearly
_. 1967. ISBN 0-86025-124-1 . * _Asimov\'s Mysteries _. 1968. * _ Nightfall and Other Stories _. 1969. ISBN 0-449-01969-1 . * _ The Early Asimov _. 1972. ISBN 0-449-02850-X . * _ The Best of Isaac Asimov _. 1973. ISBN 0-7221-1256-4 . * _ Buy Jupiter and Other Stories _. 1975. ISBN 0-385-05077-1 . * _ The Bicentennial Man and Other Stories _. 1976. ISBN 0-575-02240-X . * _The Complete Robot
_. 1982. * _ The Winds of Change and Other Stories _. 1983. ISBN 0-385-18099-3 . * _The Edge of Tomorrow _. 1985. ISBN 0-312-93200-6 . * _ The Alternate Asimovs _. 1986. ISBN 0-385-19784-5 . * _ The Best Science Fiction of Isaac Asimov _. 1986. * _ Robot
Dreams _. 1986. ISBN 0-441-73154-6 . * _Azazel _. 1988. * _ Robot
Visions _. 1990. ISBN 0-451-45064-7 . * _Gold _. 1995. ISBN 0-553-28339-1 . * _Magic _. 1996. ISBN 0-00-224622-8 .



* _ The Death Dealers _ (1958), republished as _A Whiff of Death_ * _ Murder at the ABA _ (1976), also published as _Authorized Murder_

Short-story Collections

Black Widowers Series

Main article: Black Widowers

* _Tales of the Black Widowers _ (1974) * _More Tales of the Black Widowers _ (1976) * _Casebook of the Black Widowers _ (1980) * _Banquets of the Black Widowers _ (1984) * _Puzzles of the Black Widowers _ (1990) * _The Return of the Black Widowers _ (2003)

Other Mysteries

* _Asimov\'s Mysteries _ (1968) * _ The Key Word and Other Mysteries _ (1977) * _ The Union Club Mysteries _ (1983) * _ The Disappearing Man and Other Mysteries _ (1985) * _ The Best Mysteries of Isaac Asimov _ (1986)


Popular Science

COLLECTIONS OF ASIMOV\'S ESSAYS – originally published as monthly columns in the _Magazine of Fantasy
and Science Fiction _

* _ Fact and Fancy _ (1962) * _ View from a Height _ (1963) * _ Adding a Dimension _ (1964) * _ Of Time and Space and Other Things _ (1965) * _ From Earth to Heaven _ (1966) * _ Science, Numbers, and I _ (1968) * _ The Solar System and Back _ (1970) * _ The Stars in their Courses _ (1971) * _ The Left Hand of the Electron _ (1972) * _ The Tragedy of the Moon _ (1973) * _Asimov On Astronomy_ (updated version of essays in previous collections) (1974) ISBN 978-0-517-27924-3 * _Asimov On Chemistry_ (updated version of essays in previous collections) (1974) * _ Of Matters Great and Small _ (1975) * _Asimov On Physics_ (updated version of essays in previous collections) (1976) ISBN 978-0-385-00958-4 * _The Planet That Wasn\'t _ (1976) * _Asimov On Numbers_ (updated version of essays in previous collections) (1976) * _ Quasar, Quasar, Burning Bright _ (1977) * _ The Road to Infinity _ (1979) * _The Sun Shines Bright _ (1981) * _ Counting the Eons _ (1983) * _ X Stands for Unknown _ (1984) * _ The Subatomic Monster _ (1985) * _ Far as Human Eye Could See
Far as Human Eye Could See
_ (1987) * _ The Relativity of Wrong _ (1988) * _Beginnings: The Story of Origins_ (1989) * _Asimov On Science: A 30 Year Retrospective 1959–1989_ (features the first essay in the introduction) (1989) * _ Out of the Everywhere _ (1990) * _ The Secret of the Universe _ (1991)


* _The Chemicals of Life _ (1954) ISBN 978-0-451-62418-5 * _ Inside the Atom _ (1956) ISBN 978-0-200-71444-0 * _ Only a Trillion _ (Science Essay Collection) (1957) ISBN 978-0-441-63121-6 * _Building Blocks of the Universe _ (1957; revised 1974) ISBN 0-200-71099-0 ISBN 978-0-200-71099-2 * _The World of Carbon _ (1958) ISBN 978-0-02-091350-4 * _The World of Nitrogen _ (1958) ISBN 978-0-02-091400-6 * _Words of Science and the History
Behind Them _ (1959) ISBN 978-0-395-06571-6 * _The Clock We Live On _ (1959) ISBN 978-0-200-71100-5 * _Breakthroughs in Science _ (1959) ISBN 978-0-395-06561-7 * _Realm of Numbers _ (1959) ISBN 978-0-395-06566-2 * _Realm of Measure _ (1960) * _The Wellsprings of Life _ (1960) ISBN 978-0-451-03245-4 * _ Life and Energy _ (1962) ISBN 978-0-380-00942-8 * _The Human Body: Its Structure and Operation _ (1963) ISBN 978-0-451-02430-5 , ISBN 978-0-451-62707-0 (revised) * _The Human Brain: Its Capacities and Functions _ (1963) ISBN 978-0-451-62867-1 * _Planets for Man_ (with Stephen H. Dole ) (1964, reprinted by RAND 2007) ISBN 978-0-8330-4226-2 * _An Easy Introduction to the Slide Rule _ (1965) ISBN 9780395065754

* _The Intelligent Man\'s Guide to Science _ (1965)

* The title varied with each of the four editions, the last being _Asimov's New Guide to Science_ (1984) ISBN 978-0-14-017213-3

* _The Universe: From Flat Earth to Quasar _ (1966) ISBN 978-0-380-01596-2 * _The Neutrino _ (1966) ASIN B002JK525W * _ Understanding Physics Vol. I, Motion, Sound, and Heat _ (1966) ISBN 978-0-451-00329-4 * _ Understanding Physics Vol. II, Light, Magnetism, and Electricity _ (1966) ISBN 978-0-451-61942-6 * _ Understanding Physics Vol. III, The Electron, Proton, and Neutron _ (1966) ISBN 978-0-451-62634-9 * _Is Anyone There? _ (Science Essay Collection) (1967), ISBN 0-385-08401-3 – where he used the term Spome * _Photosynthesis _ (1968) ISBN 978-0-465-05703-0 * _Our World in Space _ (1974) ISBN 978-0-8212-0434-4 * _Science Past, Science Future_ (1975) ISBN 978-0-385-09923-3 * _Please Explain _ (Science Essay Collection) (1975) ISBN 978-0-440-96804-7 * _Asimov On Physics _ (1976) ISBN 978-0-385-00958-4 * _The Collapsing Universe _ (1977), ISBN 0-671-81738-8 * _ Extraterrestrial Civilizations _ (1979) ISBN 978-0-449-90020-8 * _ Visions of the Universe _ with co-author Kazuaki Iwasaki (1981) ISBN 978-0-939540-01-3 * _ Exploring the Earth and the Cosmos _ (1982) ISBN 978-0-517-54667-3 * _The Measure of the Universe _ (1983) * _Think About Space: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going? _ with co-author Frank White (1989) * _Asimov\'s Chronology
of Science and Discovery _ (1989), second edition adds content thru 1993, ISBN 978-0-06-270113-8 * _Asimov\'s Chronology
of the World _ (1991) ISBN 978-0-06-270036-0

* _Isaac Asimov\'s Guide to Earth and Space _ (1991) ISBN 978-0-449-22059-7 * _Atom: Journey Across the Subatomic Cosmos _ (1991) ISBN 978-1-4395-0900-5 * _Mysteries of deep space: Quasars, Pulsars and Black Holes _ (1994) ISBN 978-0-8368-1133-9 * _The Moon _ (2003), revised by Richard Hantula ISBN 978-1-59102-122-3 * _The Sun _ (2003), revised by Richard Hantula ISBN 978-1-59102-122-3 * _Jupiter _ (2004), revised by Richard Hantula ISBN 978-1-59102-123-0 * _The Earth _ (2004), revised by Richard Hantula ISBN 978-1-59102-177-3 * _Venus _ (2004), revised by Richard Hantula ISBN 978-0-8368-3877-0


* _Asimov's Annotated "Don Juan "_ * _Asimov's Annotated " Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
"_ * _Asimov's Annotated " Gilbert and Sullivan "_ * _Asimov's The Annotated "Gulliver\'s Travels "_ * _Familiar Poems, Annotated_


* _Asimov\'s Guide to the Bible _, vols I and II (1967 and 1969, one-volume ed. 1981), ISBN 0-517-34582-X * _Asimov\'s Guide to Shakespeare _, vols I and II (1970), ISBN 0-517-26825-6


Main article: Autobiographies of Isaac Asimov

* _In Memory Yet Green: The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov, 1920–1954_, (1979, Doubleday ) * _In Joy Still Felt: The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov, 1954–1978_, (1980, Doubleday )

* _I. Asimov: A Memoir_, (1994, Doubleday )

* _It\'s Been a Good Life _, (2002, Prometheus Books ), condensation of Asimov's three volume biography edited by his widow, Janet Jeppson Asimov

Other Nonfiction

* _The Kite That Won the Revolution _ (1963), ISBN 0-395-06560-7 * _ Opus 100 _ (1969), ISBN 0-395-07351-0 * _The Sensuous Dirty Old Man_ (1971) (As Dr. A), ISBN 0-451-07199-9

* _Isaac Asimov\'s Treasury of Humor _ (1971) * _The Story of Ruth_ (1972), ISBN 0-385-08594-X * _Asimov\'s Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (1st Revised Edition)_ (1972), ISBN 0-385-17771-2 * _Our Federal Union_ (1975), ISBN 0-395-20283-3 * _ Lecherous Limericks _ (1975), ISBN 0-449-22841-X * _More Lecherous Limericks_ (1976), ISBN 0-8027-7102-5 * _Still More Lecherous Limericks_ (1977), ISBN 0-8027-7106-8 * _Limericks, Two Gross_, with John Ciardi (1978), ISBN 0-393-04530-7 * _ Opus 200 _ (1979), ISBN 0-395-27625-X * _Isaac Asimov's Book of Facts_ (1979), ISBN 0-517-36111-6 * _A Grossery of Limericks_, with John Ciardi (1981), ISBN 0-393-33112-1 * _The Roving Mind_ (1983) (collection of essays). New edition published by Prometheus Books , 1997, ISBN 1-57392-181-5 * _Opus 300_ (1984), ISBN 0-395-36108-7 * _ Our Angry Earth : A Ticking Ecological Bomb_ (1991), ISBN 0-312-85252-5 . * _Asimov\'s Chronology
of the World _ (1991), ISBN 0-062-70036-7 * _Asimov Laughs Again_ (1992)



* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Asimov, Isaac. _In Memory Yet Green_. The date of my birth, as I celebrate it, was January 2, 1920. It could not have been later than that. It might, however, have been earlier. Allowing for the uncertainties of the times, of the lack of records , of the Jewish and Julian calendars , it might have been as early as October 4, 1919. There is, however, no way of finding out. My parents were always uncertain and it really doesn't matter. I celebrate January 2, 1920, so let it be. * ^ _Pronunciation note_: In the humorous poem "The Prime of Life" published in the anthology _ The Bicentennial Man and Other Stories _, Asimov rhymes his name thusly: "Why, mazel tov , it's Asimov". In his comments on the poem, Asimov wrote that originally it was "Why, stars above, it's Asimov", and when someone suggested to use "mazel tov" instead, Asimov accepted this as a significant improvement. * ^ Asimov, Stanley (1996). _Yours, Isaac Asimov_. My estimate is that Isaac received about 100,000 letters in his professional career. And with the compulsiveness that has to be a character trait of a writer of almost 500 books, he answered 90 percent of them. He answered more than half with postcards and didn't make carbons of them. But with the 100,000 letters he received, there are carbons of about 45,000 that he wrote. * ^ _A_ _B_ Seiler, Edward; Jenkins, John H. (June 27, 2008). " Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
FAQ". Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
Home Page. Retrieved July 2, 2008. * ^ Freedman, Carl (2000). "Critical Theory and Science Fiction". Doubleday: 71. * ^ " Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
Biography and List of Works". _Biblio.com_. Retrieved March 5, 2008. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1994). _I. Asimov: A Memoir_. New York: Doubleday. pp. 475–76. ISBN 0-385-41701-2 . * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1969) (in English) Opus 100 (Anthology) Houghton Mifflin Harcourt "So said, 'Use a pseudonym.' And I did. I choose Paul French and..." * ^ Asimov, Isaac (2009). _I.Asimov: A Memoir_ (ebook ed.). New York: Bantam Books. pp. 546–547. ISBN 978-0-307-57353-7 . OCLC 612306604 . Retrieved July 3, 2014. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1994). "I, Asimov: A Memoir". New York: Doubleday: 380. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1994). _I. Asimov: A Memoir_. New York: Doubleday. p. 500. ISBN 0-385-41701-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature, Mars: Asimov". Retrieved September 4, 2012. * ^ Asimov, Isaac. _In Memory Yet Green_. There are three very simple English words: 'Has,' 'him' and 'of.' Put them together like this—'has-him-of'—and say it in the ordinary fashion. Now leave out the two h's and say it again and you have Asimov. * ^ Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
FAQ, asimovonline.com * ^ "Marcia (Asimov) Repanes". _Newsday_. April 4, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2011. * ^ "Stanley Asimov, 66, Newsday Executive". _ The New York Times
The New York Times
_. August 17, 1995. Retrieved August 11, 2011. * ^ "An Interview with Isaac Asimov" by Phil Konstantin , aired by KPAC and printed by _South West Airlines Magazine_ in 1979 * ^ Robert F. Keeler, "Newsday: a candid history of the respectable tabloid", 1990, ISBN 1-55710-053-5 * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1975). _Before the Golden Age_. Orbit, volume 1, p. 4. ISBN 0 8600 7803 5 * ^ Asimov, Isaac (2002). Janet Asimov, ed. _It's Been a Good Life_. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. p. 12. ISBN 1-57392-968-9 . * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1994). _I. Asimov: A Memoir_. Bantam Books. pp. 2–3. ISBN 0-553-56997-X . * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1979). _In Memory Yet Green_. Avon Books. p. 32. ISBN 0-380-75432-0 . * ^ _In Memory Yet Green_, chapter 6. * ^ Asimov, Isaac. _I. Asimov: A Memoir_, ch. 5. Random House, 2009. ISBN 0-307-57353-2 * ^ ""An Interview with Isaac Asimov"- by Phil Konstantin". _americanindian.net_. Retrieved March 3, 2015. * ^ _Video: Asimov at 391 (1988)_. _The Open Mind_ (TV series) . 1988. Retrieved February 21, 2012. * ^ Gunn, James (1982). _Isaac Asimov: The Foundations of Science Fiction_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 12–13, 20. ISBN 0-19-503059-1 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Asimov, Isaac (1973). _ The Early Asimov Volume 1_. St. Albans , Hertfordshire, UK: Panther Books . p. 10. ISBN 0-586-03806-X . * ^ Edward Seiler and John H. Jenkin (1994–2014). "Frequently Asked Questions about Isaac Asimov". asimovonline.com. Retrieved 2014-07-27. * ^ http://hiddencityphila.org/2014/07/sci-phi-isaac-asimovs-west-philly-years/ accessdate=2014-07-28 * ^ _In Memory Yet Green_, chapter 37 * ^ _In Memory Yet Green_ pp. 467-468 * ^ _A_ _B_ Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
Interview with Don Swaim Archived September 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . (1987) * ^ Asimov, Isaac. _In Joy Still Felt_. pp. 353–55. * ^ "Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center: Asimov, Isaac (1920-1992)". Retrieved 27 Jul 2016. * ^ " Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
Asks, "How Do People Get New Ideas?"". MIT Technology Review. 20 October 2014. Retrieved 18 Feb 2015. * ^ Dean, James (27 Oct 2014). "The write stuff: Asimov\'s secret Cold War
mission". The (London) Times Newspaper. Retrieved 27 Oct 2014. * ^ " Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
FAQ". _asimovonline.com_. Retrieved March 3, 2015. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1980). _In Joy Still Felt: The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov, 1954–1978_. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-15544-1 . * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1994). _I. Asimov: A Memoir_. New York: Doubleday. pp. 129–131. ISBN 0-385-41701-2 . * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1979). _In Memory Yet Green: The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov, 1920–1954_. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13679-X . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Asimov, Isaac (1994). _I. Asimov: A Memoir_. New York: Doubleday. pp. 125–129. ISBN 0-385-41701-2 . * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1992). _Asimov Laughs Again_. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-016826-9 . * ^ See NeroWolfe.org * ^ White (2005), pp. 83 and 219–20 * ^ Asimov, Isaac. _I. Asimov, a Memoir_, New York, Doubleday, 1994, pages 376–377. * ^ Asimov, Isaac. _More Tales of the Black Widowers_, Greenwich (Connecticut), Fawcett Crest, 1976, page 223. * ^ Asimov, Isaac. _In Joy Still Felt_, Avon, 1980, pages 699–700. * ^ "Humanist Manifesto II". American Humanist Association. Archived from the original on October 20, 2012. Retrieved October 2, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Isaac Asimov". _the guardian_. Guardian News and Media Limited . 22 July 2008. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2015. * ^ "Sixteen Notable Figures in Science and Skepticism Elected CSI Fellows". Committee for Skeptical Inquiry . Retrieved 11 October 2012.

* ^ Blackmore, Susan . "Playing with fire / Firewalking with the Wessex Skeptics". New Scientist
New Scientist
. Retrieved 11 October 2012. * ^ "About CSI". Committee for Skeptical Inquiry . Retrieved 29 April 2014. * ^ "The Pantheon of Skeptics". Retrieved April 29, 2014. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1981) . _In Joy Still Felt: The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov, 1954–1978_. New York: Avon . pp. 217, 302. ISBN 0-380-53025-2 . LCCN 79003685 . OCLC
7880716 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Asimov FAQ". September 27, 2004. Retrieved January 17, 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Isaac Asimov, Whose Thoughts and Books Traveled the Universe, Is Dead at 72". _New York Times_. April 7, 1992. p. B7. Retrieved September 4, 2012. * ^ Hal Bock (1992-04-09). "Ashe says transfusion gave him AIDS: Former tennis star blames tainted blood received during 1983 bypass surgery". _The Globe and Mail_. p. E5. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (2002). _It's Been a Good Life_. New York: Prometheus Books. pp. 251–3. ISBN 978-1-57392-968-4 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Locus Online: Letter from Janet Asimov". April 4, 2002. Retrieved January 17, 2007. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1988). "Prelude to Foundation". Bantam Books: xiii–xv. * ^ Seiler, Edward; Hatcher, Richard (2014). "Is Data from Star Trek: The Next Generation an Asimovian robot?". Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
Home Page. Retrieved August 3, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database (ISFDB). Retrieved April 22, 2013. Select a title to see its linked publication history and general information. Select a particular edition (title) for more data at that level, such as a front cover image or linked contents. * ^ Spud, The Invincible. "Isaac Asimov: The Good Doctor". _Bewildering Stories article_. Retrieved May 13, 2007. * ^ Asimov, I. _Nightfall and Other Stories_ (1969) (Grafton Books 1991 edition, pp. 9–10) * ^ Bretnor, Reginald (1953). _Modern Science Fiction: Its Meaning and Its Future_. New York: Coward-McCann. pp. 157–197. * ^ Asimov, I. (1974) _The Early Asimov, Volume 3._ St Albans: Granada Publishing Ltd, p. 192. ISBN 0-586-03937-6 * ^ The Long List of Hugo Awards, 1966 at nesfa.org (retrieved 24 April 2016). * ^ "Clarkesworld Magazine - Science Fiction & Fantasy". _Clarkesworld Magazine_. * ^ Sampson, Michael (January 14, 2004). "The Bottom of Things". Archived from the original on February 12, 2007. Retrieved January 17, 2007. * ^ "Series: Isaac Asimov\'s Robot
Mysteries". ISFDB. Retrieved August 4, 2016. * ^ "Series: Second Foundation Trilogy". ISFDB. Retrieved August 4, 2016. * ^ "Publication: Psychohistorical Crisis". ISFDB. Retrieved August 4, 2016. * ^ _The Early Asimov, Volume 3_ p. 119 * ^ _The Early Asimov, Volume 3_ p. 186 * ^ _In Memory Yet Green_ p. 627 * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1973). _The Best of Isaac Asimov_. Sphere. ISBN 0-7221-1254-8 . * ^ Asimov, I. (1980) _In Joy Still Felt_ Avon, p. 693 * ^ _I. Asimov: A Memoir_ pp. 428-429 * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1995). _I. Asimov: A Memoir_. New York: Bantam. pp. 252–254. ISBN 0-553-56997-X . * ^ _I. Asimov: A Memoir_ chapter 65. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (January 1975). "Thinking About Thinking". _The Magazine of Fantasy
and Science Fiction_. New York: Mercury Press, Inc. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (November 1967). "Knock Plastic!". _The Magazine of Fantasy
and Science Fiction_. New York: Mercury Press, Inc. * ^ Asimov, I. _ In Joy Still Felt _ (Doubleday, 1980) chapter 30. * ^ " Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
FAQ, Part 3, 5.5". February 9, 2001. Retrieved January 17, 2007. * ^ According to the _Oxford English Dictionary,_ the term "robotics" was first used in the short story "Liar!" published in the May, 1941 issue of _Astounding Science Fiction_. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1996) . "The Robot
Chronicles". _Gold_. London: Voyager. pp. 224–225. ISBN 0-00-648202-3 . * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1983). "4 The Word I Invented". _Counting the Eons _. Doubleday. Robotics
has become a sufficiently well developed technology to warrant articles and books on its history and I have watched this in amazement, and in some disbelief, because I invented ..... the word * ^ "Atmosphere in Space Cabins and Closed Environments". Locusmag.com. Retrieved 2012-06-23. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (July 1988). "Psychohistory". _Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction_. Vol. 12 no. 7. Davis Publications. pp. 4–8. ISSN 0162-2188 . * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1965). _The Greeks: A Great Adventure_. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1966). _The Roman Republic_. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1967). _The Roman Empire_. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1967). _The Egyptians_. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1968). _The Near East: 10,000 Years of History_. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. * ^ _I. Asimov: A Memoir_ chapter 112 * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1991). "Puzzles of the Black Widowers". Bantam Books: xiii–xiii. * ^ _A_ _B_ Asimov, Isaac (1971). _Isaac Asimov's Treasury of Humor_. New York: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-12665-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Asimov, Isaac (1992). _Asimov Laughs Again_. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-016826-9 . * ^ _In Joy Still Felt_ p. 569 * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1979). _In Memory Yet Green: The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov, 1920-1954_. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13679-X .

* ^ Asimov, Isaac (1979). _In Joy Still Felt: The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov, 1954-1978_. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13679-X . * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1994). _I. Asimov: A Memoir_. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-41701-2 . * ^ List of 1995 Hugo Awards Archived May 7, 2011, at WebCite at the official website. (Retrieved 25 March 2016.) * ^ Asimov, Isaac (2002). _It's Been a Good Life_. New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-968-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Asimov, Isaac (1969). _Opus 100_. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. * ^ _A_ _B_ Asimov, Isaac (1979). _Opus 200_. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-27625-X . * ^ _A_ _B_ Asimov, Isaac (1984). _Opus 300_. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-36108-7 . * ^ Asimov, Janet ; Asimov, Isaac (1987). _How to Enjoy Writing: A Book of Aid and Comfort_. New York: Walker & Co. ISBN 0-8027-0945-1 . * ^ "How to Enjoy Writing: A Book of Aid and Comfort". John H. Jenkins. Retrieved August 4, 2016. * ^ "Letters of Note: Getting Star Trek
Star Trek
on the air was impossible".

* ^ Asimov, Isaac (1973). "The Week Excuse". _The Tragedy of the Moon _. Doubleday and Co. pp. 48–58. ISBN 0-440-18999-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Asimov, Isaac". _The Locus Index to SF Awards: Index of Literary Nominees_. Locus Publications . Retrieved March 24, 2013. * ^ Seiler, Edward; Hatcher, Richard (2014). "What awards did he win for his writing?". Retrieved August 4, 2016. * ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 25, 2011. * ^ "1972 Award Winners & Nominees". _Worlds Without End_. Retrieved June 30, 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "1973 Award Winners & Nominees". _Worlds Without End_. Retrieved June 30, 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ "1983 Award Winners & Nominees". _Worlds Without End_. Retrieved June 30, 2009. * ^ " Damon Knight
Damon Knight
Memorial Grand Master" Archived March 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine .. Science Fiction and Fantasy
Writers of America (SFWA). Retrieved March 24, 2013. * ^ "Science Fiction and Fantasy
Hall of Fame" Archived May 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine .. Mid American Science Fiction and Fantasy
Conventions, Inc. Retrieved March 24, 2013. This was the official website of the hall of fame to 2004. * ^ "Bill Text Versions 111th Congress (2009–2010) H.RES.1055". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved 2013-09-20. * ^ "2015 Inductees to the NYS Writers Hall of Fame Announced", New York Library Association website. (Retrieved 26 March 2016.) * ^ Gunn, James (July 1980). "On Variations on a Robot". _Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine_. pp. 56–81. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (October 1989). "Nemesis". * ^ Cowart, David; Wymer, Thomas L. (1981). _Dictionary of Literary Biography: Volume 8: Twentieth-Century American Science Fiction Writers_. Detroit: Gale Research. pp. 15–29. * ^ Gunn, James (1982). _Isaac Asimov: The Foundations of Science Fiction_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503059-1 . * ^ _Beyond the Golden Age_ pp.222–223 * ^ Jenkins, John. "Review of _The Gods Themselves_". Retrieved September 4, 2012. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1952), _The Currents of Space_, explanation of "kyrt" * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1980). _In Joy Still Felt_. p. 567. * ^ "1972 Award Winners & Nominees". _Worlds Without End_. Retrieved September 2, 2009. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1994). "I, Asimov: A Memoir". New York: Doubleday: 250. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1995). _Gold_. New York: HarperPrism. pp. 109–138. ISBN 0-06-105206-X . * ^ _A_ _B_ Isaac Asimov, "The Way of Reason", in _In Pursuit of Truth: Essays on the Philosophy
of Karl Popper
Karl Popper
on the Occasion of his 80th Birthday,,_ ed. Paul Levinson , Humanities Press, 1982, pp. ix–x. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1995). _I. Asimov: A Memoir_. New York: Bantam. pp. 11–14. ISBN 0-553-56997-X . * ^ Asimov, Isaac. _In Memory Yet Green: The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov, 1920–1954_. Doubleday, 1979. * ^ "I make no secret of the fact that I am a non-observant Jew", Asimov, Isaac. _Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine_, Volume 15, Issues 10–13. p. 8. Davis Publishing, 1991. * ^ Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
on Science and the Bible (Free Inquiry -- Spring 1982) * ^ " Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
on religion". Corvallis Secular Society. 1997. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1995). _I. Asimov: A Memoir_. New York: Bantam. p. 338. ISBN 0-553-56997-X . * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1995). _I. Asimov: A Memoir_. New York: Bantam. pp. 336–338. ISBN 0-553-56997-X . * ^ Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
(1995). _Gold: The Final Science Fiction Collection_. pp. 297–302. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1980). _In Joy Still Felt: The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov, 1954–1978_. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-15544-1 . * ^ Asimov, I. _In Joy Still Felt_ (Doubleday, 1980) chapter 39 * ^ Skelding, Conor (2013-11-07). ""Inimical to the best interests of the United States." Isaac Asimov’s FBI
File". _MuckRock_. * ^ Asimov, Isaac. _In Memory Yet Green_. * ^ Asimov, Isaac (1994). "I, Asimov: A Memoir". New York: Doubleday: 380. Chapter 130: When Israel
was founded in 1948 and all my Jewish friends were jubilant, I was the skeleton at the feast. I said, "We are building ourselves a ghetto. We will be surrounded by tens of millions of Muslims who will never forgive, never forget and never go away." … But don't Jews deserve a homeland? Actually, I feel that no human group deserves a "homeland" in the usual sense of the word.... I am not a Zionist, then, because I don't believe in nations, and Zionism merely sets up one more nation to trouble the world. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Asimov, Isaac (1996). _Yours, Isaac Asimov_, edited by Stanley Asimov. ISBN 0-385-47624-8 . * ^ "Bill Moyer\'s World of Ideas, Part I" (PDF). _transcript page 6, 10/17/1988 show_. Retrieved 31 December 2012. * ^ "Bill Moyer\'s World of Ideas, Part II" (PDF). _transcript page 3, 10/17/1988 show_. Retrieved 31 December 2012. * ^ " Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
on His Hopes for the Future
(Part Two)". _October 21, 1988 PBS broadcast_ Moyers and Company. Retrieved October 5, 2015.

* ^ Asimov, Isaac; Pohl, Frederik (1991). _Our Angry Earth_. New York: Tor. ISBN 0-312-85252-5 . * ^ Chow, Dan (December 1991). "Review: Our Angry Earth". _Locus_. Oakland: Locus Publications. * ^ editor, Bill Moyers
Bill Moyers
; Betty Sue Flowers, (1989). _A world of ideas : conversations with thoughtful men and women about American life today and the ideas shaping our future_ (PDF) (1st ed.). New York: Doubleday. p. 6. ISBN 0-385-26278-7 . * ^ Carpenter, Humphrey , ed. (1981), _The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien _, Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Houghton Mifflin
, No. 294, ISBN 0-395-31555-7 * ^ _I. Asimov: A Memoir_ p. 246 * ^ Krugman, Paul (August 30, 2010). "The Conscience of a Liberal, _Who Are You Calling Dense?_". _The New York Times_. Retrieved November 18, 2010. * ^ Jenkins, John. "Review of an Asimov biography, _The Unauthorized Life_". Retrieved September 4, 2012. * ^ Nissani, M. (1997). "Ten Cheers for Interdisciplinarity: The Case for Interdisciplinary Knowledge and Research". _Social Science Journal_. 34 (2): 201–216. doi :10.1016/s0362-3319(97)90051-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Christian, James L. (2011). _Philosophy: An Introduction to the Art of Wondering_. Cengage Learning. p. 67. * ^ Asimov, Isaac. _In Joy Still Felt_. pp. 464, 520–21, 569–70. * ^ Asimov, Isaac. _In Joy Still Felt_. pp. 502–03. * ^ Seiler, Edward; Hatcher, Richard (2014). "Just how many books did Asimov write?". Isaac Asimov
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Home Page. Retrieved August 4, 2016. * ^ Seiler, Edward; Hatcher, Richard (1995). "Asimov essays about psychology". Isaac Asimov
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Home Page. Retrieved May 13, 2013. * ^ Seiler, Edward; Hatcher, Richard (2014). "Did you know that Asimov is the only author to have published books in all ten categories of the Dewey Decimal System?". Retrieved August 4, 2016. * ^ _Index Translationum database_ * ^ WVU Libraries Asimov Collection. Retrieved September 04, 2012. * ^ Asimov, I. _Prelude to Foundation_ (Grafton, 1989) p.9 * ^ "Planets for Man". RAND. 2010-09-15. Retrieved 2012-06-23.


* Asimov, Isaac. _