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The Iron Curtain
Curtain
was the name for the boundary dividing Europe
Europe
into two separate areas from the end of World War II
World War II
in 1945 until the end of the Cold War
Cold War
in 1991. The term symbolizes the efforts by the Soviet Union to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with the West and non-Soviet-controlled areas. On the east side of the Iron Curtain
Curtain
were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the Soviet Union. Separate international economic and military alliances were developed on each side of the Iron Curtain:

Member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact, with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as the leading state Member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and with the United States
United States
as the pre-eminent power

Physically, the Iron Curtain
Curtain
took the form of border defences between the countries of Europe
Europe
in the middle of the continent. The most notable border was marked by the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
and its Checkpoint Charlie, which served as a symbol of the Curtain
Curtain
as a whole.[1] The events that demolished the Iron Curtain
Curtain
started in discontent in Poland,[2][3] and continued in Hungary, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Romania. Romania
Romania
became the only communist state in Europe
Europe
to overthrow its totalitarian government with violence.[4][5] The use of the term iron curtain as a metaphor for strict separation goes back at least as far as the early 19th century. It originally referred to fireproof curtains in theaters.[6] Although its popularity as a Cold War
Cold War
symbol is attributed to its use in a speech Winston Churchill gave in 5 March 1946 in Fulton, Missouri,[6] German Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
had already used the term in reference to the Soviet Union.[7]

Contents

1 Pre– Cold War
Cold War
usage 2 During the Cold War

2.1 Building antagonism 2.2 Iron Curtain
Curtain
speech 2.3 Political, economic and military realities

2.3.1 Eastern Bloc 2.3.2 West of the Iron Curtain 2.3.3 Further division in the late 1940s

2.4 Emigration restrictions 2.5 As a physical entity

2.5.1 Helmstedt-Marienborn crossing

3 Fall of the Iron Curtain 4 Monuments 5 Analogous terms 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Pre– Cold War
Cold War
usage[edit]

Swedish book "Behind Russia's iron curtain" from 1923

Various usages of the term "iron curtain" (Russian: Железный занавес Zheleznyj zanaves; German: Eiserner Vorhang;Georgian: რკინის ფარდა Rkinis pharda, Czech and Slovak: Železná opona; Hungarian: Vasfüggöny; Romanian: Cortina de fier, Italian: Cortina di ferro, Serbian: Гвоздена завеса Gvozdena zavesa, Estonian: Raudne eesriie, Bulgarian: Желязна завеса Zhelyazna zavesä) pre-date Churchill's use of the phrase. The concept goes back to the Babylonian Talmud
Babylonian Talmud
of the 3rd to 5th centuries CE, where Tractate Sota 38b refers to a "mechitza shel barzel", an iron barrier or divider: "אפילו מחיצה של ברזל אינה מפסקת בין ישראל לאביהם שבשמים" (Even an iron barrier cannot separate [the people of] Israel from their heavenly father). The term "iron curtain" has since been used metaphorically in two rather different senses - firstly to denote the end of an era and secondly to denote a closed geopolitical border. The source of these metaphors can refer to either the safety curtain deployed in theatres (the first one was installed by the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
in 1794[8]) or to roller shutters used to secure commercial premises.[9] The first metaphorical usage of "iron curtain", in the sense of an end of an era, perhaps should be attributed to British author Arthur Machen (1863–1947), who used the term in his 1895 novel The Three Impostors: " . . . the door clanged behind me with the noise of thunder, and I felt that an iron curtain had fallen on the brief passage of my life".[10] It is interesting to note the English translation of a Russian text shown immediately below repeats the use of "clang" with reference to an "iron curtain", suggesting that the Russian writer, publishing 23 years after Machen, may have been familiar with the popular British author. Queen Elisabeth of the Belgians
Queen Elisabeth of the Belgians
used the term "Iron Curtain" in the context of World War I to describe the political situation between Belgium
Belgium
and Germany in 1914.[11] The first recorded application of the term to Communist Russia, again in the sense of the end of an era, comes in Vasily Rozanov's 1918 polemic The Apocalypse of Our Times, and it is possible that Churchill read it there following the publication of the book's English translation in 1920. The passage runs:

With clanging, creaking, and squeaking, an iron curtain is lowering over Russian History. "The performance is over." The audience got up. "Time to put on your fur coats and go home." We looked around, but the fur coats and homes were missing.[12]

(Incidentally, this same passage provides a definition of nihilism adopted by Raoul Vaneigem,[13] Guy Debord
Guy Debord
and other Situationists as the intention of situationist intervention.) The first English-language use of the term iron curtain applied to the border of communist Russia in the sense of "an impenetrable barrier" was used in 1920 by Ethel Snowden, in her book Through Bolshevik Russia.[14][15] G.K. Chesterton
G.K. Chesterton
used the phrase in a 1924 essay in The Illustrated London News. Chesterton, while defending Distributism, refers to "that iron curtain of industrialism that has cut us off not only from our neighbours' condition, but even from our own past".[16] The term also appears in the 1933 satirical novel England, Their England; used there to describe the way an artillery barrage protected the infantry from an enemy assault: "...the western sky was a blaze of yellow flame. The iron curtain was down". Sebastian Haffner
Sebastian Haffner
used the metaphor in his book Germany: Jekyll & Hyde, published in London in 1940, in introducing his discussion of the Nazi rise to power in Germany in 1933: "Back then to March 1933. How, a moment before the iron curtain was wrung down on it, did the German political stage appear?"[17] All German theatres[when?] had to install an iron curtain (eiserner Vorhang) as an obligatory precaution to prevent the possibility of fire spreading from the stage to the rest of the theatre. Such fires were rather common because the decor often was very flammable. In case of fire, a metal wall would separate the stage from the theatre, secluding the flames to be extinguished by firefighters. Douglas Reed used this metaphor in his book Disgrace Abounding: "The bitter strife [in Yugoslavia between Serb unionists and Croat federalists] had only been hidden by the iron safety-curtain of the King's dictatorship".[18] A May 1943 article in Signal, a Nazi illustrated propaganda periodical published in many languages, bore the title "Behind the Iron Curtain". It discussed "the iron curtain that more than ever before separates the world from the Soviet Union".[7] The German Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
wrote in his weekly newspaper Das Reich that if the Nazis should lose the war a Soviet-formed "iron curtain" would arise because of agreements made by Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
at the Yalta Conference: "An iron curtain would fall over this enormous territory controlled by the Soviet Union, behind which nations would be slaughtered".[6][19] The first recorded oral intentional mention of an Iron Curtain
Curtain
in the Soviet context occurred in a broadcast by Lutz von Krosigk to the German people on 2 May 1945: "In the East the iron curtain behind which, unseen by the eyes of the world, the work of destruction goes on, is moving steadily forward".[20] Churchill's first recorded use of the term "iron curtain" came in a 12 May 1945 telegram he sent to U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
regarding his concern about Soviet actions, stating "[a]n iron curtain is drawn down upon their front. We do not know what is going on behind".[21] He was further concerned about "another immense flight of the German population westward as this enormous Muscovite advance towards the centre of Europe".[21] Churchill concluded "then the curtain will descend again to a very large extent, if not entirely. Thus a broad land of many hundreds of miles of Russian-occupied territory will isolate us from Poland".[21][22] Churchill repeated the words in a further telegram to President Truman on 4 June 1945, in which he protested against such a U.S. retreat to what was earlier designated as, and ultimately became, the U.S. occupation zone, saying the military withdrawal would bring "Soviet power into the heart of Western Europe
Europe
and the descent of an iron curtain between us and everything to the eastward".[23] At the Potsdam Conference, Churchill complained to Stalin about an "iron fence" coming down upon the British Mission in Bucharest. The first American print reference to the "Iron Curtain" occurred when C.L. Sulzberger of The New York Times first used it in a dispatch published on 23 July 1945. He had heard the term used by Vladko Maček, a Croatian politician, a Yugoslav opposition leader who had fled his homeland for Paris in May 1945. Maček told Sulzberger, "During the four years while I was interned by the Germans in Croatia I saw how the Partisans were lowering an iron curtain over Jugoslavia [Yugoslavia] so that nobody could know what went on behind it".[24] The term was first used in the British House of Commons by Churchill on 16 August 1945 when he stated "it is not impossible that tragedy on a prodigious scale is unfolding itself behind the iron curtain which at the moment divides Europe
Europe
in twain".[25] Allen Dulles
Allen Dulles
used the term in a speech on 3 December 1945, referring to only Germany, following his conclusion that "in general the Russians are acting little better than thugs", had "wiped out all the liquid assets", and refused to issue food cards to emigrating Germans, leaving them "often more dead than alive". Dulles concluded that "[a]n iron curtain has descended over the fate of these people and very likely conditions are truly terrible. The promises at Yalta to the contrary, probably 8 to 10 million people are being enslaved".[citation needed] During the Cold War[edit] Building antagonism[edit] Further information: Origins of the Cold War
Cold War
and Cold War (1947–1953)

Remains of the "iron curtain" in Devínska Nová Ves, Bratislava (Slovakia).

Preserved part of "iron curtain" in the Czech Republic.

The antagonism between the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the West that came to be described as the "iron curtain" had various origins. During the summer of 1939, after conducting negotiations both with a British-French group and with Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
regarding potential military and political agreements,[26] the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Nazi Germany signed the German–Soviet Commercial Agreement (which provided for the trade of certain German military and civilian equipment in exchange for Soviet raw materials)[27][28] and the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
(signed in late August 1939), named after the foreign secretaries of the two countries ( Vyacheslav Molotov
Vyacheslav Molotov
and Joachim von Ribbentrop), which included a secret agreement to split Poland
Poland
and Eastern Europe
Europe
between the two states.[29][30] The Soviets thereafter occupied Eastern Poland
Poland
(September 1939), Latvia
Latvia
(June 1940), Lithuania
Lithuania
(1940), northern Romania
Romania
( Bessarabia
Bessarabia
and Northern Bukovina, late June 1940), Estonia
Estonia
(1940) and eastern Finland (March 1940). From August 1939, relations between the West and the Soviets deteriorated further when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Nazi Germany engaged in an extensive economic relationship by which the Soviet Union sent Germany vital oil, rubber, manganese and other materials in exchange for German weapons, manufacturing machinery and technology.[31][32] Nazi-Soviet trade ended in June 1941 when Germany broke the Pact and invaded the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in Operation Barbarossa. In the course of World War II, Stalin determined[citation needed] to acquire a buffer area against Germany, with pro-Soviet states on its border in an Eastern bloc. Stalin's aims led to strained relations at the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
(February 1945) and the subsequent Potsdam Conference (August 1945).[33] People in the West expressed opposition to Soviet domination over the buffer states, and the fear grew that the Soviets were building an empire that might be a threat to them and their interests. Nonetheless, at the Potsdam Conference, the Allies assigned parts of Poland, Finland, Romania, Germany, and the Balkans to Soviet control or influence. In return, Stalin promised the Western Allies that he would allow those territories the right to national self-determination. Despite Soviet cooperation during the war, these concessions left many in the West uneasy. In particular, Churchill feared that the United States
United States
might return to its pre-war isolationism, leaving the exhausted European states unable to resist Soviet demands. (President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
had announced at Yalta that after the defeat of Germany, U.S. forces would withdraw from Europe
Europe
within two years.)[34] Iron Curtain
Curtain
speech[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Iron Curtain
Curtain
Speech

Winston Churchill's "Sinews of Peace" address of 5 March 1946, at Westminster College, used the term "iron curtain" in the context of Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe:

The Iron Curtain
Curtain
as described by Churchill at Westminster College. Note that Vienna is indeed behind the Curtain, as it was in the Austrian Soviet-occupied zone.

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste
Trieste
in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.[35]

Much of the Western public still regarded the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as a close ally in the context of the recent defeat of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and of Japan. Although not well received at the time, the phrase iron curtain gained popularity as a shorthand reference to the division of Europe
Europe
as the Cold War
Cold War
strengthened. The Iron Curtain
Curtain
served to keep people in and information out, and people throughout the West eventually came to accept and use the metaphor.[36] Churchill's “Sinews of Peace” address was to strongly criticise the Soviet Union's exclusive and secretive tension policies along with the Eastern Europe's state form, Police State (Polizeistaat). He expressed the Allied Nations’ distrust of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
after the World War II. In September that year, US- Soviet Union
Soviet Union
cooperation collapsed due to the US disavowal of the Soviet Union's opinion on the German problem in the Stuttgart Council, and then followed the announcement by US President, Harry S. Truman, of a hard line anti-Soviet, anticommunist policy. After that the phrase became more widely used as anti-Soviet term in the West.[37] In addition, Churchill mentioned in his speech that regions under the Soviet Union’s control were expanding their leverage and power without any restriction. He asserted that in order to put a brake on this ongoing phenomenon, the commanding force of and strong unity between the UK and the US was necessary.[38] Stalin took note of Churchill's speech and responded in Pravda
Pravda
soon afterward. He accused Churchill of warmongering, and defended Soviet "friendship" with eastern European states as a necessary safeguard against another invasion. He further accused Churchill of hoping to install right-wing governments in eastern Europe
Europe
with the goal of agitating those states against the Soviet Union.[39] Andrei Zhdanov, Stalin's chief propagandist, used the term against the West in an August 1946 speech:[40]

Hard as bourgeois politicians and writers may strive to conceal the truth of the achievements of the Soviet order and Soviet culture, hard as they may strive to erect an iron curtain to keep the truth about the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from penetrating abroad, hard as they may strive to belittle the genuine growth and scope of Soviet culture, all their efforts are foredoomed to failure.

Political, economic and military realities[edit] Eastern Bloc[edit]

A map of the Eastern Bloc.

Main article: Eastern Bloc While the Iron Curtain
Curtain
remained in place, much of Eastern Europe
Europe
and parts of Central Europe
Europe
(except West Germany, Liechtenstein, Switzerland
Switzerland
and Austria) found themselves under the hegemony of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
annexed:

Estonia,[41][42] Latvia[41][42] Lithuania[41][42]

as Soviet Socialist Republics
Soviet Socialist Republics
within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Germany effectively gave Moscow a free hand in much of these territories in the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
of 1939, signed before Germany invaded the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1941. Other Soviet-annexed territories included:

Eastern Poland
Poland
(incorporated into Ukrainian and Byelorussian SSRs),[43] Part of eastern Finland
Finland
(became part of the Karelo-Finnish SSR)[44] Northern Romania
Romania
(part of which became the Moldavian SSR).[45][46] Kaliningrad Oblast, the northern half of East Prussia, taken in 1945.

Between 1945 and 1949 the Soviets converted the following areas into Soviet satellite states:

The German Democratic Republic[47] The People's Republic
People's Republic
of Bulgaria The People's Republic
People's Republic
of Poland The Hungarian People's Republic[48] The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic[49] The People's Republic
People's Republic
of Romania The People's Socialist Republic of Albania[50] (which re-aligned itself in the 1960s away from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and towards the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China)

Soviet-installed governments ruled the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries, with the exception of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which retained its full independence. The majority of European states to the east of the Iron Curtain developed their own international economic and military alliances, such as COMECON
COMECON
and the Warsaw Pact. West of the Iron Curtain[edit]

Fence along the East/West border in Germany (near Witzenhausen-Heiligenstadt)

Sign warning of approach to within one kilometer of the inter-zonal German border, 1986

To the west of the Iron Curtain, the countries of Western Europe, Northern Europe
Europe
and Southern Europe
Europe
– along with Austria, West Germany, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
and Switzerland
Switzerland
– operated market economies. With the exception of a period of fascism in Spain (until 1975) and Portugal (until 1974) and a military dictatorship in Greece (1967–1974), democratic governments ruled these countries. Most of the states of Europe
Europe
to the west of the Iron Curtain
Curtain
– with the exception of neutral Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Sweden, Finland, Malta
Malta
and Republic of Ireland – allied themselves with the United States
United States
and Canada within NATO. Economically, the European Community and the European Free Trade Association
European Free Trade Association
represented Western counterparts to COMECON. Most of the nominally neutral states were economically closer to the United States
United States
than they were to the Warsaw Pact.[citation needed] Further division in the late 1940s[edit] Further information: Marshall Plan, Falsifiers of History, Berlin Airlift, and Czechoslovak coup d'état of 1948 In January 1947 Harry Truman
Harry Truman
appointed General George Marshall
George Marshall
as Secretary of State, scrapped Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) directive 1067 (which embodied the Morgenthau Plan) and supplanted it with JCS 1779, which decreed that an orderly and prosperous Europe
Europe
requires the economic contributions of a stable and productive Germany."[51] Administration officials met with Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov and others to press for an economically self-sufficient Germany, including a detailed accounting of the industrial plants, goods and infrastructure already removed by the Soviets.[52] After five and a half weeks of negotiations, Molotov refused the demands and the talks were adjourned.[52] Marshall was particularly discouraged after personally meeting with Stalin, who expressed little interest in a solution to German economic problems.[52] The United States concluded that a solution could not wait any longer.[52] In a 5 June 1947 speech,[53] Marshall announced a comprehensive program of American assistance to all European countries wanting to participate, including the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and those of Eastern Europe, called the Marshall Plan.[52] Stalin opposed the Marshall Plan. He had built up the Eastern Bloc protective belt of Soviet controlled nations on his Western border,[54] and wanted to maintain this buffer zone of states combined with a weakened Germany under Soviet control.[55] Fearing American political, cultural and economic penetration, Stalin eventually forbade Soviet Eastern bloc
Eastern bloc
countries of the newly formed Cominform from accepting Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
aid.[52] In Czechoslovakia, that required a Soviet-backed Czechoslovak coup d'état of 1948,[56] the brutality of which shocked Western powers more than any event so far and set in a motion a brief scare that war would occur and swept away the last vestiges of opposition to the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
in the United States Congress.[57] Relations further deteriorated when, in January 1948, the U.S. State Department also published a collection of documents titled Nazi-Soviet Relations, 1939 – 1941: Documents from the Archives of The German Foreign Office, which contained documents recovered from the Foreign Office of Nazi Germany[58][59] revealing Soviet conversations with Germany regarding the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, including its secret protocol dividing eastern Europe,[60][61] the 1939 German-Soviet Commercial Agreement,[60][62] and discussions of the Soviet Union potentially becoming the fourth Axis Power.[63] In response, one month later, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
published Falsifiers of History, a Stalin-edited and partially re-written book attacking the West.[58][64] After the Marshall Plan, the introduction of a new currency to Western Germany to replace the debased Reichsmark
Reichsmark
and massive electoral losses for communist parties, in June 1948, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
cut off surface road access to Berlin, initiating the Berlin
Berlin
Blockade, which cut off all non-Soviet food, water and other supplies for the citizens of the non-Soviet sectors of Berlin.[65] Because Berlin
Berlin
was located within the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany, the only available methods of supplying the city were three limited air corridors.[66] A massive aerial supply campaign was initiated by the United States, Britain, France and other countries, the success of which caused the Soviets to lift their blockade in May 1949. Emigration restrictions[edit] Main article: Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection

Remains of Iron Curtain
Curtain
in former Czechoslovakia

One of the conclusions of the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
was that the western Allies would return all Soviet citizens who found themselves in their zones to the Soviet Union.[67] This affected the liberated Soviet prisoners of war (branded as traitors), forced laborers, anti-Soviet collaborators with the Germans, and anti-communist refugees.[68] Migration from east to west of the Iron Curtain, except under limited circumstances, was effectively halted after 1950. Before 1950, over 15 million people (mainly ethnic Germans) emigrated from Soviet-occupied eastern European countries to the west in the five years immediately following World War II.[69] However, restrictions implemented during the Cold War
Cold War
stopped most East-West migration, with only 13.3 million migrations westward between 1950 and 1990.[70] More than 75% of those emigrating from Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries between 1950 and 1990 did so under bilateral agreements for "ethnic migration."[70] About 10% were refugees permitted to emigrate under the Geneva Convention of 1951.[70] Most Soviets allowed to leave during this time period were ethnic Jews permitted to emigrate to Israel after a series of embarrassing defections in 1970 caused the Soviets to open very limited ethnic emigrations.[71] The fall of the Iron Curtain
Curtain
was accompanied by a massive rise in European East-West migration.[70] As a physical entity[edit]

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Further information: Inner German border
Inner German border
and Czechoslovakian border fortifications during the Cold War

Preserved section of the border between East Germany
East Germany
and West Germany called the "Little Berlin
Berlin
Wall" at Mödlareuth.

The Iron Curtain
Curtain
took physical shape in the form of border defenses between the countries of western and eastern Europe. These were some of the most heavily militarised areas in the world, particularly the so-called "inner German border" – commonly known as die Grenze in German – between East and West Germany. The inner German border was marked in rural areas by double fences made of steel mesh (expanded metal) with sharp edges, while near urban areas a high concrete barrier similar to the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
was built. The installation of the Wall in 1961 brought an end to a decade during which the divided capital of divided Germany was one of the easiest places to move west across the Iron Curtain.[72] The barrier was always a short distance inside East German territory to avoid any intrusion into Western territory. The actual borderline was marked by posts and signs and was overlooked by numerous watchtowers set behind the barrier. The strip of land on the West German side of the barrier – between the actual borderline and the barrier – was readily accessible but only at considerable personal risk, because it was patrolled by both East and West German border guards.

Fence along the former East-West border in Germany

Several villages, many historic, were destroyed as they lay too close to the border, for example Erlebach. Shooting incidents were not uncommon, and a total of 28 East German border guards and several hundred civilians were killed between 1948 – 1981 (some may have been victims of "friendly fire" by their own side). Elsewhere along the border between West and East, the defense works resembled those on the intra-German border. During the Cold War, the border zone in Hungary
Hungary
started 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from the border. Citizens could only enter the area if they lived in the zone or had a passport valid for traveling out. Traffic control points and patrols enforced this regulation. Those who lived within the 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) border-zone needed special permission to enter the area within 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) of the border. The area was very difficult to approach and heavily fortified. In the 1950s and 1960s, a double barbed-wire fence was installed 50 metres (160 ft) from the border. The space between the two fences were laden with land mines. The minefield was later replaced with an electric signal fence (about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) from the border) and a barbed wire fence, along with guard towers and a sand strip to track border violations. Regular patrols sought to prevent escape attempts. They included cars and mounted units. Guards and dog patrol units watched the border 24/7 and were authorised to use their weapons to stop escapees. The wire fence nearest the actual border was irregularly displaced from the actual border, which was marked only by stones. Anyone attempting to escape would have to cross up to 400 metres (1,300 ft) before they could cross the actual border. Several escape attempts failed when the escapees were stopped after crossing the outer fence. In parts of Czechoslovakia, the border strip became hundreds of meters wide, and an area of increasing restrictions was defined as the border was approached. Only people with the appropriate government permissions were allowed to get close to the border. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
built a fence along the entire border to Norway
Norway
and Finland. It is located one or a few kilometres from the border, and has automatic alarms detecting if someone climbs over it. In Greece, a highly militarised area called the "Επιτηρούμενη Ζώνη" ("Surveillance Area") was created by the Greek Army along the Greek-Bulgarian border, subject to significant security-related regulations and restrictions. Inhabitants within this 25 km wide strip of land were forbidden to drive cars, own land bigger than 60 m2 and had to travel within the area with a special passport issued by Greek military authorities. Additionally, the Greek state used this area to encapsulate and monitor a non-Greek ethnic minority, the Pomaks, a Muslim and Bulgarian-speaking minority which was regarded as hostile to the interests of the Greek state during the Cold War
Cold War
because of its familiarity with their fellow Pomaks
Pomaks
living on the other side of the Iron Curtain.[73] The Hungarian outer fence became the first part of the Iron Curtain
Curtain
to be dismantled. After the border fortifications were dismantled, a section was rebuilt for a formal ceremony. On 27 June 1989, the foreign ministers of Austria
Austria
and Hungary, Alois Mock
Alois Mock
and Gyula Horn, ceremonially cut through the border defences separating their countries. The creation of these highly militarised no-man's lands led to de facto nature reserves and created a wildlife corridor across Europe; this helped the spread of several species to new territories. Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, several initiatives are pursuing the creation of a European Green Belt
European Green Belt
nature preserve area along the Iron Curtain's former route. In fact, a long-distance cycling route along the length of the former border called the Iron Curtain
Curtain
Trail (ICT) exists as a project of the European Union
European Union
and other associated nations. The trail is 6,800 km (4,200 mi) long and spans from Finland
Finland
to Greece.[74] The term "Iron Curtain" was only used for the fortified borders in Europe; it was not used for similar borders in Asia between communist and capitalist states (these were, for a time, dubbed the Bamboo Curtain). The border between North Korea and South Korea is very comparable to the former inner German border, particularly in its degree of militarisation, but it has never conventionally been considered part of any Iron Curtain. Helmstedt-Marienborn crossing[edit] Main article: Helmstedt-Marienborn border crossing

Fall of the Iron Curtain[edit] Further information: Eastern Bloc, Revolutions of 1989, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, and European integration

East German border-guards look through a hole in the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
in 1990

The dissolution of the Eastern Bloc.

Following a period of economic and political stagnation under Brezhnev and his immediate successors, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
decreased its intervention in Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics. Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(General Secretary from 1985) decreased adherence to the Brezhnev Doctrine,[75] which held that if socialism were threatened in any state then other socialist governments had an obligation to intervene to preserve it, in favor of the "Sinatra Doctrine". He also initiated the policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (economic restructuring). A wave of Revolutions occurred throughout the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
in 1989.[76] In April 1989 the People's Republic of Poland
People's Republic of Poland
legalised the Solidarity organisation, which captured 99% of available parliamentary seats in June.[77] These elections, in which anti-communist candidates won a striking victory, inaugurated a series of peaceful anti-communist revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe[78][79][80] that eventually culminated in the fall of communism.[81][82] On 19 August 1989, more than 600 East Germans attending the "Pan-European Picnic" on the Hungarian border broke through the Iron Curtain
Curtain
and fled into Austria. Hungarian border guards had threatened to shoot anyone crossing the border, but when the time came, they did not intervene and allowed the people to cross. In a historic session from 16 to 20 October, the Hungarian parliament adopted legislation providing for multi-party parliamentary elections and a direct presidential election.[83] The legislation transformed Hungary
Hungary
from a People's Republic
People's Republic
into the Republic of Hungary, guaranteed human and civil rights, and created an institutional structure that ensured separation of powers among the judicial, legislative, and executive branches of government. In November 1989, following mass protests in East Germany
East Germany
and the relaxing of border restrictions in Czechoslovakia, tens of thousands of East Berliners flooded checkpoints along the Berlin
Berlin
Wall, crossing into West Berlin.[83] In the People's Republic
People's Republic
of Bulgaria, the day after the mass crossings across the Berlin
Berlin
Wall, leader Todor Zhivkov
Todor Zhivkov
was ousted.[84] In the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, following protests of an estimated half-million Czechoslovaks, the government permitted travel to the west and abolished provisions guaranteeing the ruling Communist party its leading role, preceding the Velvet Revolution.[85] In the Socialist Republic of Romania, on 22 December 1989, the Romanian military sided with protesters and turned on Communist ruler Nicolae Ceauşescu, who was executed after a brief trial three days later.[86] In the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, a new package of regulations went into effect on 3 July 1990 entitling all Albanians over the age of 16 to own a passport for foreign travel. Meanwhile, hundreds of Albanian citizens gathered around foreign embassies to seek political asylum and flee the country. The Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
officially remained guarded after 9 November 1989, although the inter-German border had become effectively meaningless. The official dismantling of the Wall by the East German military did not begin until June 1990. In July 1990, the day East Germany
East Germany
adopted the West German currency, all border-controls ceased and West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl
Helmut Kohl
convinced Gorbachev to drop Soviet objections to a reunited Germany within NATO
NATO
in return for substantial German economic aid to the Soviet Union. Monuments[edit]

This caption does not clearly identify the subject. (July 2017)

Memorial in Budapest.

There is an Iron Curtain
Curtain
monument in the southern part of the Czech Republic at approximately 48°52′32″N 15°52′29″E / 48.8755°N 15.87477°E / 48.8755; 15.87477 (Iron Curtain monument). A few hundred meters of the original fence, and one of the guard towers, has remained installed. There are interpretive signs in Czech and English that explain the history and significance of the Iron Curtain. This is the only surviving part of the fence in the Czech Republic, though several guard towers and bunkers can still be seen. Some of these are part of the Communist Era defences, some are from the never-used Czechoslovak border fortifications
Czechoslovak border fortifications
in defence against Adolf Hitler, and some towers were, or have become, hunting platforms. Another monument is located in Fertőrákos, Hungary, at the site of the Pan-European Picnic. On the eastern hill of the stone quarry stands a metal sculpture by Gabriela von Habsburg. It is a column made of metal and barbed wire with the date of the Pan-European Picnic
Pan-European Picnic
and the names of participants. On the ribbon under the board is the Latin text:” In necessariis unitas – in dubiis libertas – in omnibus caritas.” (Unity in unavoidable matters – freedom in doubtful matters – love in all things.) The memorial symbolises the iron curtain and recalls forever the memories of the border breakthrough in 1989. Another monument is located in the village of Devín, now part of Bratislava, Slovakia, at the confluence of the Danube
Danube
and Morava rivers. There are several open air museums in parts of the former inner German border, as for example in Berlin
Berlin
and in Mödlareuth, a village that has been divided for several hundred years. The memory of the division is being kept alive in many other places along the Grenze. Analogous terms[edit] Throughout the Cold War
Cold War
the term "curtain" would become a common euphemism for boundaries – physical or ideological – between communist and capitalist states.

An analogue of the Iron Curtain, the Bamboo Curtain, surrounded the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China. As the standoff between the West and the countries of the Iron and Bamboo curtains eased with the end of the Cold War, the term fell out of any but historical usage. The short distance, 3.8 km (2.4 mi), between the Soviet Union (Big Diomede) and the U.S. (Little Diomede Island, state of Alaska) in the Bering Sea
Bering Sea
became known as the "Ice Curtain" during the Cold War. A field of cacti surrounding the U.S. Naval station at Guantanamo Bay planted by Cuba
Cuba
was occasionally termed the " Cactus
Cactus
Curtain".[87][88] The phrase "Grass Curtain" was used by South Sudanese during the First Sudanese Civil War to describe the oppression that hid political violence in Southern Sudan from wider attention.[89]

See also[edit]

Cold War
Cold War
portal

Berlin
Berlin
Wall Cold War Danube
Danube
River Conference of 1948 Eastern Bloc Removal of Hungary's border fence Revolutions of 1989 Telephone tapping in the Eastern Bloc Western betrayal Bamboo Curtain

Post Cold War:

European Green Belt, a body of conservationists preserving the former Iron Curtain
Curtain
security zone which has become a wildlife preserve Iron Curtain
Curtain
Trail, a long-distance cycling route within the European Green Belt

Geography:

Blue Banana
Blue Banana
at the west of the curtain

Notes[edit]

^ "Archive: Freedom! The Berlin
Berlin
Wall". Time. 20 November 1989. Retrieved 5 May 2010.  ^ Sorin Antohi and Vladimir Tismăneanu, "Independence Reborn and the Demons of the Velvet Revolution" in Between Past and Future: The Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989
and Their Aftermath, Central European University Press. ISBN 963-9116-71-8. p.85. ^ Boyes, Roger (4 June 2009). "World Agenda: 20 years later, Poland can lead eastern Europe
Europe
once again". The Times. Retrieved 4 June 2009.  ^ http://www.umk.ro/images/documente/publicatii/Buletin20/the_end.pdf ^ Piotr Sztompka, preface to Society in Action: the Theory of Social Becoming, University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-78815-6. p. x. ^ a b c Feuerlicht, Ignace (October 1955), "A New Look at the Iron Curtain", American Speech, 30 (3): 186–189, doi:10.2307/453937, JSTOR 453937  ^ a b "Hinter dem eisernen Vorhang", Signal (in German) (9), p. 2, May 1943  ^ "Eighteenth-century theatre - History of theatres - Exploring Theatres - Resources". The Theatres Trust. Retrieved 16 September 2015.  ^ Proust, Marcel (1929), The Captive, translated by Scott Moncrieff, C.K.  ^ Machen, Arthur (2005), The Three Impostors, Los Angeles(?): Aegypan Press, p. 60, ISBN 1-59818-437-7  ^ Queen Elisabeth of the Belgians
Queen Elisabeth of the Belgians
to Pierre Loti in 1915 (Loti, Pierre (1923), L'Album de la Guerre (L'Illustration ed.), Paris, p. 33 ). ^ Rozanov, Vasily (1918), The Apocalypse of our Times ("Апокалипсис нашего времени"), 103, p. 212  ^ Vaneigem, Raoul (1967), The Revolution of Everyday Life ("Traité de savoir-vivre à l’usage des jeunes générations"), 176: Red and Black, p. 279  ^ Cohen, J. M. and M. J. (1996), New Penguin Dictionary of Quotations, Penguin Books, p. 726, ISBN 0-14-051244-6  ^ Snowden, Philip (Ethel) (1920), Through Bolshevik Russia, London: Cassell, p. 32  ^ Chesterton, G.K. (1990), The Collected Works of G.K. Chesterton: The Illustrated London News 1923 – 1925, Ignatius Press, p. 452, ISBN 0-89870-274-7  ^ Haffner, Sebastian (2008), Germany: Jekyll & Hyde: A contemporary account of Nazi Germany, London: Abacus, p. 177, ISBN 978-0-349-11889-5  ^ Reed, Douglas (1939), Disgrace Abounding, Jonathan Cape, p. 129  ^ Goebbels, Joseph (25 February 1945), "Das Jahr 2000", Das Reich (in German), pp. 1–2  ^ "Krosigk's Cry of Woe", The Times, p. 4, 3 May 1945  ^ a b c Churchill, Winston S. (1962), "Chapter 15", The Second World War, Triumph and Tragedy, Book 2, Bantam, pp. 489, 514  ^ US Dept of State (1945), Foreign Relations of the US, The Conference of Berlin
Berlin
(Potsdam), 1, p. 9  ^ Churchill 1962, p. 92. ^ Weintraub, Stanley (1995), The Last Great Victory, New York: Truman Talley Books, p. 184  ^ Hansard, House of Commons (16 August 1945), column 84, 413  ^ Shirer 1990, pp. 515–40 ^ Shirer 1990, p. 668 ^ Ericson 1999, p. 57 ^ Day, Alan J.; East, Roger; Thomas, Richard. A Political and Economic Dictionary of Eastern Europe, p. 405. ^ "Stalin offered troops to stop Hitler". London: NDTV. Press Trust of India. 19 October 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2009.  ^ Ericson, Edward E. (1999), Feeding the German Eagle: Soviet Economic Aid to Nazi Germany, 1933 – 1941, Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. 1–210, ISBN 0-275-96337-3  ^ Shirer, William L. (1990), The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany, Simon and Schuster, pp. 598–610, ISBN 0-671-72868-7  ^ Alperovitz, Gar (1985) [1965], Atomic Diplomacy: Hiroshima and Potsdam: The Use of the Atomic Bomb and the American Confrontation with Soviet Power, Penguin, ISBN 978-0-14-008337-8  ^ Antony Beevor
Antony Beevor
Berlin: The building of the Berlin
Berlin
Wall, p. 80 ^ Churchill, Winston (5 March 1946). "The Sinews of Peace ('Iron Curtain
Curtain
Speech')". Winstonchurchill.org. International Churchill Society. Retrieved 2 December 2017.  ^ Authors such as Lewkowicz have underlined the importance played by the treatment of the German Question
German Question
in the division of the continent into two ideological camps. See: The German Question
German Question
and the Origins of the Cold War ^ "철의 장막 : 지식백과" (in Korean). Terms.naver.com. Retrieved 2015-09-16.  ^ "철의 장막 : 지식백과" (in Korean). Terms.naver.com. Retrieved 2015-09-16.  ^ Stalin. "Interview to "Pravda" Correspondent Concerning Mr. Winston Churchill's Speech". Marxists.org. Retrieved 2015-09-16.  ^ http://www.revolutionarydemocracy.org/archive/zhdanovlit.htm ^ a b c Wettig 2008, p. 21 ^ a b c Senn, Alfred Erich, Lithuania
Lithuania
1940 : revolution from above, Amsterdam, New York, Rodopi, 2007 ISBN 978-90-420-2225-6 ^ Roberts 2006, p. 43 ^ Kennedy-Pipe, Caroline, Stalin's Cold War, New York : Manchester University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-7190-4201-1 ^ Roberts 2006, p. 55 ^ Shirer 1990, p. 794 ^ Wettig 2008, pp. 96–100 ^ Granville, Johanna, The First Domino: International Decision Making during the Hungarian Crisis of 1956, Texas A&M University Press, 2004. ISBN 1-58544-298-4 ^ Grenville 2005, pp. 370–71 ^ Cook 2001, p. 17 ^ Beschloss 2003, p. 277 ^ a b c d e f Miller 2000, p. 16 ^ Marshall, George C, The Marshal Plan Speech, 5 June 1947 ^ Miller 2000, p. 10 ^ Miller 2000, p. 11 ^ Airbridge to Berlin, "Eye of the Storm" chapter ^ Miller 2000, p. 19 ^ a b Henig 2005, p. 67 ^ Department of State 1948, p. preface ^ a b Roberts 2002, p. 97 ^ Department of State 1948, p. 78 ^ Department of State 1948, pp. 32–77 ^ Churchill 1953, pp. 512–524 ^ Roberts 2002, p. 96 ^ Miller 2000, pp. 25–31 ^ Miller 2000, pp. 6–7 ^ Hornberger, Jacob (1995). "Repatriation – The Dark Side of World War II". The Future of Freedom Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012.  ^ Nikolai Tolstoy
Nikolai Tolstoy
(1977). The Secret Betrayal. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 360. ISBN 0-684-15635-0.  ^ Böcker 1998, p. 207 ^ a b c d Böcker 1998, p. 209 ^ Krasnov 1985, pp. 1&126 ^ Keeling, Drew (2014), business-of-migration.com " Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
and Migration," Migration as a travel business ^ Lois Labrianidis, The impact of the Greek military surveillance zone on the Greek side of the Bulgarian-Greek borderlands, 1999 ^ "The Iron Curtain
Curtain
Trail". Ironcurtaintrail.eu. Retrieved 2013-11-16.  ^ Crampton 1997, p. 338 ^ E. Szafarz, "The Legal Framework for Political Cooperation in Europe" in The Changing Political Structure of Europe: Aspects of International Law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 0-7923-1379-8. p.221. ^ Crampton 1997, p. 392 ^ Cavanaugh-O'Keefe, John (January 2001), Emmanuel, Solidarity: God's Act, Our Response (ebook), Xlibris Corporation, p. 68, ISBN 0-7388-3864-0, retrieved 6 July 2006 [dead link] ^ Steger, Manfred B (January 2004), Judging Nonviolence: The Dispute Between Realists and Idealists (ebook), Routledge (UK), p. 114, ISBN 0-415-93397-8, retrieved 6 July 2006  ^ Kenney, Padraic (2002), A Carnival of Revolution: Central Europe 1989, Princeton University Press, p. 15, ISBN 978-0-691-11627-3, ISBN 0-691-11627-X, retrieved 17 January 2007  ^ Padraic Kenney, Rebuilding Poland: Workers and Communists, 1945 – 1950, Cornell University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-8014-3287-1, Google Print, p.4 ^ Padraic Kenney (2002), A Carnival of Revolution: Central Europe 1989, Princeton University Press, pp. p.2, ISBN 0-691-05028-7  ^ a b Crampton 1997, pp. 394–5 ^ Crampton 1997, pp. 395–6 ^ Crampton 1997, p. 398 ^ Crampton 1997, p. 400 ^ M. E. Murphy; Rear Admiral; U. S. Navy. "The History of Guantanamo Bay 1494 – 1964: Chapter 18, "Introduction of Part II, 1953 – 1964"". Retrieved 27 March 2008.  ^ "The Hemisphere: Yankees Besieged". Time. 16 March 1962. Retrieved 5 May 2010.  ^ Wöndu, Steven; Lesch, Ann Mosely (2000). Battle for Peace in Sudan: An Analysis of the Abuja Conferences, 1992-1993. Washington, DC: University Press of America (Rowman & Littlefield). p. vii. ISBN 0761815163. 

References[edit]

Beschloss, Michael R (2003), The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1941 – 1945, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-7432-6085-6  Böcker, Anita (1998), Regulation of Migration: International Experiences, Het Spinhuis, ISBN 90-5589-095-2  Churchill, Winston (1953), The Second World War, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, ISBN 0-395-41056-8  Cook, Bernard A. (2001), Europe
Europe
Since 1945: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-8153-4057-5  Crampton, R. J. (1997), Eastern Europe
Europe
in the twentieth century and after, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-16422-2  Ericson, Edward E. (1999), Feeding the German Eagle: Soviet Economic Aid to Nazi Germany, 1933 – 1941, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-96337-3  Grenville, John Ashley Soames (2005), A History of the World from the 20th to the 21st Century, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-28954-8  Grenville, John Ashley Soames; Wasserstein, Bernard (2001), The Major International Treaties of the Twentieth Century: A History and Guide with Texts, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-23798-X  Henig, Ruth Beatrice (2005), The Origins of the Second World War, 1933 – 41, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-33262-1  Krasnov, Vladislav (1985), Soviet Defectors: The KGB
KGB
Wanted List, Hoover Press, ISBN 0-8179-8231-0  Lewkowicz, N., (2008) The German Question
German Question
and the Origins of the Cold War (IPOC:Milan) ISBN 88-95145-27-5 Miller, Roger Gene (2000), To Save a City: The Berlin
Berlin
Airlift, 1948 – 1949, Texas A&M University Press, ISBN 0-89096-967-1  Roberts, Geoffrey (2006), Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939 – 1953, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-11204-1  Roberts, Geoffrey (2002), Stalin, the Pact with Nazi Germany, and the Origins of Postwar Soviet Diplomatic Historiography, 4 (4)  Shirer, William L. (1990), The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-671-72868-7  Soviet Information Bureau (1948), Falsifiers of History
Falsifiers of History
(Historical Survey), Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 272848  Department of State (1948), Nazi-Soviet Relations, 1939 – 1941: Documents from the Archives of The German Foreign Office, Department of State  Watry, David M. Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill, and Eden in the Cold War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2014. Wettig, Gerhard (2008), Stalin and the Cold War
Cold War
in Europe, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-5542-9 

External links[edit]

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Freedom Without Walls: German Missions in the United States
United States
Looking Back at the Fall of the Berlin
Berlin
Wall – official homepage in English Information about the Iron Curtain
Curtain
with a detailed map and how to make it by bike "Peep under the Iron Curtain", a cartoon first published on 6 March 1946 in Daily Mail Field research along the northern sections of the former German-German border, with detailed maps, diagrams, and photos. The Lost Border: Photographs of the Iron Curtain S-175 "Gardina(The Curtain)" Main type of electronic security barrier on the Soviet borders or (in Russian). Remnants of the Iron Curtain
Curtain
along the Greek-Bulgarian border, the Iron Curtain's Southernmost part Iron Curtain Iron Curtain
Curtain
Information Historic film footage of Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech (from "Sinews of Peace" address) at Westminster College, 1946 DIE NARBE DEUTSCHLAND is a 16-hour-long experimental single shot documentary showing the former Iron Curtain
Curtain
running through Germany in its entirety from above, 2008-2014

v t e

Secret police
Secret police
agencies in the Eastern Bloc

Gulag Iron Curtain Telephone tapping in the Eastern Bloc Berlin
Berlin
Wall Inner German border

Soviet Union

Extraordinary Commission (Cheka) State Political Directorate
State Political Directorate
(GPU) Joint State Political Directorate
State Political Directorate
(OGPU) People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) Main Directorate of State Security
Main Directorate of State Security
(GUGB) People's Commissariat for State Security
People's Commissariat for State Security
(NKGB) Ministry of State Security (MGB) Committee for State Security (KGB)

People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Directorate of State Security (Sigurimi)

People's Republic
People's Republic
of Bulgaria

Committee for State Security (DS)

Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

State Security (StB)

German Democratic Republic

Ministry for State Security (Stasi)

Hungarian People's Republic

State Protection Authority
State Protection Authority
(ÁVH)

Polish People's Republic

Ministry of Public Security (MBP) Security Service (SB)

Socialist Republic of Romania

Department of State Security (Securitate)

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Department of National Security (OZNA) Department of State Security (UDBA) Counterintelligence Service (KOS)

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

State Intelligence Agency (KHAD)

v t e

Eastern Bloc

Soviet Union Communism

Formation

Secret Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact protocol Soviet invasion of Poland Soviet occupations

Bessarabia
Bessarabia
and Northern Bukovina Baltic states Hungary Romania

Yalta Conference

Annexed as, or into, SSRs

Eastern Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Memel East Prussia West Belarus Western Ukraine Moldavia

Satellite states

Hungarian People's Republic Polish People's Republic Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Socialist Republic of Romania German Democratic Republic People's Republic
People's Republic
of Albania (to 1961) People's Republic
People's Republic
of Bulgaria Federal People's Republic
People's Republic
of Yugoslavia (to 1948)

Annexing SSRs

Russian SFSR Ukrainian SSR Byelorussian SSR

Organizations

Cominform COMECON Warsaw Pact World Federation of Trade Unions
World Federation of Trade Unions
(WFTU) World Federation of Democratic Youth
World Federation of Democratic Youth
(WFDY)

Revolts and opposition

Welles Declaration Goryani
Goryani
Movement Forest Brothers Ukrainian Insurgent Army Operation Jungle Baltic state continuity Baltic Legations (1940–1991) Cursed soldiers Rebellion of Cazin 1950 1953 uprising in Plzeň 1953 East German uprising 1956 Georgian demonstrations 1956 Poznań protests 1956 Hungarian Revolution Novocherkassk massacre 1965 Yerevan demonstrations Prague Spring
Prague Spring
/ Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia Brezhnev Doctrine 1968 Red Square demonstration 1968 student demonstrations in Belgrade 1968 protests in Kosovo 1970 Polish protests Croatian Spring 1972 unrest in Lithuania
Lithuania
SSR June 1976 protests Solidarity / Soviet reaction / Martial law 1981 protests in Kosovo Reagan Doctrine Jeltoqsan Karabakh movement April 9 tragedy Romanian Revolution Black January

Cold War
Cold War
events

Marshall Plan Berlin
Berlin
Blockade Tito–Stalin split 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état 1961 Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
crisis

Conditions

Emigration and defection (list of defectors) Sovietization of the Baltic states Information dissemination Politics Economies Telephone tapping

Decline

Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin
Berlin
Wall Romanian Revolution Fall of communism
Fall of communism
in Albania Singing Revolution Collapse of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia January 1991 events in Lithuania January 1991 events in Latvia

Post- Cold War
Cold War
topics

Baltic Assembly Collective Security Treaty Organization Commonwealth of Independent States Craiova Group European Union European migrant crisis Eurasian Economic Union NATO Post-Soviet states Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Visegrad Group

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin
Berlin
Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin
Berlin
Crisis of 1961 Berlin
Berlin
Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin
Berlin
Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism
Fall of communism
in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Winston Churchill

Life

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
as historian Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
as painter Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
as writer Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
in politics, 1900–1939

Timeline War Rooms conferences Percentages agreement Quebec Agreement

Statement on Atrocities

European Advisory Commission

Honours of Winston Churchill Later life of Winston Churchill

funeral gravesite

The Other Club Blenheim Palace Chartwell

Writings

The Story of the Malakand Field Force
The Story of the Malakand Field Force
(1898) Savrola
Savrola
(1899 novel) The River War
The River War
(1899) London to Ladysmith via Pretoria
London to Ladysmith via Pretoria
(1900) Ian Hamilton's March
Ian Hamilton's March
(1900) Lord Randolph Churchill
Lord Randolph Churchill
(1906) The World Crisis
The World Crisis
(1923–1931, five volumes) My Early Life
My Early Life
(1930) Marlborough: His Life and Times (1933–1938, four volumes) Great Contemporaries
Great Contemporaries
(1937) Arms and the Covenant
Arms and the Covenant
(1938) The Second World War (1948–1963, six volumes) A History of the English-Speaking Peoples
A History of the English-Speaking Peoples
(1956–1958, four volumes)

Speeches

"Blood, toil, tears, and sweat" "Be ye men of valour" "We shall fight on the beaches" "This was their finest hour" "Never was so much owed by so many to so few" "Iron Curtain"

Legacy and depictions

Palace of Westminster statue Parliament Square statue Washington, DC, statue Epstein bust Memorial Trusts Churchill College, Cambridge Churchill Archives Centre The Churchill Centre US Churchill Museum Cultural depictions Churchillian Drift

Related

Norway
Norway
Debate Terminological inexactitude Siege of Sidney Street Tonypandy riots May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis Sword of Stalingrad Operation Unthinkable

Family

Lord Randolph Churchill
Lord Randolph Churchill
(father) Jennie Jerome, Lady Randolph Churchill
Lady Randolph Churchill
(mother) Jack Churchill (brother) Clementine Churchill, Baroness Spencer-Churchill (wife) Diana Churchill
Diana Churchill
(daughter) Randolph Churchill
Randolph Churchill
(son) Sarah Churchill (daughter) Marigold Churchill
Marigold Churchill
(daughter) Mary Soames, Baroness Soames (daughter) Descendants John Spencer-Churchill (grandfather) Frances Anne Spencer-Churchill (grandmother) Leonard Jerome
Leonard Jerome
(grandfather) Clarissa Eden
Clarissa Eden
(niece)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 112144647639641197467 GND: 4249777-2 BNF: cb1664

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