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Iron
Iron
Age metallurgy Ancient iron production

↓ Ancient history

Mediterranean, Greater Persia, South Asia, China

Historiography

Greek, Roman, Chinese, Medieval

The Iron
Iron
Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age
Stone Age
(Neolithic) and the Bronze
Bronze
Age. It is an archaeological era in the prehistory and protohistory of Europe
Europe
and the Ancient Near East, and by analogy also used of other parts of the Old World. The three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe
Europe
in particular, and by the later 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East.[1] As its name suggests, Iron
Iron
Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy (ironworking), more specifically from carbon steel. The duration of the Iron
Iron
Age varies depending on the region under consideration. It is defined by archaeological convention, and the mere presence of cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron
Iron
Age culture; rather, the term " Iron
Iron
Age" implies that the production of carbon steel has been perfected to the point where mass production of tools and weapons superior to their bronze equivalents become possible. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse, in the 12th century BC. The technology soon spreads throughout the Mediterranean region and to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern and Central Europe
Europe
is somewhat delayed, and Northern Europe
Europe
is reached still later, by about 500 BC. The Iron
Iron
Age is taken to end, also by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This usually does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record; for the Ancient Near East the establishment of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
c. 550 BC (considered historical by virtue of the record by Herodotus) is usually taken as a cut-off date, in Central and Western Europe
Europe
the Roman conquests of the 1st century BC. The Germanic Iron Age
Germanic Iron Age
of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning Viking Age. The extension of the term " Iron
Iron
Age" to the archaeology of South, East and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
is more recent,[year needed] and may be used loosely.[by whom?] In South Asia, the Iron
Iron
Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware
Painted Gray Ware
culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka
Ashoka
(3rd century BC). In the prehistory of East and Southeast Asia, the term " Iron
Iron
Age" is not well-defined and may be used more loosely.[citation needed][clarification needed] The Sahel
Sahel
(Sudan region) and Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze
Bronze
Age, but the term " Iron
Iron
Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria.

Contents

1 Chronology 2 Early ferrous metallurgy 3 Ancient Near East

3.1 Western Asia 3.2 Egypt

4 Europe 5 Asia

5.1 Central Asia 5.2 East Asia 5.3 South Asia 5.4 Southeast Asia

6 Sub-Saharan Africa 7 Image gallery 8 See also 9 Further reading 10 References 11 External links

Chronology[edit]

Rough Three-age system
Three-age system
timeline for the Ancient Near East; consult particular article for details

Increasingly the Iron
Iron
Age in Europe
Europe
is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India (with the post-Rigvedic Vedic civilization), ancient Iran, and ancient Greece (with the Greek Dark Ages). In other regions of Europe
Europe
the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe
Europe
and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe. The Near Eastern Iron
Iron
Age is divided into two subsections, Iron
Iron
I and Iron
Iron
II. Iron
Iron
I (1200–1000 BC) illustrates both continuity and discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze
Bronze
Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country, Transjordan and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean
Aramaean
and Sea People
Sea People
groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age
Bronze Age
culture, although as one moves later into Iron
Iron
I the culture begins to diverge more significantly from that of the late 2nd millennium. The Iron
Iron
Age as an archaeological period is roughly defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not strictly tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention. The characteristic of an Iron
Iron
Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel, typically alloys with a carbon content between approximately 0.30% and 1.2% by weight.[citation needed] Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron
Iron
Age in the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
is taken to last from c. 1200 BC (the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse) to c. 550 BC (or 539 BC), taken as the beginning of historiography (Herodotus) or the end of the proto-historical period. In Central and Western Europe, the Iron
Iron
Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe
Europe
from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age
Bronze Age
China transitions almost directly into the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
of imperial China; " Iron
Iron
Age" in the context of China is sometimes used for the transitonal period of c. 500 BC to 100 BC during which ferrous metallurgy was present even if not dominant. The following gives an overview over the different conventions delimiting the " Iron
Iron
Age" for various regions of the Old World, with indication of the subsequent historical epoch.

Early ferrous metallurgy[edit] Main articles: Ferrous_metallurgy § Iron_smelting_and_the_Iron_Age, and Ancient iron production The earliest-known iron artifacts are nine small beads dated to 3200 BC, which were found in burials at Gerzeh, Lower Egypt. They have been identified as meteoric iron shaped by careful hammering.[2] Meteoric iron, a characteristic iron–nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Iron
Iron
Age. Such iron, being in its native metallic state, required no smelting of ores.[3][4] Smelted iron appears sporadically in the archeological record from the middle Bronze
Bronze
Age. Whilst terrestrial iron is naturally abundant, its high melting point of 1,538 °C (2,800 °F) placed it out of reach of common use until the end of the second millennium BC. Tin's low melting point of 231.9 °C (449.4 °F) and copper's relatively moderate melting point of 1,085 °C (1,985 °F) placed them within the capabilities of the Neolithic
Neolithic
pottery kilns, which date back to 6000 BC and were able to produce temperatures greater than 900 °C (1,650 °F).[5] In addition to specially designed furnaces, ancient iron production needed to develop complex procedures for the removal of impurities, for regulating the admixture of carbon in combination with hot-working to achieve a useful balance of hardness and strength (steel) and for adding alloys to prevent rust; see Ferrous metallurgy. The earliest tentative evidence for iron-making is a small number of iron fragments with the appropriate amounts of carbon admixture found in the Proto-Hittite layers at Kaman-Kalehöyük and dated to 2200–2000 BC. Akanuma (2008) concludes that "The combination of carbon dating, archaeological context, and archaeometallurgical examination indicates that it is likely that the use of ironware made of steel had already begun in the third millennium BC in Central Anatolia".[6] Souckova-Siegolová (2001) shows that iron implements were made in Central Anatolia
Anatolia
in very limited quantities around 1800 BC and were in general use by elites, though not by commoners, during the New Hittite Empire (∼1400–1200 BC).[7] Similarly, recent archaeological remains of iron working in the Ganges Valley in India have been tentatively dated to 1800 BC. Tewari (2003) concludes that "knowledge of iron smelting and manufacturing of iron artifacts was well known in the Eastern Vindhyas and iron had been in use in the Central Ganga Plain, at least from the early second millennium BC".[8] By the Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
increasing numbers of smelted iron objects (distinguishable from meteoric iron by the lack of nickel in the product) appeared in the Middle East, Southeast Asia and South Asia. African sites are turning up dates as early as 1200 BC.[9][10][11] Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of large-scale iron production in around 1200 BC, marking the end of the Bronze Age. Between 1200 BC and 1000 BC diffusion in the understanding of iron metallurgy and use of iron objects was fast and far-flung. Anthony Snodgrass[12][13] suggests that a shortage of tin, as a part of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Collapse and trade disruptions in the Mediterranean around 1300 BC, forced metalworkers to seek an alternative to bronze. As evidence, many bronze implements were recycled into weapons during that time. More widespread use of iron led to improved steel-making technology at lower cost. Thus, even when tin became available again, iron was cheaper, stronger and lighter, and forged iron implements superseded cast bronze tools permanently.[14]

Maiden Castle in England. More than 2,000 Iron
Iron
Age hillforts are known in Britain.

Ancient Near East[edit] The Iron
Iron
Age in the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
is believed to have begun with the discovery of iron smelting and smithing techniques in Anatolia
Anatolia
or the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Balkans
Balkans
in the late 2nd millennium BC
2nd millennium BC
(c. 1300 BC).[15] The earliest bloomery smelting of iron is found at Tell Hammeh, Jordan around 930 BC (14C dating). Western Asia[edit] In the Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
states of Sumer, Akkad and Assyria, the initial use of iron reaches far back, to perhaps 3000 BC.[16] One of the earliest smelted iron artifacts known was a dagger with an iron blade found in a Hattic tomb in Anatolia, dating from 2500 BC.[17] The widespread use of iron weapons which replaced bronze weapons rapidly disseminated throughout the Near East
Near East
(North Africa, southwest Asia) by the beginning of the 1st millennium BC. The development of iron smelting was once attributed to the Hittites of Anatolia
Anatolia
during the Late Bronze
Bronze
Age. As part of the Late Bronze Age-Early Iron
Iron
Age, the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse saw the slow, comparatively continuous spread of iron-working technology in the region. It was long held that the success of the Hittite Empire during the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
had been based on the advantages entailed by the "monopoly" on ironworking at the time.[18] Accordingly, the invading Sea Peoples
Sea Peoples
would have been responsible for spreading the knowledge through that region. The view of such a "Hittite monopoly" has come under scrutiny and no longer represents a scholarly consensus.[18] While there are some iron objects from Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Anatolia, the number is comparable to iron objects found in Egypt
Egypt
and other places of the same time period; and only a small number of these objects are weapons.[19]

Finds of Iron

Early examples and distribution of non-precious metal finds.[20]

Date Crete Aegean Greece Cyprus Total Anatolia Grand total

1300–1200 BC 5 2 9 0 16 33 49

1200–1100 BC 1 2 8 26 37 N.A. 37

1100–1000 BC 13 3 31 33 80 N.A. 80

1000–900 BC 37+ 30 115 29 211 N.A. 211

Total Bronze
Bronze
Age 5 2 9 0 16 33 49

Total Iron
Iron
Age 51 35 163 88 328 N.A. 328

 

 

Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details          Prehistoric (or Proto-historic) Iron
Iron
Age      Historic Iron
Iron
Age

Egypt[edit] Main article: Third Intermediate Period
Third Intermediate Period
of Egypt The Iron
Iron
Age in Egyptian archaeology essentially corresponds to the Third Intermediate Period
Third Intermediate Period
of Egypt. Iron
Iron
metal is singularly scarce in collections of Egyptian antiquities. Bronze
Bronze
remained the primary material there until the conquest by Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
in 671 BC. The explanation of this would seem to lie in the fact that the relics are in most cases the paraphernalia of tombs, the funeral vessels and vases, and iron being considered an impure metal by the ancient Egyptians it was never used in their manufacture of these or for any religious purposes. It was attributed to Seth, the spirit of evil who according to Egyptian tradition governed the central deserts of Africa.[16] In the Black Pyramid of Abusir, dating before 2000 BC, Gaston Maspero
Gaston Maspero
found some pieces of iron. In the funeral text of Pepi I, the metal is mentioned.[16] A sword bearing the name of pharaoh Merneptah
Merneptah
as well as a battle axe with an iron blade and gold-decorated bronze shaft were both found in the excavation of Ugarit.[21] A dagger with an iron blade found in Tutankhamun's tomb, 13th century BC, was recently examined and found to be of meteoric origin.[22][23][24] Europe[edit] Main article: Iron
Iron
Age Europe In Europe, the use of iron covers the last years of the prehistoric period and the early years of the historic period.[16] The regional Iron
Iron
Age may be defined as including the last stages of the prehistoric period and the first of the proto-historic periods.[25] Iron
Iron
working was introduced to Europe
Europe
in the late 11th century BC,[26] probably from the Caucasus, and slowly spread northwards and westwards over the succeeding 500 years. The widespread use of the technology of iron was implemented in Europe
Europe
simultaneously with Asia.[27]

Archaeological artifact from the work developed in the area of Citânia de Briteiros

Cross or cruzado in Citânia de Briteiros

Informative plaque of the proto-historic settlement of Citânia de Briteiros

Another artifact from Citânia de Briteiros

A pedra formosa

The Iron
Iron
Age in Europe
Europe
is characterized by an elaboration of designs in weapons, implements, and utensils.[16] These are no longer cast but hammered into shape, and decoration is elaborate curvilinear rather than simple rectilinear; the forms and character of the ornamentation of the northern European weapons resembles in some respects Roman arms, while in other respects they are peculiar and evidently representative of northern art. Asia[edit] Central Asia[edit] The Iron
Iron
Age in Central Asia
Asia
began when iron objects appear among the Indo-European Saka
Saka
in present-day Xinjiang
Xinjiang
between the 10th century BC and the 7th century BC, such as those found at the cemetery site of Chawuhukou.[28] The Pazyryk culture
Pazyryk culture
is an Iron
Iron
Age archaeological culture (ca. 6th to 3rd centuries BC) identified by excavated artifacts and mummified humans found in the Siberian permafrost in the Altay Mountains. East Asia[edit]

Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details          Prehistoric (or Proto-historic) Iron
Iron
Age      Historic Iron
Iron
Age

Main article: Iron
Iron
Age China In China, Chinese bronze inscriptions
Chinese bronze inscriptions
are found around 1200 BC. The development of iron metallurgy was known by the 9th century BC.[29][30] The large seal script is identified with a group of characters from a book entitled Shĭ Zhoù Piān (c. 800 BC). Iron
Iron
metallurgy reached the Yangzi Valley toward the end of the 6th century BC.[31] The few objects were found at Changsha
Changsha
and Nanjing. The mortuary evidence suggests that the initial use of iron in Lingnan belongs to the mid-to-late Warring States period
Warring States period
(from about 350 BC). Important non-precious husi style metal finds include Iron
Iron
tools found at the tomb at Guwei-cun of the 4th century BC.[32] The techniques used in Lingnan are a combination of bivalve moulds of distinct southern tradition and the incorporation of piece mould technology from the Zhongyuan. The products of the combination of these two periods are bells, vessels, weapons and ornaments and the sophisticated cast. An Iron
Iron
Age culture of the Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
has tentatively been associated with the Zhang Zhung culture
Zhang Zhung culture
described in early Tibetan writings. In Japan, iron items, such as tools, weapons, and decorative objects, are postulated to have entered Japan during the late Yayoi period
Yayoi period
(c. 300 BC–AD 300)[33] or the succeeding Kofun period
Kofun period
(c. AD 250–538), most likely through contacts with the Korean Peninsula and China. Distinguishing characteristics of the Yayoi period
Yayoi period
include the appearance of new pottery styles and the start of intensive rice agriculture in paddy fields. Yayoi culture flourished in a geographic area from southern Kyūshū
Kyūshū
to northern Honshū. The Kofun and the subsequent Asuka periods are sometimes referred to collectively as the Yamato period; The word kofun is Japanese for the type of burial mounds dating from that era.

Silla
Silla
chest and neck armour from National Museum of Korea

Iron
Iron
objects were introduced to the Korean peninsula
Korean peninsula
through trade with chiefdoms and state-level societies in the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
area in the 4th century BC, just at the end of the Warring States
Warring States
Period but before the Western Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
began.[34][35] Yoon proposes that iron was first introduced to chiefdoms located along North Korean river valleys that flow into the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
such as the Cheongcheon and Taedong Rivers.[36] Iron
Iron
production quickly followed in the 2nd century BC, and iron implements came to be used by farmers by the 1st century in southern Korea.[34] The earliest known cast-iron axes in southern Korea are found in the Geum River
Geum River
basin. The time that iron production begins is the same time that complex chiefdoms of Proto-historic Korea emerged. The complex chiefdoms were the precursors of early states such as Silla, Baekje, Goguryeo, and Gaya[35][37] Iron
Iron
ingots were an important mortuary item and indicated the wealth or prestige of the deceased in this period.[38] South Asia[edit]

Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details          Prehistoric (or Proto-historic) Iron
Iron
Age      Historic Iron
Iron
Age

Main article: Iron
Iron
Age India The history of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent began during the 2nd millennium BC. Archaeological sites in India, such as Malhar, Dadupur, Raja Nala Ka Tila, Lahuradewa, Kosambi
Kosambi
and Jhusi, Allahabad
Allahabad
in present-day Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
show iron implements in the period 1800–1200 BC.[8] Archaeological excavations in Hyderabad show an Iron
Iron
Age burial site.[39] Rakesh Tewari[40] believes that around the beginning of the Indian Iron
Iron
Age (13th century BC), iron smelting was widely practiced in India. Such use suggests that the date of the technology's inception may be around the 16th century BC.[8] The beginning of the 1st millennium BC saw extensive developments in iron metallurgy in India. Technological advancement and mastery of iron metallurgy was achieved during this period of peaceful settlements. One iron working centre in east India has been dated to the first millennium BC.[41] In Southern India
Southern India
(present day Mysore) iron appeared as early as 12th to 11th centuries BC; these developments were too early for any significant close contact with the northwest of the country.[41] The Indian Upanishads mention metallurgy.[42] and the Indian Mauryan
Mauryan
period saw advances in metallurgy.[43] As early as 300 BC, certainly by AD 200, high quality steel was produced in southern India, by what would later be called the crucible technique. In this system, high-purity wrought iron, charcoal, and glass were mixed in a crucible and heated until the iron melted and absorbed the carbon.[44] The protohistoric Early Iron
Iron
Age in Sri Lanka lasted from 1000 BC to 600 BC. however evidence of Iron
Iron
usage was found in Excavation of a Protohistoric Canoe burial Site in Haldummulla[45] and has been dated to 2400 BCE. Radiocarbon evidence has been collected from Anuradhapura
Anuradhapura
and Aligala shelter in Sigiriya.[46][47][48][49] The Anuradhapura
Anuradhapura
settlement is recorded to extend 10 ha (25 acres) by 800 BC and grew to 50 ha (120 acres) by 700–600 BC to become a town.[50] The skeletal remains of an Early Iron
Iron
Age chief were excavated in Anaikoddai, Jaffna. The name 'Ko Veta' is engraved in Brahmi
Brahmi
script on a seal buried with the skeleton and is assigned by the excavators to the 3rd century BC. Ko, meaning "King" in Tamil, is comparable to such names as Ko Atan and Ko Putivira occurring in contemporary Brahmi
Brahmi
inscriptions in south India.[51] It is also speculated that Early Iron
Iron
Age sites may exist in Kandarodai, Matota, Pilapitiya and Tissamaharama.[52] Southeast Asia[edit]

Lingling-o earrings from Luzon, Philippines

Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details      Prehistoric (or Proto-historic) Iron
Iron
Age      Historic Iron
Iron
Age

Archaeology in Thailand at sites Ban Don Ta Phet and Khao Sam Kaeo yielding metallic, stone, and glass artifacts stylistically associated with the Indian subcontinent suggest Indianization of Southeast Asia beginning in the 4th to 2nd centuries BC during the late Iron
Iron
Age.[53] In Philippines
Philippines
and Vietnam, the Sa Huynh culture
Sa Huynh culture
showed evidence of an extensive trade network. Sa Huynh beads were made from glass, carnelian, agate, olivine, zircon, gold and garnet; most of these materials were not local to the region, and were most likely imported. Han-Dynasty-style bronze mirrors were also found in Sa Huynh sites. Conversely, Sa Huynh produced ear ornaments have been found in archaeological sites in Central Thailand, Taiwan
Taiwan
(Orchid Island).[54]:211–217 Sub-Saharan Africa[edit] Main article: Iron
Iron
metallurgy in Africa See also: Nok culture, Urewe, and Bantu expansion In Sub-Saharan Africa, where there was no continent-wide universal Bronze
Bronze
Age, the use of iron succeeded immediately the use of stone.[16] Metallurgy
Metallurgy
was characterized by the absence of a Bronze Age, and the transition from "stone to steel" in tool substances. Early evidence for iron technology in Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
can be found at sites such as KM2 and KM3 in northwest Tanzania. Nubia
Nubia
was one of the relatively few places in Africa to have a sustained Bronze
Bronze
Age along with Egypt
Egypt
and much of the rest of North Africa.

Iron
Iron
Age finds in East and Southern Africa, corresponding to the early 1st millennium Bantu expansion

Very early copper and bronze working sites in Niger
Niger
may date to as early as 1500 BC. There is also evidence of iron metallurgy in Termit, Niger
Niger
from around this period.[9][55] Nubia
Nubia
was a major manufacturer and exporter of iron after the expulsion of the Nubian dynasty from Egypt
Egypt
by the Assyrians in the 7th century BC.[56] Iron
Iron
and copper working in Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
spread in conjunction with the Bantu expansion, from the Cameroon region to the African Great Lakes in the 3rd century BC, reaching the Cape around AD 400.[9] However, iron working may have been practiced in Central Africa as early as the 3rd millennium BC.[57] Instances of carbon steel based on complex preheating principles were found to be in production around the 1st century AD in northwest Tanzania.[58]

Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details          Prehistoric (or Proto-historic) Iron
Iron
Age      Historic Iron
Iron
Age

Image gallery[edit]

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Iron
Iron
Age Examples

Dun Carloway
Dun Carloway
broch, Lewis, Scotland

A replica Iron
Iron
Age thatched roof, Butser Ancient Farm, Hampshire, England

Iron
Iron
Age roundhouse

Iron
Iron
Age roundhouse

Iron
Iron
Age roundhouse

Broborg Knivsta, prehistoric castle

See also[edit]

Blast furnace Fogou Human timeline Life timeline List of archaeological periods List of archaeological sites Roman metallurgy

Library resources about Iron
Iron
Age

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading[edit]

Chang, Claudia. Rethinking Prehistoric Central Asia: Shepherds, Farmers, and Nomads. New York: Routledge, 2018. Collis, John. The European Iron
Iron
Age. London: B.T. Batsford, 1984. Cunliffe, Barry W. Iron
Iron
Age Britain. Rev. ed. London: Batsford, 2004. Davis-Kimball, Jeannine., V. A Bashilov, and L. Tiablonskiĭ. Nomads of the Eurasian Steppes In the Early Iron
Iron
Age. Berkeley, CA: Zinat Press, 1995. Finkelstein, Israel, and Eli Piasetzky. “The Iron
Iron
Age Chronology Debate: Is the Gap Narrowing?” Near Eastern Archaeology 74.1 (2011): 50–55. Jacobson, Esther. Burial Ritual, Gender, and Status In South Siberia In the Late Bronze-Early Iron
Iron
Age. Bloomington: Indiana University, Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, 1987. Mazar, Amihai. “ Iron
Iron
Age Chronology: A Reply to I. Finkelstein.” Levant 29 (1997): 157–167. --. “The Iron
Iron
Age Chronology Debate: Is the Gap Narrowing? Another Viewpoint.” Near Eastern Archaeology 74.2 (2011): 105–110. Medvedskaia, I. N. Iran: Iron
Iron
Age I. Oxford: B.A.R., 1982. Shinnie, P. L. The African Iron
Iron
Age. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971. Tripathi, Vibha. The Age of Iron
Iron
In South Asia: Legacy and Tradition. New Delhi: Aryan Books International, 2001. Waldbaum, Jane C. From Bronze
Bronze
to Iron: The Transition From the Bronze Age to the Iron
Iron
Age In the Eastern Mediterranean. Göteborg: P. Aström, 1978.

References[edit]

^ Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod. As an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen
Christian Jürgensen Thomsen
in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it is embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general (Karl von Rotteck, Karl Theodor Welcker, Das Staats-Lexikon (1864), p. 774 and begins to be applied in Assyriology. The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. Oriental Institute Communications, Issues 13-19, Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1922, p. 55. ^ Rehren T, et al, "5,000 years old Egyptian iron beads made from hammered meteoritic iron", Journal of Archaeological Science 2013 text ^ Archaeomineralogy, p. 164, George Robert Rapp, Springer, 2002 ^ Understanding materials science, p. 125, Rolf E. Hummel, Springer, 2004 ^ James E. McClellan III; Harold Dorn. Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction. JHU Press; 14 April 2006. ISBN 978-0-8018-8360-6. p. 21. ^ Akanuma, Hideo (2008). "The Significance of Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Iron Objects from Kaman-Kalehöyük, Turkey" (PDF). Anatolian Archaeological Studies. 17: 313–320.  ^ Souckova-Siegolová, J. (2001). "Treatment and usage of iron in the Hittite empire in the 2nd millennium BC". Mediterranean Archaeology. 14: 189–93. . ^ a b c Tewari, Rakesh (2003). "The origins of Iron
Iron
Working in India: New evidence from the Central Ganga plain and the Eastern Vindhyas" (PDF). Antiquity. 77: 536–545.  ^ a b c Duncan E. Miller and N.J. Van Der Merwe, 'Early Metal Working in Sub Saharan Africa' Journal of African History 35 (1994) 1–36; Minze Stuiver and N.J. Van Der Merwe, 'Radiocarbon Chronology of the Iron
Iron
Age in Sub-Saharan Africa' Current Anthropology 1968. ^ How Old is the Iron
Iron
Age in Sub-Saharan Africa? – by Roderick J. McIntosh, Archaeological Institute of America (1999) ^ Iron
Iron
in Sub-Saharan Africa – by Stanley B. Alpern (2005) ^ A.M.Snodgrass (1966), "Arms and Armour of the Greeks". (Thames & Hudson, London) ^ A. M. Snodgrass (1971), "The Dark Age of Greece" (Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh). ^ Theodore Wertime and J. D. Muhly, eds. The Coming of the Age of Iron (New Haven, 1979). ^ Jane C. Waldbaum, From Bronze
Bronze
to Iron: The Transition from the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
to the Iron
Iron
Age in the Eastern Mediterranean (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology, vol. LIV, 1978). ^ a b c d e f Chisholm, H. (1910). The Encyclopædia Britannica. New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Co. ^ Richard Cowen () The Age of Iron
Iron
Chapter 5 in a series of essays on Geology, History, and People prepares for a course of the University of California at Davis. Online version. ^ a b Muhly, James D. 'Metalworking/Mining in the Levant' pp. 174-183 in Near Eastern Archaeology ed. Suzanne Richard (2003), pp. 179-180. ^ Waldbaum, Jane C. From Bronze
Bronze
to Iron. Göteburg: Paul Astöms Förlag (1978): 56-8. ^ "Alex Webb, "Metalworking in Ancient Greece"". freeserve.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2007-12-01.  ^ Richard Cowen, 'The Age of Iron
Iron
Chapter 5 in a series of essays on Geology, History, and People prepares for a course of the University of California at Davis. Online version ^ Comelli, Daniela; d'Orazio, Massimo; Folco, Luigi; El-Halwagy, Mahmud; et al. (2016). "The meteoritic origin of Tutankhamun's iron dagger blade". Meteoritics & Planetary Science. Wiley Online. 51 (7): 1301. Bibcode:2016M&PS...51.1301C. doi:10.1111/maps.12664. Free full text available. ^ Walsh, Declan (2 June 2016). "King Tut's Dagger Made of ' Iron
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External links[edit]

General

A site with a focus on Iron
Iron
Age Britain from resourcesforhistory.com Human Timeline (Interactive) – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History (August 2016).

Publications

Andre Gunder Frank and William R. Thompson, Early Iron
Iron
Age economic expansion and contraction revisited. American Institute of Archaeology, San Francisco, Ca., January, 2004.

News

Mass burial suggests massacre at Iron
Iron
Age hill fort. Archaeologists have found evidence of a massacre linked to Iron
Iron
Age warfare at a hill fort in Derbyshire. BBC. 17 April 2011

v t e

Three-age system

Stone Age

Prehistoric technology Stone tool Flint tool Paleolithic

Lower Paleolithic Middle Paleolithic Upper Paleolithic

Mesolithic Neolithic Middle Stone Age Later Stone Age Epipaleolithic Pre- Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic

Pre- Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic
Neolithic
A Pre- Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic
Neolithic
B

Neolithic
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Revolution

Continent

Asia

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Africa Europe

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Bronze
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Age

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collapse

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Levant

Europe

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Bronze
Age Chalcolithic Nordic Bronze
Bronze
Age Bronze Age
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in Romania

Iron
Iron
Age

History of ferrous metallurgy Iron
Iron
meteorite Metallurgy

Continent

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Europe

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List of archaeological periods List of time periods

Authority control

GND: 4014102-0 HDS: 24601 NDL: 0057

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