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Irkutsk
Irkutsk
(Russian: Иркутск, IPA: [ɪrˈkutsk]) is a city and the administrative center of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Oblast, Russia, and one of the largest cities in Siberia. Population: 587,891 (2010 Census);[7] 593,604 (2002 Census);[13] 622,301 (1989 Census).[14]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Administrative and municipal status 5 Coat of arms 6 Economy

6.1 Energy 6.2 Industry 6.3 Transportation

7 Culture

7.1 Television and mass media 7.2 Education 7.3 Science 7.4 Literature 7.5 Museums 7.6 Theaters

8 Sports 9 Twin towns and sister cities 10 Notable people 11 See also 12 References

12.1 Notes 12.2 Sources

13 External links

Etymology[edit] Irkutsk
Irkutsk
was named after the Irkut River, whose name was derived from the Buryat word for "spinning" and was used as an ethnonym among local tribes as Yrkhu, Irkit, Irgit, and Irgyt. The city was formerly known as "Yandashsky" after the local Tuvan chief Yandasha Gorogi.[15] History[edit]

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Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Castle in 1735

In 1652, Ivan Pokhabov built a zimovyo (winter quarters) near the site of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
for gold trading and for the collection of fur taxes from the Buryats. In 1661, Yakov Pokhabov built an ostrog or small fort nearby.[10] The ostrog gained official town rights from the government in 1686. The first road connection between Moscow
Moscow
and Irkutsk, the Siberian Road, was built in 1760, and benefited the town economy. Many new products, often imported from China
China
via Kyakhta, became widely available in Irkutsk
Irkutsk
for the first time, including gold, diamonds, fur, wood, silk, and tea. In 1821, as part of the Mikhail Speransky's reforms, Siberia
Siberia
was administratively divided at the Yenisei River
Yenisei River
and Irkutsk
Irkutsk
became the seat of the Governor-General of East Siberia.

Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Assembly of the Nobility
Assembly of the Nobility
in the early 1900s

In the early 19th century, many Russian artists, officers, and nobles were sent into exile in Siberia
Siberia
for their part in the Decembrist revolt against Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas I. Irkutsk
Irkutsk
became the major center of intellectual and social life for these exiles, and much of the city's cultural heritage comes from them; many of their wooden houses, adorned with ornate, hand-carved decorations, survive today, in stark contrast with the standard Soviet apartment blocks that surround them.

Epiphany Cathedral and central Irkutsk
Irkutsk
in 1865

By the end of the 19th century, there was one exiled man for every two locals. People of varying backgrounds, from members of the Decembrist uprising to Bolsheviks, had been in Irkutsk
Irkutsk
for many years and had greatly influenced the culture and development of the city. As a result, Irkutsk
Irkutsk
eventually became a prosperous cultural and educational center in Eastern Siberia. In 1879, on July 4 and 6, the palace of the (then) Governor General, the principal administrative and municipal offices and many of the other public buildings were destroyed by fire, and the government archives, the library and the museum of the Siberian section of the Russian Geographical Society
Russian Geographical Society
were completely ruined.[16] Three-quarters of the city was destroyed, including approximately 4,000 houses.[17] However, the city quickly rebounded, with electricity arriving in 1896, the first theater being built in 1897 and a major train station opened in 1898. The first train arrived in Irkutsk
Irkutsk
on August 16 of that year. By 1900, the city had earned the nickname of "The Paris
Paris
of Siberia."

Irkutsk
Irkutsk
in 1918

During the Russian Civil War, which broke out after the October Revolution, Irkutsk
Irkutsk
became the site of many furious, bloody clashes between the "Whites" and the "Reds". In 1920, Aleksandr Kolchak, the once-feared commander of the largest contingent of anti-Bolshevik forces, was executed in Irkutsk, which effectively destroyed the anti- Bolshevik
Bolshevik
resistance. Irkutsk
Irkutsk
was the administrative center of the short-lived East Siberian Oblast, which existed from 1936 to 1937. The city subsequently became the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast
Irkutsk Oblast
after East Siberian Oblast was divided into Chita Oblast
Chita Oblast
and Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Oblast. During the communist years, the industrialization of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
and Siberia
Siberia
in general was heavily encouraged. The large Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Reservoir was built on the Angara River
Angara River
between 1950 and 1959 in order to facilitate industrial development.

Epiphany Cathedral (built in 1718–1746)

The Epiphany Cathedral, the governor's palace, a school of medicine, a museum, a military hospital and the crown factories are among the public institutions and buildings.[16] The Aleksandr Kolchak
Aleksandr Kolchak
monument, designed by Vyacheslav Klykov, was unveiled in 2004. On July 27, 2004, the Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Synagogue (1881) was gutted by a conflagration. In December 2016, 74 people in Irkutsk
Irkutsk
died in a mass methanol poisoning.[18][19] Geography[edit] The city proper lies on the Angara River, a tributary of the Yenisei, 72 kilometers (45 mi) below its outflow from Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
and on the bank opposite the suburb of Glaskovsk.[16] The river, 580-meter (1,900 ft) wide, is crossed by the Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Hydroelectric Dam and three other bridges downstream. The Irkut River, from which the town takes its name, is a smaller river that joins the Angara directly opposite the city.[16] The main portion of the city is separated from several landmarks—the monastery, the fort and the port, as well as its suburbs—by another tributary, the Ida (or Ushakovka) River. The two main parts of Irkutsk are customarily referred to as the "left bank" and the "right bank", with respect to the flow of the Angara River. Irkutsk
Irkutsk
is situated in a landscape of rolling hills within the thick taiga that is typical in Eastern Siberia. According to the regional plan, Irkutsk
Irkutsk
city will be combined with its neighboring industrial towns of Shelekhov
Shelekhov
and Angarsk
Angarsk
to form a metropolitan area with a total population of over a million. Climate[edit] Irkutsk
Irkutsk
originally had a borderline subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dwc). Since 2000, the temperatures have resembled a humid continental climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
Dwb). Snow cover disappeared earlier, from late April in the 1930s to late March in the 1980s. Discontinuous permafrost depth had decreased from 200 m to 100 m during the same period. Irkutsk
Irkutsk
is characterized by an extreme variation of temperatures between seasons. It can be very warm in the summer, and very cold in the winter. However, Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
has a tempering effect thanks to which temperatures in Irkutsk
Irkutsk
are not as extreme as elsewhere in Siberia. The warmest month of the year is July, when the average temperature is +18 °C (64 °F), the highest temperature recorded being +37.2 °C (99.0 °F). The coldest month of the year is January, when the average temperature is −18 °C (0 °F), and record low of −49.7 °C (−57.5 °F). Precipitation
Precipitation
also varies widely throughout the year, with July also being the wettest month, when precipitation averages 113 millimeters (4.4 in). The driest month is February, when precipitation averages only 7.6 millimeters (0.30 in). Almost all precipitation during the Siberian winter falls as flurry, dry snow.

Climate data for Irkutsk
Irkutsk
(normals 1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 2.3 (36.1) 10.2 (50.4) 20.0 (68) 29.2 (84.6) 34.5 (94.1) 35.6 (96.1) 37.2 (99) 34.1 (93.4) 29.7 (85.5) 24.5 (76.1) 14.4 (57.9) 5.3 (41.5) 37.2 (99)

Average high °C (°F) −12.8 (9) −7.8 (18) 0.3 (32.5) 9.4 (48.9) 18.1 (64.6) 22.7 (72.9) 24.8 (76.6) 22.2 (72) 15.7 (60.3) 7.7 (45.9) −2.7 (27.1) −10.6 (12.9) 7.3 (45.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) −17.8 (0) −14.4 (6.1) −6.4 (20.5) 2.5 (36.5) 10.2 (50.4) 15.4 (59.7) 18.3 (64.9) 15.9 (60.6) 9.2 (48.6) 1.8 (35.2) −7.6 (18.3) −15.3 (4.5) 1.0 (33.8)

Average low °C (°F) −21.8 (−7.2) −19.6 (−3.3) −12.2 (10) −2.8 (27) 3.6 (38.5) 9.3 (48.7) 13.0 (55.4) 10.9 (51.6) 4.3 (39.7) −2.5 (27.5) −11.6 (11.1) −19.1 (−2.4) −4 (25)

Record low °C (°F) −49.7 (−57.5) −44.7 (−48.5) −37.3 (−35.1) −31.8 (−25.2) −14.3 (6.3) −6 (21) 0.4 (32.7) −2.7 (27.1) −11.9 (10.6) −30.5 (−22.9) −40.4 (−40.7) −46.3 (−51.3) −49.7 (−57.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 13 (0.51) 8 (0.31) 12 (0.47) 18 (0.71) 37 (1.46) 78 (3.07) 114 (4.49) 91 (3.58) 52 (2.05) 21 (0.83) 20 (0.79) 16 (0.63) 480 (18.9)

Average rainy days 0 0.04 1 9 15 18 18 17 16 9 2 0 105

Average snowy days 21 16 13 11 3 0.2 0 0 2 10 20 23 119

Average relative humidity (%) 82 76 65 56 55 67 74 78 76 73 79 85 72

Mean monthly sunshine hours 93 149 207 223 266 264 243 218 182 152 93 62 2,142

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[20]

Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[21]

Administrative and municipal status[edit] Irkutsk
Irkutsk
is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Irkutsky District,[2] even though it is not a part of it.[citation needed] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Irkutsk[1]—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[citation needed] As a municipal division, the City of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
is incorporated as Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Urban Okrug.[3] Coat of arms[edit]

The original version of the coat of arms

A fountain in Kirov Square

The coat of arms of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
features an old symbol of Dauria: a Siberian tiger
Siberian tiger
with a sable in his mouth. When the coat of arms was devised in 1690, the animal was described as a tiger ("babr", a bookish word of Persian derivation) with a sable in his mouth. This image had been used by the Yakutsk
Yakutsk
customs office from about 1642. It has its origin in a seal of the Siberia
Siberia
Khanate representing a sable and showcasing the fact that Siberia
Siberia
(or rather Yugra) was the main source of sable fur throughout the Middle Ages. (Actually, the English word "sable" is derived from the Russian "sobol"). By the mid-19th century, the word "babr" had fallen out of common usage, but it was still recorded in the Armorial of the Russian Empire. Furthermore, the tigers became extinct in this part of Siberia. In the 1870s, a high-placed French heraldist with a limited command of Russian assumed that "babr" was a misspelling of "bobr", the Russian word for "beaver", and changed the wording accordingly. This modification engendered a long dispute between the local authorities, who were so confused by the revised description that they started to depict the "babr" as a fabulous animal, half-tiger and half-beaver. The Soviets abolished the image altogether, but it was restored following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Economy[edit] Energy[edit] The 662.4 MW Irkutsk Hydroelectric Power Station
Irkutsk Hydroelectric Power Station
was the first cascade hydroelectric power station in the Irkutsk
Irkutsk
region. The construction of the dam started in 1950 and finished in 1958.[22] Industry[edit] The largest industry in Irkutsk
Irkutsk
is Irkut, the Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Aviation Industrial Association,[23] which was set up in 1932 in the Transbaykal
Transbaykal
region of the Soviet Union. It is best known as being the manufacturer of the Su-30
Su-30
family of interceptor/ground-attack aircraft. The Russian government has merged Irkut with Ilyushin, Mikoyan, Sukhoi, Tupolev, and Yakovlev
Yakovlev
into a new company named United Aircraft Building Corporation.[24] There is the Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Aluminium Smelter which belongs to the Rusal Company.[25] Transportation[edit]

Passenger railway station in Irkutsk

Tram in Irkutsk

Important roads and railways like the Trans-Siberian Highway
Trans-Siberian Highway
(Federal M53 and M55 Highways) and Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
connect Irkutsk
Irkutsk
to other regions in Russia
Russia
and Mongolia. The city is also served by the Irkutsk International Airport
Irkutsk International Airport
and the smaller Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Northwest Airport. The Federal road and railway to Moscow
Moscow
and Vladivostok
Vladivostok
pass through the other side of the Angara River
Angara River
from central Irkutsk. Trams are one major mode of public transit in Irkutsk. Other modes are trolleybus, bus, and fixed-route taxi, cycling (marshrutka).

Trolleybus

Bus on Sedov Street

Culture[edit]

Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Academic Drama Theater

Television and mass media[edit] There are many state-owned and privately owned television stations in Irkutsk, including state company IGTRK[26] and private ones, such as AS Baikal TV,[27] TV company AIST,[28] TV company Gorod,[29] and also other media outlets, like the VSP Newspaper Agency.[30] There is also a live webcam broadcasting from the city center.[31] Education[edit] Irkutsk
Irkutsk
is home to the East Siberian Education Academy (since 1909), Irkutsk State University
Irkutsk State University
(1918), Irkutsk
Irkutsk
State Medical University (1918), Baykalsky State University of Economics and Law
Baykalsky State University of Economics and Law
(since 1932), Irkutsk State Technical University (since 1939), Irkutsk
Irkutsk
State Academy of Agriculture, Irkutsk State Linguistic University (1948), Irkutsk State Railway Transport University (since 1975), and a number of private colleges: Siberian Institute of Law, Economics and Management (since 1993), Institute of Economics of ISTU (since 1996), and others. Science[edit] As Irkutsk
Irkutsk
is within the influence of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, there are nine research institutes located in the Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Academgorodok suburb: the Institute of Geography, the Energy System Institute, the Institute of Geochemistry, the Institute of System Dynamics and Control Theory, the Earth's Crust Institute, the Solar-Terrestrial Physics Institute, the Institute of Chemistry, the Limnological Institute (formerly located on Lake Baikal's shore), the Institute of Plant Physics, Laser Physics Institute (a Branch of the Institute of Laser Physics in Novosobirsk). A number of institutes conduct research within Irkutsk
Irkutsk
State University: the Institute of Biology, the Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis, the Laboratory of Quantum Chemistry, the Institute of Applied Physics, the Interregional Institute of Social Studies, the Astronomical Observatory, and the Botanical Gardens. The East-Siberian Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences is also located in Irkutsk
Irkutsk
and is represented by the following research organizations: the Scientific Center for Medical Ecology, the Institute for Paediatrics and Human Reproduction, the Institute for Microbiology and Epidemiology, the Institute for Medicine of the Workplace and Human Ecology, the Institute of Reconstructive and Restorative Surgery, the Institute of Surgery, and the Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics. Also, the Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Scientific and Technical Center has a branch in Irkutsk. Additionally, there are R&D institutes including GAZPROM
GAZPROM
R&D Institute (a Branch of a Moscow-based institute), the Irkutsk Institute of Rare and Precious Metals and Diamonds (Irgiredmet), part of the Petropavlovsk Group of Companies.,[32] and the Vostoksibacademcenter of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences that publishes the Project Baikal journal. Literature[edit] Irkutsk
Irkutsk
was home to the well-known Russian writer Valentin Rasputin; many of his novels and stories take place in the Angara Valley. An essay on the cultural history of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
(and another one about the nearby Lake Baikal) is included in Rasputin's non-fiction collection Siberia, Siberia, which is also available in an English translation. Museums[edit]

The Church of the Cross (1747–60) is a pinnacle of the Siberian Baroque architecture

Irkutsk[33] is a point of interest for tourists with its numerous museums and old architecture. The Taltsy Museum
Museum
(Russian: Тальцы), located on the Angara 47 kilometers (29 mi) South of Irkutsk, is an open-air museum of Siberian traditional architecture. Numerous old wooden buildings from villages in the Angara valley, which have been flooded after the construction of the Bratsk Dam
Bratsk Dam
and Ust-Ilimsk
Ust-Ilimsk
Dam, have been transported to the museum and reassembled there. One of the centerpieces of the collection is a partial recreation of the 17th-century ostrog (fortress) of Ilimsk, which consists of the original Spasskaya Tower and the Church of Our Lady of Kazan transported from the flooded ostrog in the mid-1970s, to which an exact modern copy of another tower of the ostrog and the Southern wall of the fortress were added in the early 2000s.[34] The Botanic Garden of the Irkutsk State University
Irkutsk State University
known as the " Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Botanic Garden" is the only botanic garden as a living museum in Irkutsk Oblast
Irkutsk Oblast
and Baikalian Siberia. Its mission is "to protect and enrich the flora of the Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
area and the world for people through public education, collection, propagation, research, and conservation of plants". The garden is mainly an educational and scientific tool for the Irkutsk State University
Irkutsk State University
and maintains the largest plant collection of living plants in Eastern Siberia
Siberia
(more than 5000 plant taxa), a herbarium, and a seed bank. It occupies 27 hectares within Irkutsk
Irkutsk
city, 70 km (43 mi) West of Lake Baikal. It has a federal status of especially protected land and a nature memorial of Irkutsk. Theaters[edit] Irkutsk
Irkutsk
is also home to several theaters, including the Okhlopkov Drama Theater, one of Russia's oldest.[35] Sports[edit] Bandy
Bandy
is popular in the city. There are several clubs, most notably Baykal-Energiya[36] of the Russian Bandy
Bandy
Super League, which can draw spectator crowds of 30,000.[37] It is also the centre of women's bandy in Russia
Russia
with the club Rekord,[38] which provides most players to the national team.[39] In Irkutsk, there are 384 sports facilities, of which 200 are municipal ones. Among them there are 23 swimming pools, 14 ski bases, a sports palace, 154 courts, 165 gyms, an athletics arena, a racetrack, 7 stadiums — Trud, Dynamo, Zenit, Aviator, Record, Lokomotiv-2, sports complex of Irktusk and the main football arena — Lokomotiv for 3 thousand seats.[citation needed] 2012 Women's Bandy
Bandy
World Championship[40] was hosted in Irkutsk
Irkutsk
and received praise from Federation of International Bandy.[41] 2014 Bandy World Championship was played in the city.[42][43] The final of Russian Bandy
Bandy
Super League 2016 will be played at Rekord Stadium.[44] The 2019 Bandy
Bandy
World Championship was scheduled to also be hosted in Irkutsk.[45] However, the decision has been reconsidered.[46] Irkutsk might get the right to host the 2020 tournament instead, if FIB is given guarantees that the planned indoor arena will be ready for use in time.[47] That venue is designed to also have a long track speed skating oval.[5] President Putin is supportive of it.[48] Twin towns and sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia Irkutsk
Irkutsk
is twinned with:[49][50]

Ulan Bator, Mongolia Shenyang, China Kanazawa, Japan Eugene, United States

Novi Sad, Serbia Pforzheim, Germany Évian-les-Bains, France Strömsund, Sweden

Pordenone, Italy Grenoble, France Dijon, France

Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Irkutsk

Nikolai Polevoy
Nikolai Polevoy
(1796–1846), editor, writer, translator and historian Vladimir Kornilov
Vladimir Kornilov
(1806–1854), naval officer who took part in the Crimean War Alexei Fedchenko
Alexei Fedchenko
(1844–1873), naturalist and explorer Nikolay Vtorov
Nikolay Vtorov
(1866–1918), industrialist Nikolay Okhlopkov (1900–1967), Soviet actor and theatre director Mikhail Romm
Mikhail Romm
(1901–1971), Soviet film director Nikolay Kamov
Nikolay Kamov
(1902–1973), leading constructor of the Soviet-Russian Kamov helicopter design bureau Mikhail Mil
Mikhail Mil
(1909–1970), Soviet aerospace engineer Konstantin Vyrupayev (1930–2012), Soviet wrestler and Olympic Champion Boris Volynov
Boris Volynov
(born 1934), Soviet cosmonaut Olga Buyanova (born 1954), Honored Master of Sports coach in Rhythmic gymnastics of the USSR and Russia Oleksandr Shlapak
Oleksandr Shlapak
(born 1960), Ukrainian politician, bureaucrat, and former Minister of Finance of Ukraine Anatoli Ivanishin
Anatoli Ivanishin
(born 1969), cosmonaut Oxana Kostina
Oxana Kostina
(1972–1993), Soviet individual rhythmic gymnast Aleksandr Averbukh
Aleksandr Averbukh
(born 1974), Israeli Olympic athlete who competed in the pole vault Denis Matsuev
Denis Matsuev
(born 1975), classical pianist Maria Bruntseva (born 1980), volleyball player Nina Kraviz
Nina Kraviz
(born 1980/1986), techno DJ Olga Zhitova
Olga Zhitova
(born 1983), volleyball player Olga Kurban
Olga Kurban
(born 1987), heptathlete Alexey Negodaylo
Alexey Negodaylo
(born 1989), bobsledder Angelina Zhuk-Krasnova
Angelina Zhuk-Krasnova
(born 1991), athlete specialising in the pole vault Darya Dmitriyeva
Darya Dmitriyeva
(born 1993), Russian rhythmic gymnast Nazí Paikidze
Nazí Paikidze
(born 1993), Georgian-American chess player

See also[edit]

Immaculate Heart of Mary Cathedral, Irkutsk

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b c Charter of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Oblast ^ a b c d e f Law #49-OZ ^ a b c Law #88-oz ^ Law #94-oz ^ a b "Мэр - Официальный портал города Иркутска". Retrieved December 5, 2015.  ^ "Федеральная служба государственной статистики Российской Федерации - База данных показателей муниципальных образований". Retrieved March 17, 2016.  ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All- Russia
Russia
Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.). ^ a b Lantzeff, George V., and Richard A. Pierce (1973). Eastward to Empire: Exploration and Conquest on the Russian Open Frontier, to 1750. Montreal: McGill-Queen's U.P.  ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian) ^ "International Calling Codes - Pg2". The-acr.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Dameshek (2002), p. 16 ^ a b c d  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Irkutsk". Encyclopædia Britannica. 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 796.  ^ Kennan, George (1891). Siberia
Siberia
and the Exile System. London: James R. Osgood, McIlvaine & Co. pp. 1–2.  ^ Nechepurenko, Ivan (19 December 2016). "In Russia, Dozens Dies After Drinking Alcohol Substitute". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 December 2016.  ^ " Russia
Russia
bath lotion poisoning: Putin orders crackdown as death toll rises". BBC. 21 December 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2016.  ^ "Pogoda.ru.net- Climate Data for Irkutsk
Irkutsk
1981–2010" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved November 30, 2015.  ^ " Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 30, 2015.  ^ " Irkutsk Hydroelectric Power Station
Irkutsk Hydroelectric Power Station
History". Irkutskenergo. Retrieved September 7, 2010.  ^ John Pike (2002-09-18). " Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Aviation Industrial Association - Russian Defense Industry". GlobalSecurity.org (de). Retrieved 2014-02-07.  ^ "Russian Aircraft Industry Seeks Revival Through Merger." The New York Times. February 22, 2006 ^ "Страница не найдена". Rusal.ru. Archived from the original on February 22, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2013.  ^ "IGTRK - Irkutsk
Irkutsk
branch of the State Television an Radio Broadcast Company". Irkutsk.rfn.ru. Retrieved February 7, 2014.  ^ "AS Baikal TV". AS Baikal TV. Retrieved February 7, 2014.  ^ "TV Company AIST". Aisttv.ru. Retrieved February 7, 2014.  ^ Gorod TV ^ "VSP Newspaper Agency". Vsp.ru. Retrieved February 7, 2014.  ^ Live webcam in Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Archived April 1, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Аналитическая служба". Petropavlovsk.net. Retrieved 2014-02-07.  ^ " Irkutsk
Irkutsk
- Lonely Planet Travel and Information Guide". Lonelyplanet.com. Retrieved 2014-02-07.  ^ В «Тальцах» завершается реконструкция южной стены Илимского острога Archived February 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. (Re-creation of the southern wall of the Ilimsk ostrog in the Taltsy Museum
Museum
is approaching its completion) (in Russian) ^ "Irkutsk: Libertine Legacy by the Lakeside Beyond Moscow". The Moscow
Moscow
Times. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "Хоккейный клуб "Байкал-Энергия". Официальный сайт". Baikal-energy.ru. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ baikal-energy bandy on YouTube ^ http://www.bandynet.ru/files/mimages/IMG_0409.jpg ^ "Bandy2010.com". Bandy2010.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "WCS 2012 home page". Baikal-bandy.ru. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014.  ^ emh solutions. "A very well organized World Championship for Women in Irkutsk
Irkutsk
made a great success". Worldbandy.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014.  ^ "XXXIV Champ Of World Bandy". Baikal-bandy.ru. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014.  ^ emh solutions. " Russia
Russia
world champions". Worldbandy.com. Archived from the original on February 19, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014.  ^ [1] ^ Annual Congress in Sandviken, Sweden
Sweden
on Jan 30 2017 2017-01-28 ^ [2] ^ [3] ^ [4] ^ (in Russian) Sister cities of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Archived February 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ (in Russian) МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЕ ОТНОШЕНИЯ И - Известия ИГЭА Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.

Sources[edit]

Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Постановление №9/5-ЗС от 15 апреля 2009 г. «Устав Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №2-У от 14 декабря 2017 г. «О поправках к Уставу Иркутской области». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Областная", №45, 24 апреля 2009 г. (Legislative Assembly of Irkutsk Oblast. Resolution #9/5-ZS of April 15, 2009 Charter of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Oblast, as amended by the Law #2-U of December 14, 2017 On the Amendments to the Charter of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Oblast. Effective as of the day following a ten-day period after the day of the official publication.). Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Закон №49-ОЗ от 21 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №12-ОЗ от 23 марта 2017 г. «О внесении изменений в статьи 25 и 33 Закона Иркутской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Иркутской области" и Закон Иркутской области "О порядке рассмотрения Законодательным Собранием Иркутской области предложений о присвоении наименований географическим объектам и (или) о переименовании географических объектов"». Вступил в силу после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Областная", №71, 25 июня 2010 г. (Legislative Assembly of Irkutsk Oblast. Law #49-OZ of June 21, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Oblast, as amended by the Law #12-OZ of March 23, 2017 On Amending Articles 25 and 33 of the Law of Irkutsk Oblast
Irkutsk Oblast
"On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Oblast" and the Law of Irkutsk Oblast
Irkutsk Oblast
"On the Procedures for Consideration of Assignments of Names to Geographical Objects and (or) Renaming of Geographical Objects". Effective as of after the day of the official publication.). Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Закон №88-оз от 16 декабря 2004 г. «О статусе и границах муниципального образования "город Иркутск" Иркутской области». Вступил в силу с 31 декабря 2004 г., но не ранее чем через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Восточно-Сибирская правда", №254–255, 20 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Irkutsk Oblast. Law #88-oz of December 16, 2004 On the Status and Borders of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Irkutsk" of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Oblast. Effective as of December 31, 2004, but not earlier than 10 days after the official publication date.). Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Закон №94-оз от 16 декабря 2004 г. «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Иркутского района Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №106-ОЗ от 6 ноября 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Иркутской области "О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Иркутского района Иркутской области"». Вступил в силу с 31 декабря 2004 г., но не ранее чем через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Восточно-Сибирская правда", №254–255, 20 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Irkutsk Oblast. Law #94-oz of December 16, 2004 On the Status and Borders of the Municipal Formations of Irkutsky District of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Oblast, as amended by the Law #106-OZ of November 6, 2012 On Amending the Law of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Oblast "On the Status and Borders of the Municipal Formations of Irkutsky District of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Oblast". Effective as of December 31, 2004, but not earlier than 10 days after the official publication date.). Brumfield, William. Irkutsk: Architectural Heritage in Photographs // Moscow: Tri Kvadrata Publishing, 2006. ISBN 978-5-94607-061-4 Polunina N.M., Korobov S.A., Sutton J.M., Korobova G.W. Her Majesty — Queen of Siberia
Siberia
// Publishers Korobov. — Irkutsk, 2008.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Irkutsk.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1905 New International Encyclopedia article about Irkutsk.

Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Free Walking Tour with English speaking guide Official website of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
(in Russian) Flickr
Flickr
photos tagged Irkutsk Irkutsk
Irkutsk
in old and modern photos Irkutsk
Irkutsk
city architecture views Irkutsk: cultural crossroads in Russian Asia Russia
Russia
- Siberia
Siberia
- Irkutsk
Irkutsk
- photo galleries Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Webcam Live

v t e

Administrative divisions of Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Oblast

Administrative center: Irkutsk

Cities and towns

Alzamay Angarsk Baykalsk Biryusinsk Bodaybo Bratsk Cheremkhovo Irkutsk Kirensk Nizhneudinsk Sayansk Shelekhov Slyudyanka Svirsk Tayshet Tulun Usolye-Sibirskoye Ust-Ilimsk Ust-Kut Vikhorevka Zheleznogorsk-Ilimsky Zima

Districts

Angarsky Balagansky Bodaybinsky Bratsky Cheremkhovsky Chunsky Irkutsky Kachugsky Katangsky Kazachinsko-Lensky Kirensky Kuytunsky Mamsko-Chuysky Nizhneilimsky Nizhneudinsky Olkhonsky Shelekhovsky Slyudyansky Tayshetsky Tulunsky Usolsky Ust-Ilimsky Ust-Kutsky Ust-Udinsky Zalarinsky Zhigalovsky Ziminsky

Districts of Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug

Alarsky Bayandayevsky Bokhansky Ekhirit-Bulagatsky Nukutsky Osinsky

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 154762

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