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IRISH REPUBLICANISM (Irish : poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland
Ireland
should be an independent republic . The development of nationalist and democratic sentiment throughout Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was reflected in Ireland
Ireland
in the emergence of republicanism, in opposition to British rule . This followed hundreds of years of British conquest and Irish resistance through rebellion. Discrimination against Catholics and Non-conformists , attempts by the British administration to suppress Irish culture , and the belief that Ireland
Ireland
was economically disadvantaged as a result of the Act of Union were among the specific factors leading to such opposition.

The Society of United Irishmen , formed in the 1780s and led primarily by liberal Protestants, evolved into a revolutionary republican organisation, inspired by the American Revolution
American Revolution
and allied with Revolutionary France. It launched the 1798 Rebellion with the help of French troops. The rebellion had some success, especially in County Wexford , before it was suppressed. A second rising in 1803, led by Robert Emmet
Robert Emmet
, was quickly put down, and Emmet was hanged. The Young Ireland
Ireland
movement, formed in the 1830s, was initially a part of the Repeal Association of Daniel O\'Connell , but broke with O'Connell on the issue of the legitimacy of the use of violence. Primarily a political and cultural organisation, some members of Young Ireland staged an abortive rising, the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848 . Its leaders were transported to Van Diemen\'s Land . Some of these escaped to the United States, where they linked up with other Irish exiles to form the Fenian Brotherhood . Together with the Irish Republican Brotherhood , founded in Ireland
Ireland
by James Stephens and others in 1858, they made up a movement commonly known as "Fenians " which was dedicated to the overthrow of British imperial rule in Ireland. They staged another rising, the Fenian
Fenian
Rising , in 1867, and a dynamite campaign in England
England
in the 1880s.

In the early 20th century IRB members, in particular Tom Clarke and Seán MacDermott , began planning another rising. The Easter Rising took place from 24 to 30 April 1916, when members of the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army seized the centre of Dublin
Dublin
, proclaimed a republic and held off British forces for almost a week. The execution of the Rising's leaders, including Clarke, MacDermott, Patrick Pearse and James Connolly
James Connolly
, led to a surge of support for republicanism in Ireland. In 1917 the Sinn Féin party stated as its aim the "securing the international recognition of Ireland
Ireland
as an independent Irish Republic", and in the general election of 1918 Sinn Féin took 73 of the 105 Irish seats in the British House of Commons . The elected members did not take their seats but instead set up the First Dáil . Between 1919 and 1921 the Irish Republican Army (IRA), who were loyal to the Dáil, fought the British Army
British Army
and Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) in the Irish War of Independence . Talks between the British and Irish in late 1921 led to a treaty by which the British conceded, not a 32-county Irish Republic, but a 26-county Irish Free State with Dominion
Dominion
status. This led to the Irish Civil War , in which the republicans were defeated by their former comrades.

The Free State became an independent constitutional monarchy following the Balfour Declaration of 1926 and the Statute of Westminster 1931 and formally became a republic with the passage of the Republic
Republic
of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1948 . That same year, the republican movement took the decision to focus on Northern Ireland
Ireland
thereafter. The Border Campaign , which lasted from 1956 to 1962, involved bombings and attacks on Royal Ulster Constabulary barracks. The failure of this campaign led the republican leadership to concentrate on political action, and to move to the left. Following the outbreak of The Troubles
The Troubles
in 1968-9, the movement split between Officials (leftists) and Provisionals (traditionalists) at the beginning of 1970. Both sides were initially involved in an armed campaign against the British state, but the Officials gradually moved into mainstream politics after the Official IRA ceasefire of 1972; the associated "Official Sinn Féin" eventually renamed itself the Workers\' Party . The Provisional IRA, except during brief ceasefires in 1972 and 1975, kept up a campaign of violence for nearly thirty years, directed against security forces and civilian targets (especially businesses). While the Social Democratic and Labour Party
Social Democratic and Labour Party
(SDLP) represented the nationalists of Northern Ireland
Ireland
in initiatives such as the 1973 Sunningdale Agreement , republicans took no part in these, believing that a withdrawal of British troops and a commitment to a united Ireland
Ireland
was a necessary precondition of any settlement. This began to change with a landmark speech by Danny Morrison in 1981, advocating what became known as the Armalite and ballot box strategy . Under the leadership of Gerry Adams , Sinn Féin began to focus on the search for a political settlement. When the party voted in 1986 to take seats in legislative bodies within Ireland, there was a walk-out of die-hard republicans, who set up Republican Sinn Féin and the Continuity IRA . Following the Hume–Adams dialogue , Sinn Féin took part in the Northern Ireland
Ireland
peace process which led to the IRA ceasefires of 1994 and 1997 and the Good Friday Agreement of 1998. After elections to the Northern Ireland
Ireland
Assembly , republicans sat in government in Northern Ireland
Ireland
for the first time when Martin McGuinness and Bairbre de Brún were elected to the Northern Ireland
Ireland
Executive . However, another split occurred, with anti-Agreement republicans setting up the 32 County Sovereignty Movement and the Real IRA . Today, Irish republicanism is divided between those who support the institutions set up under the Good Friday Agreement and the later St Andrews Agreement , and those who oppose them. The latter are often referred to as "dissident" republicans.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Background of English rule in Ireland
Ireland
* 1.2 Society of United Irishmen and the Irish Rebellion of 1798 * 1.3 Acts of Union * 1.4 Robert Emmet
Robert Emmet
* 1.5 Young Ireland
Ireland
and the Irish Confederation * 1.6 The Fenian
Fenian
movement * 1.7 Nineteenth century onward * 1.8 Irish Free State and Republic
Republic
of Ireland
Ireland

* 2 Republicanism in Northern Ireland
Ireland

* 2.1 1921–66 * 2.2 1966–69 * 2.3 1970–85 * 2.4 1986–present

* 3 Variants

* 3.1 Irish republican socialism

* 4 Political parties * 5 See also * 6 References

HISTORY

BACKGROUND OF ENGLISH RULE IN IRELAND

Following the Norman invasion of Ireland
Ireland
in the 12th century, Ireland, or parts of it, had experienced alternating degrees of rule from England. While some of the native Gaelic population attempted to resist this occupation, a single, unified political goal did not exist amongst the independent lordships that existed throughout the island. The Tudor conquest of Ireland
Ireland
took place in the 16th century. This included the Plantations of Ireland
Ireland
, in which the lands held by Gaelic Irish clans and Hiberno-Norman dynasties were confiscated and given to Protestant settlers ("Planters") from England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
. The Plantation of Ulster began in 1609, and the province was heavily colonised with English and Scottish settlers.

Campaigns against English presence on the island had occurred prior to the emergence of the Irish republican ideology. In the 1590s, resistance was led by Hugh O\'Neill (see the Nine Years\' War ). The Irish chieftains were ultimately defeated, leading to their exile (the ' Flight of the Earls ') and the aforementioned Plantation of Ulster in 1609.

Three decades later, the Irish Rebellion of 1641 began. This consisted of a coalition between the Irish and the Old English (descendents of the English/Norman settlers who settled during the Norman Invasion) rebelling against the English rulers. Beginning as a coup d'état with the aim of restoring lost lands in the north of Ireland
Ireland
and defending Catholic religious and property rights, (which had been suppressed by the Puritan
Puritan
Parliament of England
England
) it evolved into the Irish Confederate Wars . In the summer of 1642, the Catholic upper classes formed the Catholic Confederation , which essentially became the de facto government of Ireland
Ireland
for a brief period until 1649, when the forces of the English Parliament carried out the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
Ireland
and the old Catholic landowners were permanently dispossessed of their lands.

SOCIETY OF UNITED IRISHMEN AND THE IRISH REBELLION OF 1798

Main articles: Society of United Irishmen and Irish Rebellion of 1798

Irish republicanism has its origins in the ideals of the American and French revolutions in the late 18th century. In Ireland
Ireland
these ideals were taken up by the United Irishmen, founded in 1791. Originally they sought reform of the Irish parliament, such as an end to sectarian discrimination against Dissenters and Catholics , which was enshrined in the Penal Laws . Eventually they became a revolutionary group advocating an Irish republic free from British control. Wolfe Tone circa 1794. Tone is considered by many as the father of Irish Republicanism

At this stage, the movement was led primarily by liberal Protestants, particularly Presbyterians from the province of Ulster. Founding members of the United Irishmen included Wolfe Tone
Wolfe Tone
, Thomas Russell , Henry Joy McCracken , James Napper Tandy , and Samuel Neilson . By 1797, the Society of United Irishmen had around 100,000 members. Crossing the religious divide in Ireland, it had a mixed membership of Catholics, Presbyterians, and even Anglicans from the Protestant Ascendancy . It also attracted support and membership from Catholic agrarian resistance groups, such as the Defenders organisation, who were eventually incorporated into the Society. The Battle of Killala
Killala
marked the end of the rising

The Irish Rebellion of 1798 began on 23 May, with the first clashes taking place in County Kildare on 24 May, before spreading throughout Leinster
Leinster
, as well as County Antrim and other areas of the country. French soldiers landed in Killala
Killala
on 22 August and participated in the fighting on the rebels' side. Even though they had considerable success against British forces in County Wexford , rebel forces were eventually defeated. Key figures in the organisation were arrested and executed.

ACTS OF UNION

Main articles: Acts of Union 1800 and Parliament of Ireland
Ireland
Michael Dwyer
Michael Dwyer

Though the Rebellion of 1798 was eventually crushed, small republican guerrilla campaigns against the British Army
British Army
in the Wicklow Mountains under the leadership of Michael Dwyer
Michael Dwyer
and Joseph Holt continued for a short time after, conducting attacks on small parties of yeomen . These activities were perceived by some to be merely "the dying echoes of an old convulsion", but others feared further large-scale uprisings, due to the United Irishmen continuing to attract large numbers of Catholics in rural areas of the country and arms raids being carried out on a nightly basis. It was also feared that rebels would again seek military aid from French troops, and another rising was expected take place by 10 April.

This perceived threat of further rebellion resulted in the Parliamentary Union between the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After some uncertainty, the Irish Parliament voted to abolish itself in the Acts of Union 1800, forming the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland, by a vote of 158 to 115. A number of tactics were used to achieve this end. Lord Castlereagh and Charles Cornwallis were known to use bribery extensively. In all, a total of sixteen Irish borough-owners were granted British peerages . A further twenty-eight new Irish peerages were created, while twenty existing Irish peerages increased in rank.

Furthermore, the government of Great Britain sought to replace Irish politicians in the Irish parliament with pro-Union politicians, and rewards were granted to those that vacated their seats, with the result being that in the eighteen months prior to the decision in 1800, one-fifth of the Irish House of Commons changed its representation due to these activities and other factors such as death. It was also promised by Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger that he would bring about Catholic Emancipation , though after the Acts of Union were successfully voted through, King George III saw that this pledge was never realised, and as such Catholics were not granted the rights that had been promised prior to the Acts.

ROBERT EMMET

A second attempt at forming an independent Irish republic occurred under Robert Emmet
Robert Emmet
in 1803. Emmet had previously been expelled from Trinity College , Dublin
Dublin
for his political views. Like those who had led the 1798 rebellion, Emmet was a member of the United Irishmen, as was his brother Thomas Addis Emmet , who had been imprisoned for membership in the organisation. Depiction of Robert Emmet
Robert Emmet
's trial

Emmet and his followers had planned to seize Dublin
Dublin
Castle by force, manufacturing weaponry and explosives at a number of locations in Dublin. Unlike those of 1798, preparations for the uprising were successfully concealed from the government and law enforcement, and though a premature explosion at an arms depot attracted the attention of police, they were unaware of the United Irishmen activities at the time and did not have any information regarding the planned rebellion. Emmet had hoped to avoid the complications of the previous rebellion and chose not to organise the county outside of Dublin
Dublin
to a large extent. It was expected that the areas surrounding Dublin
Dublin
were sufficiently prepared for an uprising should one be announced, and Thomas Russell had been sent to northern areas of the country to prepare republicans there.

A proclamation of independence, addressed from 'The Provisional Government' to 'The People of Ireland' was produced by Emmet, echoing the republican sentiments expressed during the previous rebellion:

You are now called on to show to the world that you are competent to take your place among nations, that you have a right to claim their recognisance of you, as an independent country ... We therefore solemnly declare, that our object is to establish a free and independent republic in Ireland: that the pursuit of this object we will relinquish only with our lives ... We war against no religious sect ... We war against English dominion. — Robert Emmet, Proclamation of the Provisional Government

However, failed communications and arrangements produced a considerably smaller force than had been anticipated. Nonetheless, the rebellion began in Dublin
Dublin
on the evening of 23 July. Emmet's forces were unable to take Dublin
Dublin
Castle, and the rising broke down into rioting, which ensued sporadically throughout the night. Emmet escaped and hid for some time in the Wicklow Mountains and Harold\'s Cross , but was captured on 25 August and hanged on 20 September 1803, at which point the Society of United Irishmen was effectively finished.

YOUNG IRELAND AND THE IRISH CONFEDERATION

Main articles: Young Ireland
Ireland
, Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848 , Repeal Association , and Irish Confederation

The Young Ireland
Ireland
movement began in the late 1830s. The term 'Young Ireland' was originally a derogatory one, coined by the press in Britain to describe members of the Repeal Association (a group campaigning for the repeal of the Acts of Union 1800 which joined the Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
and the Kingdom of Great Britain) who were involved with the Irish nationalist newspaper The Nation . Encouraging the repeal of the Acts of Union, members of the Young Ireland
Ireland
movement advocated the removal of British authority from Ireland
Ireland
and the re-establishment of the Irish Parliament in Dublin. The group had cultural aims also, and encouraged the study of Irish history and the revival of the Irish language . Influential Young Irelanders included Charles Gavan Duffy
Charles Gavan Duffy
, Thomas Davis and John Blake Dillon , the three founders of The Nation. William Smith O\'Brien , leader of the Young Ireland
Ireland
movement

The Young Irelanders eventually seceded from the Repeal Association. The leader of the Repeal Association, Daniel O\'Connell , opposed the use of physical force to enact repeal, and passed 'peace resolutions' declaring that violence and force were not to be employed. Though the Young Irelanders did not support the use of violence, the writers of The Nation maintained that the introduction of these peace resolutions was poorly timed, and that to declare outright that physical force would never be used was 'to deliver themselves bound hand and foot to the Whigs .' William Smith O\'Brien , who had previously worked to achieve compromise between O'Connell and The Nation group, was also concerned, and claimed that he feared these resolutions were an attempt to exclude the Young Irelanders from the Association altogether. At an Association meeting held in July 1846 at Conciliation Hall , the meeting place of the Association, Thomas Francis Meagher , a Young Irelander, addressing the peace resolutions, delivered his 'Sword Speech', in which he stated, "I do not abhor the use of arms in the vindication of national rights ... Be it for the defence, or be it for the assertion of a nation's liberty, I look upon the sword as a sacred weapon." John O\'Connell , Daniel O'Connell's son, was present at the proceedings and interrupted Meagher's speech, claiming that Meagher could no longer be part of the same association as O'Connell and his supporters. After some protest, the Young Irelanders left Conciliation Hall and the Repeal Association forever, founding the Irish Confederation 13 January 1847 after negotiations for a reunion had failed.

The Young Ireland
Ireland
movement culminated in a failed uprising (see Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848 ), which, influenced by the French Revolution of 1848 and further provoked by government inaction during the Great Famine and the suspension of habeas corpus , which allowed the government to imprison Young Irelanders and other political opponents without trial, was hastily planned and quickly suppressed. Following the abortive uprising, several rebel leaders were arrested and convicted of sedition. Originally sentenced to death, Smith O'Brien and other members of the Irish Confederation were transported to Van Diemen\'s Land .

THE FENIAN MOVEMENT

Some of the founding members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood

The Fenian
Fenian
movement consisted of the Fenian Brotherhood and the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), fraternal organisations founded in the United States and Ireland
Ireland
respectively with the aim of establishing an independent republic in Ireland.

The IRB was founded on Saint Patrick\'s Day 1858 in Dublin. Members present at the first meeting were James Stephens , Thomas Clarke Luby , Peter Langan, Joseph Denieffe, Garrett O'Shaughnessy, and Charles Kickham . Stephens had previously spent time exiled in Paris, along with John O\'Mahony , having taken part in the uprising of 1848 and fleeing to avoid capture. O'Mahony left France for America in the mid-1850s and founded the Emmet Monument Association with Michael Doheny . Stephens returned to Ireland
Ireland
in 1856.

The original oath of the society, drawn up by Luby under Stephens' direction, read:

I, AB., do solemnly swear, in the presence of Almighty God, that I will do my utmost, at every risk, while life lasts, to make Ireland an independent Democratic Republic; that I will yield implicit obedience, in all things not contrary to the law of God to the commands of my superior officers; and that I shall preserve inviolable secrecy regarding all the transactions of this secret society that may be confided in me. So help me God! Amen.

The Fenian Brotherhood was the IRB's counterpart organisation, formed in the same year in the United States by O'Mahony and Doheny. The Fenian
Fenian
Brotherhood's main purpose was to supply weapons and funds for its Irish counterpart and raise support for the Irish republican movement in the United States. The term "Fenian" was coined by O'Mahony, who named the American wing of the movement after the Fianna — a class of warriors that existed in Gaelic Ireland
Ireland
. The term became popular and is still in use, especially in Northern Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland, where it has expanded to refer to all Irish nationalists and republicans, as well as being a pejorative term for Irish Catholics.

Public support for the Fenian
Fenian
movement in Ireland
Ireland
grew in November 1861 with the funeral of Terence MacManus , a member of the Irish Confederation, which Stephens and the Fenians had organised and which was attended by between twenty thousand and thirty thousand people. Following this, Stephens (accompanied by Luby) undertook a series of organisational tours throughout the island.

In 1865 the Fenian Brotherhood in America had split into two factions. One was led by O'Mahony with Stephens' support. The other, which was more powerful, was led by William R. Roberts . The Fenians had always planned an armed rebellion, but there was now disagreement as to how and where this rebellion might be carried out. Roberts' faction preferred focusing all military efforts on British Canada (Roberts and his supporters theorised that victory for the American Fenians in nearby Canada would propel the Irish republican movement as a whole to success). The other, headed by O'Mahony, proposed that a rising in Ireland
Ireland
be planned for 1866. In spite of this, the O'Mahony wing of the movement itself tried and failed to capture New Brunswick 's Campobello Island
Campobello Island
in April 1866. Following this failure, the Roberts faction of the Fenian Brotherhood carried out its own, occupying the village of Fort Erie
Fort Erie
on 31 May 1866 and engaging Canadian troops at the battles of Ridgeway and Fort Erie
Fort Erie
on 2 June. It was in reference to Fenians fighting in this battle that the name "Irish Republican Army" was first used. These attacks (and those that followed) in Canada are collectively known as the " Fenian
Fenian
raids ".

NINETEENTH CENTURY ONWARD

Main article: Physical force Irish republicanism A depiction of the Easter Rising Seán Hogan 's IRA flying column during the Irish War of Independence .

After the Act of Union in 1801 merging Ireland
Ireland
with Britain into the United Kingdom, Irish independence movements were suppressed by the British. Nationalist rebellions against British rule in 1803, by Robert Emmet, 1848 (by the Young Irelanders) and 1865 and 1867 (by the Fenians) were followed by harsh reprisals by British forces.

In 1916 the Easter Rising organised by the Irish Republican Brotherhood was launched in Dublin
Dublin
and the Irish Republic
Republic
was proclaimed. The Rising was suppressed after six days, and most of its leaders were executed by the British. This was a turning point in Irish history, leading to the end of British rule in most of Ireland.

From 1919–1921 the Irish Republican Army (IRA) was organised as a guerilla army, led by Richard Mulcahy
Richard Mulcahy
and with Michael Collins as Director of Intelligence and fought against British forces. During the Anglo-Irish War (or Irish War of Independence ) the British sent paramilitary police, the " Black and Tans " and the Auxiliary Division , to help the British Army
British Army
and Royal Irish Constabulary . These groups committed atrocities which included killing captured POWs and Irish civilians viewed as being sympathetic to the IRA. The most infamous of all their actions was the burning of half the city of Cork in 1920 and the Bloody Sunday massacre of 1920. These atrocities, together with the popularity of the republican ideal, and British repression of republican political expression, led to widespread support across Ireland
Ireland
for the Irish rebels.

In 1921 the British government led by David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
negotiated the Anglo-Irish Treaty with Arthur Griffith , Michael Collins, and the other republican leaders all of whom acted as plenipotentiaries on behalf of the future provisional Irish government , thus ending the conflict.

IRISH FREE STATE AND REPUBLIC OF IRELAND

Main articles: Irish War of Independence , Anglo-Irish Treaty , and Irish Free State

Though many across the country were unhappy with the Anglo-Irish Treaty (since, during the war, the IRA had fought for independence for all Ireland
Ireland
and for a republic, not a partitioned dominion under the British crown ), some republicans were satisfied that the Treaty was the best that could be achieved at the time. However, a substantial number opposed it. Dáil Éireann , the Irish parliament, voted by 64 votes to 57 to ratify it, the majority believing that the treaty created a new base from which to move forward. Éamon de Valera , who had served as President of the Irish Republic
Republic
during the war, refused to accept the decision of the Dáil and led the opponents of the treaty out of the House. The pro-Treaty republicans organised themselves into the Cumann na nGaedheal party, while the anti-Treaty republicans retained the Sinn Féin name. The IRA itself split between pro-Treaty and anti-Treaty elements, with the former forming the nucleus of the new Irish National Army .

Michael Collins became Commander-in-Chief of the National Army. Shortly afterwards, some dissidents, apparently without the authorisation of the anti-Treaty IRA Army Executive, occupied the Four Courts in Dublin
Dublin
and kidnapped a pro-Treaty general. The government , responding to this provocation and to intensified British pressure following the assassination by an IRA unit in London of Sir Henry Wilson , ordered the regular army to take the Four Courts , thereby beginning the Irish Civil War . It is believed that Collins continued to fund and supply the IRA in Northern Ireland
Ireland
throughout the civil war, but, after his death, W. T. Cosgrave (the new President of the Executive Council , or prime minister) discontinued this support.

By May 1923, the war (which had claimed more lives than the War of Independence) ended in the call by the IRA to dump arms. However, the harsh measures adopted by both sides, including assassinations of politicians by the Republicans and executions and atrocities by the Free State side, left a bitter legacy in Irish politics for decades to come.

De Valera, who had strongly supported the Republican side in the Civil War, reconsidered his views while in jail and came to accept the ideas of political activity under the terms of the Free State constitution. Rather than abstaining from Free State politics entirely, he now sought to republicanise it from within. However, he and his supporters—which included most Sinn Féin TDs—failed to convince a majority of the anti-treaty Sinn Féin of these views and the movement split again. In 1926, he formed a new party called Fianna Fáil (Soldiers of Destiny), taking most of Sinn Féin's TDs with him. The country in 1931, following the enactment of the Statute of Westminster , became a sovereign state, regarded by the Irish government as being in personal union —through the person of the King of the Irish Free State —with the other Dominions and the United Kingdom. The following year, De Valera was appointed President of the Executive Council of the Free State and began a slow process of turning the country from a constitutional monarchy to a constitutional republic, thus fulfilling Collins's prediction of "the freedom to achieve freedom" (though the country was already free).

By then, the IRA was engaged in confrontations with the Blueshirts , a quasi-fascist group led by a former War of Independence and pro-Treaty leader, Eoin O\'Duffy . O'Duffy looked to Fascist Italy as an example for Ireland
Ireland
to follow. Several hundred supporters of O'Duffy briefly went to Spain to volunteer on the Nationalist side in the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
, and a smaller number of ex-IRA members, communists and others participated on the Republican side.

In 1937, the Constitution of Ireland
Ireland
was written by the de Valera government and approved via referendum by the majority of the population of the southern 26 counties. The constitution changed the name of the state to Éire in the Irish language ( Ireland
Ireland
in English) and claimed jurisdiction over the whole of Ireland. The new state was headed by a President of Ireland
Ireland
elected by universal manhood suffrage, though, the King of the Irish Free State (by then George VI
George VI
) remained, albeit with a role diminished solely to functions in relation to diplomatic affairs. He is believed to have been left with those residual functions as a concession to Unionist opinion. The new state had the objective characteristics of a republic and was referred to as such by de Valera himself, but, it remained within the British Commonwealth and was regarded by the British as a Dominion, like Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. Furthermore, the claim to the whole of the island did not reflect practical reality and inflamed anti- Dublin
Dublin
sentiment among northern Protestants.

In 1948, Fianna
Fianna
Fáil went out of office for the first time in sixteen years. John A. Costello
John A. Costello
, leader of the coalition government, announced his intention to declare Ireland
Ireland
a republic. The Republic of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1948 , which created the Republic
Republic
of Ireland, led the British government to pass the Ireland
Ireland
Act 1949 , which declared that all of Northern Ireland
Ireland
would continue as part of the United Kingdom unless the Parliament of Northern Ireland
Ireland
consented to leave. As a result of this—and also because continuing struggle against the Dublin
Dublin
government was futile—the republican movement took the decision to focus on Northern Ireland
Ireland
from then on. The decision was announced by the IRA in its Easter statement of 1949.

REPUBLICANISM IN NORTHERN IRELAND

1921–66

In 1921, Ireland
Ireland
was partitioned. Most of the country became part of the independent Irish Free State . However, six out of the nine counties of Ulster
Ulster
remained part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as Northern Ireland
Ireland
. In the 1921 elections in Northern Ireland,

* Antrim , Down and the borough of Belfast
Belfast
had Unionist majorities of over 25%. * In County Londonderry , the breakdown in that election was 56.2% Unionist / 43.8% Nationalist. * In Armagh
Armagh
, the ratio was 55.3% Unionist / 44.7% Nationalist. * In Fermanagh –Tyrone (which was a single constituency), the ratio 54.7% Nationalist / 45.3% Unionist. (Tyrone was 55.4% Catholic in the 1911 census and 55.5% in the 1926 census, though of course only adults had votes on the other hand religious and national affiliations while closely linked are not as absolute as commonly assumed.) Within most of these counties there were large pockets which predominantly nationalist or Unionist (South Armagh, West Tyrone West Londonderry and parts of North Antrim were largely nationalist whereas much of North Armagh, East Londonderry, East Tyrone and most of Antrim were/are largely Unionist).

This territory of Northern Ireland, as established by the Government of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1920 , had its own provincial government which was controlled for 50 years until 1972 by the conservative Ulster
Ulster
Unionist Party (UUP). The tendency to vote on sectarian lines and the proportions of each religious denomination ensured that there would never be a change of government. In local government, constituency boundaries were drawn to divide nationalist communities into two or even three constituencies and so weaken their effect (see Gerrymandering ).

The (mainly Catholic) Nationalist population in Northern Ireland, besides feeling politically alienated, was also economically alienated, often with worse living standards compared to their Protestant (mainly Unionist) neighbours, with fewer job opportunities, and living in ghettos in Belfast
Belfast
, Derry, Armagh
Armagh
and other places. Many Catholics considered the Unionist government was undemocratic, bigoted and favoured Protestants. Emigration for economic reasons kept the nationalist population from growing, despite its higher birth rate. Although poverty, (e)migration and unemployment were fairly widespread (albeit not to the same extent) among Protestants as well, on the other hand the economic situation in Northern Ireland
Ireland
(even for Catholics) was for a long time arguably still better than in the Republic
Republic
of Ireland.

During the 1930s the IRA launched minor attacks against the Royal Ulster
Ulster
Constabulary (RUC) and British army
British army
in Northern Ireland. The IRA began another armed campaign in Britain in 1939. During World War II the IRA leadership hoped for support from Germany, and chief of staff Seán Russell travelled there in 1940; he died later that year after falling ill on a U-boat that was bringing him back to Ireland (possibly with a view to starting a German sponsored revolution in Ireland). Suspected republicans were interned on both sides of the border, for different reasons.

The Border Campaign in the mid-50s was the last attempt at traditional military action and was an abject failure. The Movement needed to reconsider its strategy.

1966–69

Main article: Official IRA

In the late 1960s, Irish political activists groups found parallels with their struggle against religious discrimination in the civil rights campaign of Afro-Americans the US against racial discrimination. Student leaders such a Bernadette Devlin and Nationalist politicians such as Austin Currie tried to use non-violent direct action to draw attention to the blatant discrimination. By 1968, Europe as a whole was engulfed in a struggle between radicalism and conservativism. In Sinn Féin, the same debate raged. The dominant analysis was that Protestant Irishmen and women would never be bombed into a united Ireland
Ireland
. The only way forward was to have both sides embrace socialism and forget their sectarian hatreds. They resolved to no longer to be drawn into inter-communal violence.

As a response to the civil rights campaign militant loyalist paramilitary groups started to emerge in the Protestant community. The Ulster
Ulster
Volunteer Force (UVF) was the first. The UVF had originally existed among loyalist Ulster
Ulster
Protestants before World War I
World War I
to oppose Home Rule . In the 1960s it was relaunched by militant loyalists, encouraged by certain politicians, to oppose any attempt to reunite Northern Ireland
Ireland
with the Republic
Republic
of Ireland
Ireland
, which is how they saw any change in their status vis-a-vis Catholics.

By mid-1969 the violence in Northern Ireland
Ireland
exploded. Consistent with their new political ideology, the IRA declined to intervene. By late August, the British government had to intervene and declare a state of emergency , sending a large number of troops into Northern Ireland
Ireland
to stop the intercommunal violence. Initially welcomed by some Catholics as protectors, later events such as Bloody Sunday and the Falls Road curfew turned many against the British Army.

1970–85

Divisions began to emerge in the Republican movement between leftists and conservatives. The leader of the IRA, Cathal Goulding believed that the IRA could not beat the British with military tactics and should turn into a workers' revolutionary movement that would overthrow both governments to achieve a 32-county socialist republic through the will of the people (after WWII the IRA no longer engaged in any actions against the Republic). Goulding also drove the IRA into an ideologically Marxist-Leninist direction which attracted idealistic young supporters in the Republic, but alienated and angered many of the IRA's core supporters in the North. In particular, his decision to regard the UVF as deluded rather than as the enemy, was anathema to traditionalists and those who were its potential victims.

The argument led to a split in 1970, between the Official IRA (supporters of Goulding's Marxist line) and the Provisional IRA (also called Provos, traditional nationalist republicans). The Provos were led by Seán Mac Stiofáin and immediately began a large scale campaign against British state forces and economic targets in Northern Ireland. The Official IRA were also initially drawn into an armed campaign by the escalating communal violence. In 1972, the Official IRA declared a cease-fire, which, apart from feuds with other republican groups, has been maintained to date. Nowadays the term 'Irish Republican Army' almost always denotes the Provisional IRA.

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the conflict continued claiming thousands of lives, with the UVF (and other loyalist groups) extending attacks into the Republic
Republic
of Ireland
Ireland
and the IRA launching attacks on targets in England. However some things slowly began to change. In the 1980s Provisional Sinn Féin (the Provisional IRA's political wing) began contesting elections and by the mid-1990s was representing the republican position at peace negotiations. In the loyalist movement splits occurred, the Ulster
Ulster
Unionist Party made tentative attempts to reform itself and attract Catholics into supporting the union with Britain, while the radical Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) led by Rev. Ian Paisley began attracting working class Protestant loyalists who felt alienated by the UUP's overtures towards Catholics.

1986–PRESENT

At the 1986 Sinn Féin Ard Fheis , a motion declaring the end of the policy of abstentionism (refusing to take seats in the Republic
Republic
of Ireland's parliament), was passed. This motion caused a split in the movement creating Republican Sinn Féin , a party committed to the 1970s "provisional" Sinn Féin vision of a 32 County federal republic. It was led by former Sinn Féin President Ruairí Ó Brádaigh (who had previously led "provisional" Sinn Féin to split from Official Sinn Féin). The policy of participation in Dáil elections became known as "the Armalite and the ballot box".

In 1994 the leaders of Northern Ireland's two largest nationalist parties, Gerry Adams , the leader of Sinn Féin and John Hume , the leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party
Social Democratic and Labour Party
(SDLP) entered into peace negotiations with Unionist leaders like David Trimble of the UUP and the British government. At the table most of the paramilitary groups (including the IRA and UVF) had representatives. In 1998 when the IRA endorsed the Good Friday Agreement between nationalist and unionist parties and both governments, another small group split from the IRA to form the Real IRA (RIRA). The Continuity and Real IRA have both engaged in attacks not only against the British and loyalists, but even against their fellow nationalists (members of Sinn Féin, the SDLP and IRA).

Since 1998, the IRA and UVF have adhered to a ceasefire.

Today the republican movement can be divided into moderates who wish to reunite with the Republic
Republic
through peaceful means and radicals who wish to continue an armed campaign.

In late July 2005, the IRA announced that the armed conflict was over and that their weapons were to be put out of use. A large stock of weapons was reportedly "decommissioned" later that year. Some Unionists disputed the claim that this represented the entire stock of IRA weaponry.

VARIANTS

IRISH REPUBLICAN SOCIALISM

Socialism has traditionally been part of the Irish republican movement since the early 20th century, when James Connolly
James Connolly
, an Irish Marxist and Syndicalist theorist, took part in the Easter Rising of 1916. Today, most Irish nationalist and republican organizations located in Northern Ireland
Ireland
advocate some form of socialism, both Marxist and non-Marxist. The Social Democratic and Labour Party
Social Democratic and Labour Party
, which until recently was the largest nationalist party in Northern Ireland, promotes social democracy , while militant republican parties such as Sinn Féin , Republican Sinn Féin , and the 32 County Sovereignty Movement all promote their own varieties of democratic socialism intended to re-distribute wealth on an all-island basis once a united Ireland
Ireland
has been achieved. The Irish Republican Socialist Movement , encompassing the Irish Republican Socialist Party and Irish National Liberation Army , as well as the defunct Official Irish Republican Army and Irish National Liberation Front , are known for promoting an ideology which combines Marxism–Leninism with traditional revolutionary militant republicanism and is claimed by its adherents to be the most direct fulfilment of Connolly's legacy.

POLITICAL PARTIES

The following are active republican parties in Ireland.

* Sinn Féin is a republican party in Ireland. Throughout the Northern Ireland
Ireland
troubles it was closely allied with the Provisional Irish Republican Army , publicly arguing for the validity of its armed campaign. Its policy platform combines civic nationalism with socialist views on economic and social issues. It is led by Gerry Adams , and organises in both the Republic
Republic
of Ireland
Ireland
and Northern Ireland. The Party was also known as "Provisional" Sinn Féin by the media and commentators, having split from what later became known as the "Official" Sinn Féin (later the Workers\' Party ) in 1970, because the latter had voted to enter a 'partitionist parliament'. In 1986 it reversed its original policy of not taking seats in Dáil Éireann , prompting another split, when Republican Sinn Féin was formed. By the early 21st century it had replaced the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) as Northern Ireland's largest nationalist party. As of 2015, it holds four seats in the British parliament, fourteen seats in the Dáil, three in the Seanad and 29 in the Northern Ireland
Ireland
Assembly . Sinn Féin members contest elections to the British parliament on an abstentionist basis, that is, they refuse to take their seats in that parliament as they refuse to accept the right of that body to rule in any part of Ireland. * Republican Sinn Féin was formed in 1986 by former Sinn Féin leader Ruairí Ó Brádaigh who led traditional republicans in a break with Sinn Féin over the ending of the policy of abstention in relation to elections to Dáil Éireann . The party continues to operate on an abstentionist basis: it would not take seats in the assemblies of either the Republic
Republic
of Ireland
Ireland
or Northern Ireland because it views neither as legitimate. It is linked to the Continuity IRA , whose goals are the overthrow of British rule in Northern Ireland
Ireland
and the unification of the island to form an independent country. In November 2009, Des Dalton replaced Ó Brádaigh as leader of Republican Sinn Féin. * Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP) was founded in 1974 by former Official IRA militant Seamus Costello , who possibly had an eye towards James Connolly
James Connolly
's Irish Socialist Republican Party of the late 19th/early 20th century when coining the party's name. Costello led other former Official IRA members dissatisfied with Cathal Goulding 's policies and tactics. The party quickly organised a paramilitary wing called the Irish National Liberation Army
Irish National Liberation Army
(INLA) which has decommissioned recently. It claims to follow the principles of republican socialism as set out by the 1916 rebellion leader Connolly and radical 20th-century trade unionist James Larkin . * Éirígí was formed by a small group of former Sinn Féin activists in Dublin
Dublin
in April 2006 as a political campaigns group, and became a full-fledged political party at the party's first Ardfheis (conference) in May 2007. An Independent Monitoring Commission report said the group was "a small political grouping based on revolutionary socialist principles". While it continues to be a political association, albeit with aggressive protest activities, it was not seen as paramilitary in nature.

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to IRISH REPUBLICANISM .

* Dissident republican * Protestant Irish nationalists

REFERENCES

* ^ Curtis, Liz, The Cause of Ireland, Beyond the Pale, ISBN 0-9514229-6-0 , p. 1-3 * ^ Ó Ceallaigh, Daltún, New Perspectives on Ireland:Colonialism & Identity, Léirmheas, Dublin, 1998, ISBN 0-9518777-6-3 p. 9-13 * ^ Kee Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 11 * ^ A B Kee Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 12 * ^ Kee Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 15 * ^ Kee Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 51 * ^ Kee Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 74 * ^ Kee Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 134 * ^ Kee Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 92 * ^ A B Kee Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 149 * ^ Kee Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 150 * ^ A B Webster, Hollis, The History of Ireland, (Greenwood, 2001) ISBN 0-313-31281-8 p. 83 * ^ A B Kee Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 158 * ^ Greoghan, Patrick M., Robert Emmet: A Life. Gill & MacMillan , 2004. ISBN 978-0-7171-3675-9 * ^ Robert Emmet
Robert Emmet
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009. * ^ Kee, Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 165 * ^ Proclamation of the Provisional Government, Robert Emmet, 1803 * ^ A B Duffy, Charles Gavan, Young Ireland, Cassell, Petter, Galpin & Co. (1880). p. 291 * ^ Bartoletti, Susan Campbell, Black Potatoes: The Story of the Great Irish Famine, 1845–1850(2001) ISBN 0-618-00271-5 * ^ Young Ireland
Ireland
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2009. Retrieved 2009-23-12. * ^ Michael Doheny, The Felon's Track, M.H. Gill &Sons, LTD 1951, p. 105 * ^ A B Kee, Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 253 * ^ The Sword Speech, Thomas Francies Meagher (1846) * ^ Kee, Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 276 * ^ Kee, Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 287 * ^ McGee, Owen, The IRB: The Irish Republican Brotherhood from The Land League to Sinn Féin, Four Courts Press Ltd (2005) ISBN 1-84682-064-2 * ^ Ryan, Desmond, The Fenian
Fenian
Chief. A Biography of James Stephens, Gill & Son (1967) * ^ An Phoblacht – The Founding of the Fenians 13 March 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2009. * ^ O'Leary, John, Recollections of Fenians and Fenianism, Downey & Co., Ltd, London, (1896) (Vol. I & II) p. 82 * ^ Ryan, Desmond, The Fenian
Fenian
Chief. A Biography of James Stephens, Gill & Son (1967) p. 92 * ^ Kee, Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 312 * ^ O Broin, Leon Fenian
Fenian
Fever: An Anglo-American Dilemma, Chatto & Windus (1971) ISBN 0-7011-1749-4 p. 1 * ^ Kee, Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 314 * ^ Kee, Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 323 * ^ A B C Kee Robert, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, (1972) ISBN 0-297-17987-X p. 325 * ^ Kee, p. 326 * ^ Alvin Jackson, Ireland, 1798–1998: Politics and War, 1999, Wiley-Blackwell, p. 262. ISBN 978-0-631-19542-9 * ^ "Black v Chrétien: Suing a Minister of the Crown for Abuse of Power, Misfeasance in Public Office and Negligence". Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law. 9 (3). September 2002. Retrieved 2 October 2008. * ^ R. F. Foster, The Oxford History of Ireland, 2001, Oxford University Press, p. 217. ISBN 978-0-19-280202-6 * ^ Nicholas and Diana Mansergh, 1997, Nationalism
Nationalism
and Independence: Selected Irish Papers, Cork University Press, p. 170. ISBN 978-1-85918-106-5 * ^ Brian Feeney, Sinn Féin: A Hundred Turbulent Years, 2002, p. 192 * ^ Feeney (2002), p. 193 * ^ Feeney (2002), pp. 195–6 * ^ A B John Horgan, Divided We Stand: The Strategy and Psychology of Ireland\'s Dissident Terrorists, 2012, p. 164 * ^ Jonathan Tonge (2006), Northern Ireland, Polity, pp.132–133 * ^ John Horgan, Divided We Stand: The Strategy and Psychology of Ireland\'s Dissident Terrorists, 2012, p. 162 * ^ John Horgan, Divided We Stand: The Strategy and Psychology of Ireland\'s Dissident Terrorists, 2012, p. 161 * ^ "éirígí Becomes a Political Party – Indymedia Ireland". Indymedia.ie. 13 May 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2010. * ^ "Twentieth Report of the Independent Monitoring Commission" (PDF). October 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2012.

* v * t * e

Young Ireland
Ireland

GENERAL

* Repeal Association * The Nation * Irish nationalism * Irish republicanism * Irish Confederation * Great Hunger * Revolutions of 1848 * A Nation Once Again * Irish tricolour * Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848 * Penal transportation * Van Diemen\'s Land * Irish Republican Brotherhood

PERSONALITIES

* Joseph Blake * Joseph Brenan * Robert Cane * Thomas Davis * John Blake Dillon * Michael Doheny * Charles Gavan Duffy
Charles Gavan Duffy
* Philip Gray * John Kenyon * James Fintan Lalor * Maurice Leyne * Thomas D\'Arcy McGee * Terence MacManus * John Martin * Thomas Francis Meagher * John Mitchel * William Smith O\'Brien * Kevin Izod O\'Doherty * Patrick O\'Donoghue * Richard O\'Gorman * John O\'Leary * John O\'Mahony * Thomas Devin Reilly * John Savage * Patrick James Smyth * James Stephens * Jane Wilde

BRITISH LAWS

* Crime and Outrage Bill (Ireland) 1847 * Treason Felony Act 1848

* v * t * e

Irish Republican Brotherhood

GENERAL

* Young Ireland
Ireland
* Fenianism * Irish republicanism * Physical force Irish republicanism * Irish in the American Civil War * Manchester Martyrs * Cuba Five * New Departure * Irish Race Conventions * Obstructionism * Fenian
Fenian
Ram * Hindu–German Conspiracy * Declaration of Independence * Irish Republic
Republic
* Sinn Féin * Anglo-Irish Treaty * Irish Civil War * Irish Free State

ACTIONS

* Fenian
Fenian
Rising (Clerkenwell explosion border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* James Stephens (1858-66) * Thomas J. Kelly (1866-69) * J. F. X. O\'Brien (1869-72) * Charles Kickham (1873-82) * John O\'Connor Power (1882-91) * John O\'Leary (1891-07) * Neal O\'Boyle (1907-10) * John Mulholland (1910-1912) * Seamus Deakin (1913-14) * Denis McCullough (1915-16) * Thomas Ashe (1916-17) * Seán McGarry (1917-19) * Harry Boland (1919-20) * Patrick Moylett (1920) * Michael Collins (1920-22) * Richard Mulcahy
Richard Mulcahy
(1922-24)

ESPIONAGE

* Thomas Miller Beach * Francis Frederick Millen * Red Jim McDermott * Thomas Phelan * Patrick Sarsfield Cassidy (allegedly)

ASSOCIATES

* Fenian Brotherhood * Clan na Gael * United Irishmen of America * Irish Republican Army * Cumann na mBan * Fianna
Fianna
Éireann * Emmet Monument Association * Friends of Irish Freedom

DERIVATIVES

* Irish National Invincibles ( Phoenix Park Killings )

* v * t * e

The Troubles
The Troubles

* History of Northern Ireland
Ireland
* History of Ireland
Ireland
* Irish nationalism * Irish republicanism * Ulster
Ulster
unionism * Ulster
Ulster
loyalism * Books about the Troubles

PARTICIPANTS

Republican paramilitaries

* Provisional IRA (timeline ) * Official IRA * Irish National Liberation Army
Irish National Liberation Army
(timeline ) * Continuity IRA (timeline ) * Real IRA (timeline ) * IPLO (timeline

SECURITY FORCES United Kingdom
United Kingdom
British Army
British Army
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
Royal Navy
Royal Navy
Northern Ireland
Ireland
Ulster
Ulster
Defence Regiment /Royal Irish Regiment Royal Ulster
Ulster
Constabulary / Ulster
Ulster
Special
Special
Constabulary Republic
Republic
of Ireland
Ireland
Garda Síochána Irish Army

Loyalist paramilitaries

* Ulster
Ulster
Defence Association (timeline ) * Ulster
Ulster
Volunteer Force (timeline ) * Loyalist
Loyalist
Volunteer Force * Red Hand Commando * Ulster
Ulster
Resistance * Linked to: Some RUC and British Army
British Army
members

POLITICAL PARTIES

UNIONIST

* Ulster
Ulster
Unionist Party * Democratic Unionist Party * Progressive Unionist Party * UK Unionist Party * Traditional Unionist Voice * Ulster
Ulster
Vanguard * Ulster
Ulster
Democratic Party

NATIONALIST

* Social Democratic border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Alliance Party

CHRONOLOGY

* Northern Ireland
Ireland
civil rights movement begins (1967) * August riots and beginning of Operation Banner (1969) * Falls Curfew (1970) * Internment without trial begins with Operation Demetrius (1971) * Irish government enacts broadcasting restrictions (1971) * Bloody Sunday by British Army
British Army
(1972) * Northern Ireland
Ireland
government dissolved; direct rule from London begins (1972) * Bloody Friday by IRA (1972) * Operation Motorman ends no-go areas (1972) * Sunningdale Agreement establishes power-sharing Assembly (1973) * Ulster
Ulster
Workers\' Council strike brings down Agreement and power-sharing (1974) * Dublin
Dublin
and Monaghan bombings by UVF (1974) * Guildford and Birmingham pub bombings
Birmingham pub bombings
by IRA (1974) * Kingsmill massacre by IRA (1976) * Warrenpoint ambush by IRA (1979) * 1981 Irish hunger strike ; hunger striker Bobby Sands elected MP; Sinn Féin begins to move towards electoral politics (1981)

* Brighton hotel bombing by IRA (1984) * Anglo-Irish Agreement (1985) * Loughgall ambush by British Army
British Army
(1987) * Remembrance Day bombing
Remembrance Day bombing
by IRA (1987) * Peace Process begins (1988) * Operation Flavius
Operation Flavius
, Milltown Cemetery attack
Milltown Cemetery attack
and Corporals killings (1988) * British government introduces broadcasting restrictions (1988) * Attack on Derryard checkpoint by Provisional IRA (1989) * Baltic Exchange bombing (1992) * Bishopsgate bombing (1993) * Downing Street Declaration (1993) * First IRA and loyalist ceasefires (1994) * Docklands and Manchester bombings by IRA (1996) * Dumcree riots (1997) * Second IRA ceasefire (1997) * Good Friday Agreement (1998) signals the end of the Troubles * Omagh bombing by the Real IRA (1998)

OTHER ISSUES AND TOPICS

* Segregation * Peace lines
Peace lines
/Interface areas * Parades * Flags * Collusion * The Disappeared * Shoot-to-kill policy * Diplock courts * Special
Special
Category
Category
Status * Five techniques * Punishment shootings * Murals * The Troubles
The Troubles
in popular culture * List of books about the Troubles

* v * t * e

Nationalism
Nationalism
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom

BRITISH

* Nationalism
Nationalism
* Unionism * Fascism * Britishness

ORGANISATIONS

* British Democratic Party * Britain First
Britain First
* British National Party * Britannica Party * Candour * Democratic Unionist Party * Liberty GB * National Front * Progressive Unionist Party * Traditional Unionist Voice * UK Independence Party
UK Independence Party
* A Better Britain – Unionist Party

CORNISH

* Nationalism
Nationalism
* Devolution

ORGANISATIONS

* Mebyon Kernow
Mebyon Kernow
* Cornish Constitutional Convention * Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament
Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament

ENGLISH

* Independence * Unionism * Nationalism
Nationalism

ORGANISATIONS

* English Democrats

IRISH

* Irish nationalism * Unionism * Republicanism * Unification * Ulster
Ulster
nationalism

ORGANISATIONS

* Sinn Féin * Social Democratic and Labour Party
Social Democratic and Labour Party
* Éirígí * Irish Republican Socialist Party * Republican Network for Unity * Republican Sinn Féin * Ulster
Ulster
Third Way

SCOTTISH

* Independence * Unionism *