The Info List - Irish Diaspora

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The IRISH DIASPORA (Irish : Diaspóra na nGael) refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside Ireland

The phenomenon of migration from Ireland
is recorded since early Medieval times, but it is only possible to quantify it from around 1700: since then between 9 and 10 million people born in Ireland
have emigrated. This is more than the population of Ireland
at its historical peak in the 1840s of 8.5 million. The poorest of them went to Great Britain, especially Liverpool
; those who could afford it went further, including almost 5 million to the United States.

After 1840, emigration from Ireland
became a massive, relentless, and efficiently managed national enterprise. In 1890 40% of Irish-born people were living abroad. By the 21st century, an estimated 80 million people worldwide claimed some Irish descent, which includes more than 36 million Americans who claim Irish as their primary ethnicity.

As recently as the second half of the nineteenth century, the majority of Irish emigrants spoke Irish as their first language. This had social and cultural consequences for the cultivation of the language abroad, including innovations in journalism. The language continues to be cultivated abroad by a small minority as a literary and social medium.

Joe McHugh is the Republic of Ireland
's Minister of State for the Diaspora.


* 1 Definition * 2 Causes

* 3 Genealogy

* 3.1 Plastic Paddies

* 4 Great Britain * 5 Continental Europe

* 6 Americas

* 6.1 Argentina
* 6.2 Bermuda
* 6.3 Canada

* 6.4 Caribbean

* 6.4.1 Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico

* 6.5 Chile
* 6.6 Mexico * 6.7 United States
United States

* 7 Asia

* 7.1 India

* 8 Australia
* 9 South Africa
South Africa
* 10 New Zealand
New Zealand
* 11 List of countries by population of Irish heritage * 12 Religion

* 13 Famous members of the diaspora

* 13.1 Politicians * 13.2 Artists and musicians * 13.3 Scientists * 13.4 Misc

* 14 See also – Irish Brigade * 15 See also – Causes of Irish emigration * 16 See also – General

* 17 References

* 17.1 Footnotes * 17.2 Bibliography

* 18 External links


The Bridge of Tears (Droichead na nDeor in Irish ) in West Donegal , Ireland. Family and friends of emigrants would accompany them as far as the bridge before saying goodbye, while the emigrants would continue on to Derry Port
Derry Port

The term Irish diaspora
Irish diaspora
is open to many interpretations. The diaspora , broadly interpreted, contains all those known to have Irish ancestors, i.e., over 100 million people, which is more than fifteen times the population of the island of Ireland
, which was about 6.4 million in 2011. It has been argued the idea of an Irish diaspora, as distinct from the old identification of Irishness with Ireland
itself, was influenced by the perceived advent of global mobility and modernity. Irishness could now be identified with dispersed individuals and groups of Irish descent. But many of those individuals were the product of complex ethnic intermarriage in America and elsewhere, complicating the idea of a single line of descent. "Irishness" might then rely primarily on individual identification with an Irish diaspora.

The Government of Ireland
defines the Irish diaspora
Irish diaspora
as all persons of Irish nationality who habitually reside outside of the island of Ireland. This includes Irish citizens who have emigrated abroad and their children, who are Irish citizens by descent under Irish law . It also includes their grandchildren in cases where they were registered as Irish citizens in the Foreign Births Register held in every Irish diplomatic mission . (Great-grandchildren and even more distant descendants of Irish immigrants may also register as Irish citizens, but only if the parent through whom they claim descent was registered as a citizen before the descendant in question was born.) Under this legal definition, the Irish diaspora
Irish diaspora
is considerably smaller—some 3 million persons, of whom 1.2 million are Irish-born emigrants. This is still a large ratio for any country. A plaque commemorating The Bridge of Tears, which reads, "Fad leis seo a thagadh cairde agus lucht gaoil an té a bhí ag imeacht chun na coigrithe. B'anseo an scaradh. Seo Droichead na nDeor" (Family and friends of the person leaving for foreign lands would come this far. Here was the separation. This is the Bridge of Tears).

However, the usage of Irish diaspora
Irish diaspora
is generally not limited by citizenship status, thus leading to an estimated (and fluctuating) membership of up to 80 million persons—the second and more emotive definition. The Irish Government acknowledged this interpretation—although it did not acknowledge any legal obligations to persons in this larger diaspora—when Article 2 of the Constitution of Ireland
was amended in 1998 to read "urthermore, the Irish nation cherishes its special affinity with people of Irish ancestry living abroad who share its cultural identity and heritage."

The right to register as an Irish citizen terminates at the third generation (except as noted above). This contrasts with citizenship law in Italy , Israel , Japan and other countries which practice jus sanguinis or otherwise permit members of the diaspora to register as citizens.

There are people of Irish descent abroad (including Irish speakers ) who reject inclusion in an Irish "diaspora" and who designate their identity in other ways. They may see the diasporic label as something used by the Irish government for its own purposes.


External video Part One of Booknotes interview with Thomas Keneally on The Great Shame and the Triumph of the Irish in the English-Speaking World, January 2, 2000, C-SPAN

Part Two of Booknotes interview with Keneally, January 9, 2000, C-SPAN

The Irish, whom the Romans called Scotti (but who called themselves Gaels), had raided and settled along the West Coast of Roman Britain
Roman Britain
, and numbers were allowed to settle within the province, where the Roman Army
Roman Army
recruited many Irish into auxiliary units that were dispatched to the German frontier. The Attacotti , who were similarly recruited into the Roman army, may also have been Irish settlers in Britain (the movement between Ireland
and the classical Britain may have been two-way as similarities between the Medieval accounts of Túathal Teachtmar and archaeological evidence indicate that the Romans may have supported the invasion and conquest of Ireland
by Irish exiles from Britain with the hopes of establishing a friendly ruler who could halt the raiding of Britain by the Irish. Some historians have also suggested that the Cruthin of the North of Ireland
may have been Picts
.). Following the withdrawal of the Roman army, the Irish began increasing their footholds in Britain, with part of the north-West of the island annexed within the Irish kingdom of Dál Riata
Dál Riata
. In time, the Irish colonies became independent, merged with the Pictish kingdom, and formed the basis of modern Scotland

The traditionally Gaelic -speaking areas of Scotland
(the Highlands and Hebrides ) are still referred to in the Gaelic language as a' Ghàidhealtachd ("the Gaeldom"). Irish monks, and the Celtic church , pioneered a wave of Irish emigration into Great Britain, and continental Europe (and they were possibly the first inhabitants of the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and Iceland
). Throughout early Medieval times Britain and continental Europe experienced Irish immigration of varying intensity, mostly from clerics and scholars who are collectively known as peregrini. Irish emigration to western Europe, and especially to Great Britain, has continued at a greater or lesser pace since then. Today, the ethnic-Irish are the single largest minority group in both England and Scotland, most of whom eventually made it back to Ireland.

The dispersal of the Irish has been mainly to Britain or to countries colonised by Britain. England's political connection with Ireland began in 1155 when Pope Adrian IV issued a papal bull (known as Laudabiliter ) that gave Henry II permission to invade Ireland
as a means of strengthening the Papacy's control over the Irish Church . This was followed in 1169 by the Norman invasion of Ireland
led by the general Richard de Clare , a.k.a. Strongbow.

The English Crown did not attempt to assert full control of the island until after Henry VIII 's repudiation of paprebelal authority over the Church in England and subsequent rebellion of the Earl of Kildare in Ireland
in 1534 threatened English hegemony there. Until the break with Rome , it was widely believed that Ireland
was a Papal possession granted as a mere fiefdom to the English king, so in 1541 Henry VIII asserted England's claim to Ireland
free from the Papal overlordship by proclaiming himself King of Ireland

Following the Nine Years\' War (1594 to 1603) political power rested in the hands of a Protestant Ascendancy
Protestant Ascendancy
minority and was marked by a Crown policy of plantation , involving the arrival of thousands of English and Scottish Protestant
settlers, and the consequent displacement of the pre-plantation Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
landholders. As the military and political defeat of Gaelic Ireland
became more pronounced in the early seventeenth century, sectarian conflict became a recurrent theme in Irish history.

Roman Catholics and members of dissenting Protestant
denominations suffered severe political and economic privations from Penal Laws . The Irish Parliament was abolished in 1801 in the wake of the republican United Irishmen Rebellion and Ireland
became an integral part of a new United Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and Ireland
under the Act of Union .

The Great Famine
of Ireland
during the 1840s saw a significant number of people flee from the island to all over the world. Between 1841 and 1851 as a result of death and mass emigration (mainly to Great Britain and North America) Ireland's population fell by over 2 million. In Connacht alone the population fell by almost 30%.

Robert E. Kennedy explains, however, that the common argument of the mass emigration from Ireland
being a "flight from famine" is not entirely correct: firstly, the Irish had been coming to build canals in Great Britain since the 18th century, and once conditions were better emigration did not slow down. After the famine was over the four following years produced more emigrants than during the four years of the blight. Kennedy argues that the famine was considered the final straw to convince people to move and that there were several other factors in the decision making.

By 1900 the population of Ireland
was about half of its 1840 high and continued to fall during the 20th century.

Irish people
Irish people
at home were facing discrimination from Great Britain based on the former's religion. Evictions only increased after the repeal of the British Corn Laws in 1846 and the new Encumbered Estates Act being passed in 1849 as well as the removal of existing civil rights. There had been agrarian terrorism against landlords which these new laws were implemented to stop the retribution. Any hope for change was squashed with the death of Daniel O\'Connell in 1847, the political leader championing for Ireland, and the failed rising of the Young Irelanders in 1848. More was to be gained by immigrating to America from Ireland
and the 1848 discovery of gold in the Sierra Nevada lured away more.


Main article: Irish genealogy See also: Genetic history of the British Isles

Public interest in ancestry and family history received a boost in the late 1970s with the television broadcast of Roots: The Saga of an American Family , Alex Haley
Alex Haley
's account of his family line. and the television series Who Do You Think You Are? , a genealogy documentary series that started on the BBC
in 2004.

The Internet
and the number of resources now readily accessible has resulted in an explosion of interest in the topic. According to some sources, genealogy is one of the most popular topics on the Internet.


Main article: Plastic Paddy

People of the Irish diaspora
Irish diaspora
who were not born in Ireland
but who identify as Irish are sometimes labelled as Plastic Paddies .

Mary J. Hickman writes that "plastic Paddy" was a term used to "deny and denigrate the second-generation Irish in Britain" in the 1980s, and was "frequently articulated by the new middle class Irish immigrants in Britain, for whom it was a means of distancing themselves from established Irish communities." According to Bronwen Walter, professor of Irish Diaspora
Studies at Anglia Ruskin University , "the adoption of a hyphenated identity has been much more problematic for the second generation Irish in Britain. The Irish-born have frequently denied the authenticity of their Irish identity.

The term has also been used to taunt non-Irish-born players who choose to play for the Republic of Ireland
national football team , fans of Irish teams, who are members of supporters clubs outside Ireland, and other Irish individuals living in Great Britain. A study by the University of Strathclyde
University of Strathclyde
and Nil by Mouth found the term was used abusively on Celtic F.C.
Celtic F.C.
and Rangers F.C.
Rangers F.C.
supporters' internet forums in reference to Celtic supporters and the wider Roman Catholic community in Scotland. In August 2009, a Rangers F.C supporter himself a British Asian man from Birmingham, England received a suspended sentence after making derogatory comments to a police officer, who was of Irish origin. The prosecutor said the man had made racist remarks about the officer, including accusations that the officer was a "Plastic Paddy".

Scottish journalist Alex Massie wrote in National Review
National Review

When I was a student in Dublin we scoffed at the American celebration of St. Patrick, finding something preposterous in the green beer, the search for any connection, no matter how tenuous, to Ireland, the misty sentiment of it all that seemed so at odds with the Ireland
we knew and actually lived in. Who were these people dressed as Leprechauns and why were they dressed that way? This Hibernian Brigadoon was a sham, a mockery, a Shamrockery of real Ireland
and a remarkable exhibition of plastic paddyness. But at least it was confined to the Irish abroad and those foreigners desperate to find some trace of green in their blood.

In Spiked , Brendan O'Neill, himself of Irish descent, uses the term to describe "second-generation wannabe" Irishmen and writes that some of those guilty of "Plastic Paddyism" (or, in his words, "Dermot -itis") are Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
, Daniel Day-Lewis , and Shane MacGowan . Scottish-Australian songwriter Eric Bogle
Eric Bogle
wrote and recorded a song titled "Plastic Paddy". British Mixed martial arts
Mixed martial arts
fighter Dan Hardy has called American fighter Marcus Davis a "Plastic Paddy" due to Marcus' enthusiasm for his Irish ancestry and identity. In the book Why I Am Still a Catholic: Essays in Faith and Perseverance by Peter Stanford , the television presenter Dermot O\'Leary describes his upbringing as "classic plastic paddy", where he would be "bullied in a nice way" by his own cousins in Wexford
for being English "until anyone else there called me English and then they would stick up for me."


Main article: Irish migration to Great Britain See also: Category:British people of Irish descent

The movement of people between the adjacent islands of Ireland
and Great Britain has ebbed and flowed with their politics, economics and social conditions. Ireland
was a feudal Lordship of the Kings of England between 1171 and 1541; a Kingdom in personal union with the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
and Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
between 1542 and 1801; and politically united with Great Britain as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland
between 1801 and 1922. Today, Ireland
is divided between the Republic of Ireland
, and Northern Ireland
which is part of the UK.

Today, millions of residents of Great Britain are either from the island of Ireland
or have Irish ancestry. It is estimated that as many as six million people living in the UK have an Irish-born grandparent (around 10% of the UK population).

The 2001 UK Census states that 869,093 people born in Ireland
are living in Great Britain. More than 10% of those born in the United Kingdom have at least one grandparent born in Ireland. The article "More Britons applying for Irish passports" states that 6 million Britons have either an Irish grandfather or grandmother and are thus able to apply for Irish citizenship. Almost a quarter claimed some Irish ancestry in one survey.

The Irish have traditionally been involved in the building trade and transport particularly as dockers, following an influx of Irish workers, or navvies , to build the British canal, road and rail networks in the 19th century. This is largely due to the flow of emigrants from Ireland
during the Great Famine
of 1845–1849. Many Irish servicemen, particularly sailors, settled in Britain: During the 18th and 19th century a third of the Army and Royal Navy were Irish. The Irish still represent the largest contingent of foreign volunteers to the British military, with more Irishmen serving in British uniforms than Irish ones. Since the 1950s and 1960s in particular, the Irish have become assimilated into the British population. Emigration continued into the next century; over half a million Irish went to Britain in World War II to work in industry and serve in the British armed forces . In the post-war reconstruction era, the numbers of immigrants began to increase, many settling in the larger cities and towns of Britain. According to the 2001 census, around 850,000 people in Britain were born in Ireland.

The largest Irish communities in Britain are located predominantly in the cities and towns: in London, in particular Kilburn (which has one of the largest Irish-born communities outside Ireland) out to the west and north west of the city, in the large port cities such as Liverpool (which elected the first Irish Nationalist members of parliament), Glasgow
, Bristol
, Sunderland and Portsmouth
. Big industrial cities such as Salford , Manchester
, Coventry
, Birmingham
, Sheffield
, Wolverhampton , Cardiff
and parts of Newcastle and Nottingham
also have large diaspora populations due to the Industrial Revolution and, in the case of the first two, the strength of the motor industry in the 1960s and 1970s. Crosby , Kirkby , Rugby , Denbigh , Widnes , Ilfracombe
, Bootle , Huyton
, Birkenhead
, Gateshead
, Seaham , Middlesbrough , Wallasey , Moreton , Batley , Bolton
, Barrhead , Winsford
, Ellesmere Port
Ellesmere Port
, Chester , Blantyre , Runcorn , Ashton-under-Lyne
, Heywood , Consett , Bishop Auckland , Cambuslang
, Ashton-in-Makerfield , Solihull , Brighouse , Clydebank , Easington Colliery , Blantyre , Runcorn , Ashton-under-Lyne
, Heywood , Consett , Bishop Auckland , Cambuslang
, Ashton-in-Makerfield , Solihull , Brighouse , Clydebank , Easington Colliery , Litherland , Whitehaven
, Barrow-in-Furness
, Irlam , Newton Mearns , Chatham , Greenock
, Port Glasgow
, Prestwich , Holyhead , Fishguard , Caistor , Saltney , Cleator Moor
Cleator Moor
, Newport , Maghull , Washington , North Shields , South Shields , Tynemouth
, Paisley , Stockport , Haslingden , Dewsbury , Skelmersdale , Keighley , Chorley and parts of Market Harborough
Market Harborough
, Devon
and Greater Manchester
have high concentrations of Irish communities. The towns of Hebburn
, Jarrow
and Coatbridge
have famously all earned the nickname 'Little Ireland' due to their high Irish populations.

Central to the Irish community in Britain was the community's relationship with the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
, with which it maintained a strong sense of identity. The Church remains a crucial focus of communal life among some of the immigrant population and their descendants. The largest ethnic group among the Roman Catholic priesthood of Britain remains Irish (in the United States, the upper ranks of the Church's hierarchy are of predominantly Irish descent.) The former head of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
in Scotland
is Cardinal Keith O\'Brien .

experienced a significant amount of Irish immigration, particularly in Glasgow
, Edinburgh
and Coatbridge
. This led to the formation of Celtic Football Club in 1888 by Marist Brother Walfrid , to raise money to help the community. In Edinburgh
Hibernian were founded in 1875 and in 1909 another club with Irish links, Dundee United , was formed. Likewise the Irish community in London formed the London Irish rugby union club. The 2001 UK Census states in Scotland 50,000 people identified as having Irish heritage.

London once more holds an official public St Patrick\'s Day celebration, which although having been cancelled in the 1970s because of Irish Republican violence , is now a national celebration, with over 60 percent of the population regularly celebrating the day regardless of their ethnic origins.

The Irish have maintained a strong political presence in the UK (mostly in Scotland), in local government and at the national level. Former Prime Ministers David Cameron , Tony Blair
Tony Blair
, John Major
John Major
and James Callaghan
James Callaghan
have been amongst the many in Britain of part-Irish ancestry; Blair's mother, Hazel Elizabeth Rosaleen Corscaden, was born on 12 June 1923 in Ballyshannon , County Donegal
County Donegal
. Former Chancellor George Osborne
George Osborne
is a member of the Anglo-Irish aristocracy and heir to the baronetcies of Ballentaylor and Ballylemon.


Main article: Irish people
Irish people
in mainland Europe

Irish links with the continent go back many centuries. During the early Middle Ages, 700–900 AD, many Irish religious figures went abroad to preach and found monasteries in what is known as the Hiberno-Scottish mission . Saint Brieuc founded the city that bears his name in Brittany
, Saint Colmán founded the great monastery of Bobbio
in northern Italy and one of his monks was Saint Gall for whom the Swiss town of St Gallen and canton of St Gallen are named.

During the Counter-Reformation
, Irish religious and political links with Europe became stronger. An important centre of learning and training for Irish priests developed in Leuven
(Lúbhan in Irish and Louvain historically in English) in the Duchy of Brabant , now in Flanders
(northern Belgium). The Flight of the Earls
Flight of the Earls
, in 1607, led much of the Gaelic nobility to flee the country, and after the wars of the 17th century many others fled to Spain, France, Austria, and other Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
lands. The lords and their retainers and supporters joined the armies of these countries, and were known as the Wild Geese . Some of the lords and their descendants rose to high ranks in their adoptive countries, such as the Spanish general and politician Leopoldo O\'Donnell, 1st Duke of Tetuan , who became the president of the Government of Spain or the French general and politician Patrice de Mac-Mahon, Duke of Magenta , who became the president of the French Republic . The French Cognac
brandy maker, James Hennessy and Co. , is named for an Irishman. In Spain and its territories, many Irish descendants can be found with the name Obregón (O'Brien, Irish , Ó Briain), including Madrid-born actress Ana Victoria García Obregón.

During the 20th century, certain Irish intellectuals made their homes in continental Europe, particularly James Joyce
James Joyce
, and later Samuel Beckett (who became a courier for the French Resistance ). Eoin O\'Duffy led a brigade of 700 Irish volunteers to fight for Franco during the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
, and Frank Ryan led the Connolly column who fought on the opposite side, with the Republican International Brigades . William Joyce
William Joyce
became an English-language propagandist for the Third Reich , known colloquially as Lord Haw-Haw .


With its newly established trans-Atlantic empire, England needed labour. After the Irish Rebellion of 1641 , England began to pacify Ireland
through ethnic cleansing , transporting large numbers of Irish, often forced into indentured servitude, to the New World. This increased following the English Civil War
English Civil War
(1642–1651) and the Cromwellian invasion of Ireland
(1649–1653). Cromwell took Irish land both to repay investors who had financed the invasion and as payment for his soldiers, and the ethnic Irish were ordered to move to Connaught
or die. Between 1641 and 1652, over 550,000 Irish died from famine and other war-related causes. The Irish population of Ireland fell from 1,466,000 to 616,000. Between 1652 and 1659, 50,000 Irish men, women and children were sent to the West Indies, Virginia and Bermuda.


Main article: Irish settlement in Argentina

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, over 38,000 Irish immigrated to Argentina
. Very distinct Irish communities and schools existed until the Perón era in the 1950s.

Today there are an estimated 1,000,000 people of Irish ancestry in Argentina, approximately 15.5% of the Republic of Ireland's current population; however, these numbers may be far higher, given that many Irish newcomers declared themselves to be British, as Ireland
at the time was still part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and today their descendants integrated into Argentine society with mixed bloodlines.

Despite the fact that Argentina
was never the main destination for Irish emigrants it does form part of the Irish diaspora. The Irish-Argentine William Bulfin remarked as he travelled around Westmeath in the early 20th century that he came across many locals who had been to Buenos Aires. Several families from Bere island , County Cork
County Cork
were encouraged to send emigrants to Argentina
by an islander who had been successful there in the 1880s.

Widely considered a national hero, William Brown is the most famous Irish citizen in Argentina. Creator of the Argentine Navy (Armada de la República Argentina, ARA) and leader of the Argentine Armed Forces in the wars against Brazil and Spain, he was born in Foxford , County Mayo on 22 June 1777 and died in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
in 1857. The Almirante Brown-class destroyer is named after him, as well as the Almirante Brown partido , part of the Gran Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
urban area, with a population of over 500.000 inhabitants.

The first entirely Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
English language
English language
publication published in Buenos Aires, The Southern Cross is an Argentine newspaper founded on 16 January 1875 by Dean Patricio Dillon, an Irish immigrant, a deputy for Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Province and president of the Presidential Affairs Commission amongst other positions. The newspaper continues in print to this day and publishes a beginners guide to the Irish language
Irish language
, helping Irish Argentines keep in touch with their cultural heritage. Previously to The Southern Cross Dublin-born brothers Edward and Michael Mulhall successfully published The Standard, allegedly the first English-language daily paper in South America.

Between 1943 and 1946, the de facto President of Argentina
was Edelmiro Farrell
Edelmiro Farrell
, whose paternal ancestry was Irish.


Bermudiana, found only in Bermuda
and Ireland

Bermudiana ( Sisyrinchium bermudiana ), the indigenous flower that is ubiquitous in Bermuda
in the Spring, has now been realised to be found in one other location, Ireland, where it is restricted to sites around Lough Erne
Lough Erne
and Lough Melvin in County Fermanagh , and is known as Feilistrín gorm, or Blue-eyed grass . Early in its history, Bermuda had unusual connections with Ireland. It has been suggested that St. Brendan discovered it during his legendary voyage; a local psychiatric hospital (since renamed) was named after him. In 1616, an incident occurred in which five white settlers arrived in Ireland, having crossed the Atlantic (a distance of around 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi)) in a two-ton boat. By the following year, one of Bermuda's main islands was named after Ireland
. By the mid-17th century, Irish prisoners of war and ethnically cleansed civilians were involuntarily shipped to Bermuda, condemned to indentured servitude . This expulsion resulted from the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
. The English government expelled Irish people
Irish people
to other parts of the trans-Atlantic Empire as well. This was meant to pacify Ireland, easing English rule, and to clear land for settlement by English soldiers. The Puritan English government officials also expressed the opinion that they were saving the souls of the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Irish by settling them in Protestant
territories where they would inevitably be converted to the true faith. Smaller numbers of Scottish prisoners were also sent to Bermuda
following Cromwell's invasion of Scotland.

Relations between the involuntary Irish immigrants and the local English population were strained. The Irish and Scots were ostracised by the English, ultimately intermarrying with Black and Native American minority groups to create a single demographic (coloured, which in Bermuda
included anyone not able to be described as wholly of European ancestry. Today, the term has been replaced by Black, in which wholly sub-Saharan African ancestry is erroneously implicit). The Irish quickly proved troublesome, and Bermudian slave owners were instructed that those that hath the Irish servants should take care that they straggle not night nor day as is too common with them. In 1658, three Irishmen – John Shehan, David Laragen and Edmund Malony – were lashed for breaking curfew and being suspected of stealing a boat. A Scottish indentured servant and three black slaves were also punished. Several years later, in 1661, the local government alleged that a plot was being hatched by an alliance of Blacks and Irish, one which involved cutting the throats of all the English. Governor William Sayle prepared for the uprising with three edicts: The first was that a nightly watch be raised throughout the colony; second, that slaves and the Irish be disarmed of militia weapons; and third, that any gathering of two or more Irish or slaves be dispersed by whipping. There were no arrests, trials or executions connected to the plot, though an Irish woman named Margaret was found to be romantically involved with a Native American; she was voted to be stigmatised and he was whipped.

During the course of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, the colony's various demographic groups boiled down to free whites and mostly enslaved "coloured" Bermudians with a homogeneous English culture. Little survived of the non-English cultures. Catholicism was outlawed in Bermuda, as with the rest of English territory, and all islanders were required by law to attend services of the established Church of England
Church of England
. Some surnames that were common in Bermuda
at this period, however, give lingering evidence of the Irish presence. By example, the area to the east of Bailey's Bay, in Hamilton Parish, is named Callan Glen for a Scottish-born shipwright, Claude MacCallan, who settled in Bermuda
after the vessel in which he was a passenger was wrecked off the North Shore in 1787. MacCallan swam to a rock from which he was rescued by a Bailey's Bay fisherman named Daniel Seon (Sheehan). A later Daniel Seon was appointed Clerk of the House of Assembly and Prothonotary of the Court of General Assize in 1889 (he was also the Registrar of the Supreme Court, and died in 1909).

In 1803, Irish poet Thomas Moore
Thomas Moore
arrived in Bermuda, having been appointed registrar to the Admiralty
there. Robert Kennedy, born in Cultra , County Down
County Down
, was the Government of Bermuda
's Colonial Secretary, and was the acting Governor of Bermuda
on three occasions (1829, 1830 and 1835–1836). Irish prisoners were again sent to Bermuda
in the 19th century, including participants in the ill-fated Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848 and Nationalist journalist and politician John Mitchel
John Mitchel
. Alongside English convicts, they were used to build the Royal Naval Dockyard on Ireland
Island. Conditions for the convicts were harsh, and discipline was draconian. In April, 1830, convict James Ryan was shot and killed during rioting of convicts on Ireland
Island. Another five convicts were given death sentences for their parts in the riots, with those of the youngest three being commuted to transportation (to Australia
) for life. In June, 1849, convict James Cronin , on the hulk Medway at Ireland
Island, was placed in solitary confinement from the 25th to the 29th for fighting. On release, and being returned to work, he refused to be cross-ironed. He ran onto the breakwater, brandishing a poker threateningly. For this, he was ordered to receive punishment (presumably flogging) on Tuesday, the 3rd of July, 1849, with the other convicts aboard the hulk assembled behind a rail to witness. When ordered to strip, he hesitated. Thomas Cronin, his older brother, addressed him and, while brandishing a knife, rushed forward to the separating rail. He called out to the other prisoners in Irish and many joined him in attempting to free the prisoner and attack the officers. The officers opened fire. Two men were killed and twelve wounded. Punishment of James Cronin was then carried out. Three-hundred men of the 42nd Regiment of Foot , in barracks on Ireland
Island, responded to the scene under arms.

Although the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
(which had been banned in Bermuda, as in the rest of England, since settlement) began to operate openly in Bermuda
in the 19th century, its priests were not permitted to conduct baptisms, weddings or funerals. As the most important British naval and military base in the Western Hemisphere following US independence, large numbers of Irish Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
soldiers served in the British Army's Bermuda
Garrison (the Royal Navy had also benefitted from a shipload of Irish emigres wrecked on Bermuda, with most being recruited into the navy there). The first Roman Catholic services in Bermuda
were conducted by British Army chaplains early in the 19th Century. Mount Saint Agnes Academy, a private school operated by the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
of Bermuda, opened in 1890 at the behest of officers of the 86th (Royal County Down) Regiment of Foot (which was posted to Bermuda
from 1880 to 1883), who had requested from the Archbishop
of Halifax, Nova Scotia , a school for the children of Irish Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic

Not all Irish soldiers in Bermuda
had happy lives there. Private Joseph McDaniel of the 30th Regiment of Foot (who was born in the East Indies to an Irish father and a Malay mother) was convicted of the murder of Mary Swears in June, 1837, after he had been found with a self-inflicted wound and her lifeless body. Although he maintained his innocence throughout the trial, after his conviction he confessed that they had made a pact to die together. Although he had succeeded in killing her, he had failed to kill himself. He was put to death on Wednesday, the 29th of November, 1837. Private Patrick Shea of the 20th Regiment of Foot was sentenced to death in June, 1846, for discharging his weapon at Sergeant John Evans. His sentence was commuted to transportation (to Australia
) for life. In October, 1841, County Carlow -born Peter Doyle had also been transported to Australia for fourteen years for shooting at a picket. At his court martial he had explained that he had been drunk at the time.

Other Irish soldiers, taking discharge, made a home in Bermuda, remaining there for the rest of their lives. Dublin-born Sapper Cornelius Farrell was discharged in Bermuda
from the Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
. His three Bermudian-born sons followed him into the army, fighting on the Western Front during the First World War
First World War
in the Bermuda
Volunteer Rifle Corps .

Although there is little surviving evidence of Irish culture, some elderly islanders can remember when the term "cilig" (or killick) was used to describe a common method of fishing for sea turtles by tricking them into swimming into prearranged nets (this was done by splashing a stone on a line – the cilig – into the water on the turtle's opposite side). The word cilig appears to be meaningless in English, but in some dialects of Gaelic is used as an adjective meaning "easily deceived". In Irish there is a word cílí meaning sly. It is used in the expression Is é an cílí ceart é (pronounced Shayeh kilic airtay) and means What a sly-boots. Alternatively, the word may be derived from an Irish word for a stone and wood anchor. Characteristics of older Bermudian accents, such as the pronunciation of the letter 'd' as 'dj', as in Bermudjin (Bermudian), may indicate an Irish origin. Later Irish immigrants have continued to contribute to Bermuda's makeup, with names like Crockwell ( Ó Creachmhaoil ) and O\'Connor (Ó Conchobhair) now being thought of locally as Bermudian names. The strongest remaining Irish influence can be seen in the presence of bagpipes in the music of Bermuda
, which stemmed from the presence of Scottish and Irish soldiers from the 18th through 20th centuries. Several prominent businesses in Bermuda
have a clear Irish influence, such as the Irish Linen Shop, Tom Moore's Tavern and Flanagan's Irish Pub and Restaurant.

A succession of Irish Masonic lodges have existed in Bermuda, beginning with Military Lodge #192, established by soldiers of the 47th Regiment of Foot , and operating in Bermuda
from 1793 to 1801. This was an ambulatory or traveling lodge, as with other military lodges, moving with its members. Irish Lodges #220 (also a military travelling lodge) was active in Bermuda
from 1856 to 1861, and Irish Lodge #209 was established in Bermuda
in 1881. Minder Lodge #63 of the Irish Constitution was in Bermuda
with the 20th Regiment of Foot from 1841 to 1847. The Hannibal Lodge #224 of the Irish Constitution was warranted in 1867, and still exists, meeting in the Masonic Hall on Old Maid's Lane, St. George\'s . Another Hannibal Chapter, #123 of the Irish Constitution, was chartered in 1877, but lasted only until 1911. An 1848 woodcut of HMD Bermuda
, Ireland
Island , Bermuda.


Main article: Irish Canadians See also: Irish Quebecers and Irish Newfoundlanders

The 2006 census by Statcan, Canada's Official Statistical office revealed that the Irish were the 4th largest ethnic group with 4,354,155 Canadians with full or partial Irish descent or 14% of the nation's total population. This may understate the Irish contribution to Canada's population, as those responding "Canadian" in census surveys are thought to be largely of British or Irish descent.

Many Newfoundlanders are of Irish descent. It is estimated that about 80% of Newfoundlanders have Irish ancestry on at least one side of their family tree. The family names, the predominant Roman Catholic religion, the prevalence of Irish music – even the accents of the people – are so reminiscent of rural Ireland
that Irish author Tim Pat Coogan has described Newfoundland as "the most Irish place in the world outside Ireland". Newfoundland Irish , the dialect of the Irish language specific to the island was widely spoken until the mid-20th century. It is very similar to the language heard in the southeast of Ireland
centuries ago, due to mass emigration from the counties Tipperary
, Waterford , Wexford
, County Kerry and Cork .

Saint John, New Brunswick
Saint John, New Brunswick
, claims the distinction of being Canada's most Irish city, according to census records. There have been Irish settlers in New Brunswick
New Brunswick
since at least the late 18th century, but during the peak of the Great Irish Famine (1845–1847), thousands of Irish emigrated through Partridge Island in the port of Saint John. Most of these Irish were Roman Catholic, who changed the complexion of the Loyalist city. A large, vibrant Irish community can also be found in the Miramichi region of New Brunswick
New Brunswick

Guysborough County
Guysborough County
, Nova Scotia has many rural Irish villages. Erinville (which means Irishville), Salmon River, Ogden, Bantry (named after Bantry Bay , County Cork
County Cork
, Ireland
but now abandoned and grown up in trees) among others, where Irish last names are prevalent and the accent is reminiscent of the Irish as well as the music, traditions, religion ( Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
), and the love of Ireland itself. Some of the Irish counties from which these people arrived were County Kerry ( Dingle Peninsula
Dingle Peninsula
), County Cork
County Cork
, and County Roscommon , along with others.

In Antigonish County , next to Guysborough County
Guysborough County
in Nova Scotia there are a few rural Irish villages despite the predominance of Scottish in most of that County. Some of these villages names are Ireland, Lochaber and Cloverville. Antigonish Town is a fairly even mix of Irish and Scottish, and the Irish presence contributes to Nova Scotia's Celtic cultural character.

is also home to a large Irish community, especially in Montreal
, where the Irish shamrock is featured on the municipal flag . This is not a sign of homage to the Irish but of the conquest of French speaking Québec by British who use the symbols of France, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland
bounded within the English cross of St. George . Notably, thousands of Irish emigrants during the Famine passed through Grosse Isle
Grosse Isle
near Québec City, where many succumbed to typhus . Most of the Irish who settled near Québec City are now French speakers.

has over 2 million people of Irish descent, who in greater numbers arrived in the 1820s and the decades that followed to work on colonial infrastructure and to settle land tracts in Upper Canada, the result today is a countryside speckled with the place names of Ireland. Ontario
received a large number of those who landed in Quebec during the Famine
years, many thousands died in Ontario's ports. Irish-born became the majority in Toronto
by 1851.


From the 1620s, many of the Irish Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
merchant class in this period migrated voluntarily to the West Indies to avail of the business opportunities there occasioned by the trade in sugar, tobacco and cotton. They were followed by landless Irish indentured labourers, who were recruited to serve a landowner for a specified time before receiving freedom and land. The descendants of some Irish immigrants are known today in the West Indies as redlegs . Most descendants of these Irishmen moved off the islands as African slavery was implemented and blacks began to replace whites. Many Barbadian-born Irishmen helped establish the Carolina colony in the United States.

After the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
Irish prisoners were transferred to Montserrat
as indentured laborers. To this day, Montserrat
is the only country or territory in the world, apart from the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland
and the Canadian province of Newfoundland to observe a public holiday on St Patrick\'s Day . The population is predominantly of mixed Irish and African descent.

Puerto Rico

Main article: Irish immigration to Puerto Rico

Irish immigrants played an instrumental role in Puerto Rico's economy. One of the most important industries of the island was the sugar industry. Among the successful businessmen in this industry were Miguel Conway, who owned a plantation in the town of Hatillo and Juan Nagle whose plantation was located in Río Piedras . General Alexander O\'Reilly , "Father of the Puerto Rican Militia", named Tomas O'Daly chief engineer of modernising the defences of San Juan, this included the fortress of San Cristóbal . Tomas O'Daly and Miguel Kirwan were partners in the "Hacienda San Patricio", which they named after the patron saint of Ireland, Saint Patrick
Saint Patrick
. A relative of O'Daly, Demetrio O\'Daly , succeeded Captain Ramon Power y Giralt as the island's delegate to the Spanish Courts. The plantation no longer exists, however the land in which the plantation was located is now a San Patricio suburb with a shopping mall by the same name. The Quinlan family established two plantations, one in the town of Toa Baja and the other in Loíza . Puerto Ricans of Irish descent were also instrumental in the development of the island's tobacco industry. Among them Miguel Conboy who was a founder of the tobacco trade in Puerto Rico.

Other notable places in the Caribbean include:

* Antigua and Barbuda * Barbados * Jamaica * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
* Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago


Main article: Irish Chilean

Many of the Wild Geese , expatriate Irish soldiers who had gone to Spain, or their descendants, continued on to its colonies in South America. Many of them rose to prominent positions in the Spanish governments there. In the 1820s, some of them helped liberate the continent. Bernardo O\'Higgins was the first Supreme director of Chile . When Chilean troops occupied Lima
during the War of the Pacific in 1881, they put in charge certain Patricio Lynch , whose grandfather came from Ireland
to Argentina
and then moved to Chile. Other Latin American countries that have Irish settlement include Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and Colombia


Main article: Irish Mexican
Irish Mexican

Probably the most famous Irishman ever to reside in Mexico is the Wexfordman William Lamport , better known to most Mexicans as Guillén de Lampart, precursor of the Independence movement and author of the first proclamation of independence in the New World. His statue stands today in the Crypt of Heroes beneath the Column of Independence in Mexico City. Some authorities claim he was the inspiration for Johnston McCulley's Zorro
, though the extent to which this may be true is disputed.

After Lampart, the most famous Irishmen in Mexican history are probably "Los Patricios". Many communities also existed in Mexican Texas until the revolution there, when they sided with Roman Catholic Mexico against Protestant
pro-US elements. The Batallón de San Patricio , a battalion of US troops who deserted and fought alongside the Mexican Army
Mexican Army
against the United States
United States
in the Mexican–American War of 1846 to 1848, is also famous in Mexican history . Álvaro Obregón (possibly O'Brian) was president of Mexico during 1920–24 and Obregón city and airport are named in his honour. Mexico also has a large number of people of Irish ancestry, among them the actor Anthony Quinn . There are also monuments in Mexico City
Mexico City
paying tribute to those Irish who fought for Mexico in the 19th century. There is a monument to Los Patricios in the fort of Churubusco. During the Potato Famine, thousands of Irish immigrants entered the country. Other Mexicans of Irish descent are: Romulo O\'Farril , Juan O\'Gorman , Edmundo O\'Gorman , Anthony Quinn , Alejo Bay (Governor of the state of Sonora
), Famed Conductor Felix Carrasco, Guillermo Purcell a businessman, former Miss Mexico Judith Grace Gonzalez , among many others. Today, the Irish community in Mexico is a thriving one and is mainly concentrated in Mexico City
Mexico City
and the northern states.


Main article: Irish Americans

The diaspora to America was immortalised in the words of many songs including the famous Irish ballad , "The Green Fields of America": So pack up your sea-stores, consider no longer, Ten dollars a week is not very bad pay, With no taxes or tithes to devour up your wages, When you're on the green fields of Americay.

The experience of Irish immigrants in America has not always been harmonious. The US did not have a good relationship with most of the incoming Irish because of their Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
faith, as the majority of the population was Protestant
and had been originally formed by offshoots of the Protestant
faith, many of whom were from Northern Ireland
(Ulster). So it came as no surprise that the federal government issued new immigration acts, adding to previous ones which limited Eastern European immigration, ones which limited the immigration of the Irish.

Those who were successful in coming over from Ireland
were for the most part already good farm and other hard labour workers, so the jobs they were taking were plentiful in the beginning. However, as time went on and the land needed less cultivation, the jobs the new Irish immigrants were taking were those that Americans wanted as well. In most cases, Irish newcomers were sometimes uneducated and often found themselves competing with Americans for manual labour jobs or, in the 1860s, being recruited from the docks by the US Army to serve in the American Civil War
American Civil War
and afterward to build the Union Pacific Railroad. This view of the Irish-American experience is depicted by another traditional song, "Paddy's Lamentation." Hear me boys, now take my advice, To America I'll have ye's not be going, There is nothing here but war, where the murderin' cannons roar, And I wish I was at home in dear old Ireland.

The classic image of an Irish immigrant is led to a certain extent by racist and anti-Catholic stereotypes. In modern times, in the United States, the Irish are largely perceived as hard workers. Most notably they are associated with the positions of police officer, firefighter , Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
leaders and politicians in the larger Eastern Seaboard metropolitan areas. Irish Americans number over 35 million, making them the second largest reported ethnic group in the country, after German Americans . Historically, large Irish American communities have been found in Philadelphia
; Chicago; Boston
; New York City; New York ; Detroit; New England
New England
; Baltimore
; Pittsburgh
; St. Paul, Minnesota ; Buffalo ; Broome County ; Butte ; Dubuque ; Quincy ; Dublin ; Hartford ; New Haven
New Haven
; Waterbury
; Providence ; Kansas City ; New Orleans
New Orleans
; Braintree ; Weymouth ; Norfolk ; Nashville ; Scranton
; Wilkes-Barre ; O\'Fallon ; Tampa
; Hazleton ; Worcester ; Lowell ; Los Angeles; and the San Francisco Bay Area . Many cities across the country have annual St Patrick's Day parades; The nation\'s largest is in New York City — one of the world's largest parades. The parade in Boston
is closely associated with Evacuation Day , when the British left Boston
in 1776 during the American War of Independence .

Before the Great Hunger ("Irish Potato Famine
"), in which over a million died and more emigrated, there had been the Penal Laws which had already resulted in significant emigration from Ireland.

According to the Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, in 1790 there were 400,000 Americans of Irish birth or ancestry out of a total white population of 3,100,000. Half of these Irish Americans were descended from Ulster people, and half were descended from the people of Connacht, Leinster and Munster.

According to US Census figures from 2000, 41,000,000 Americans claim to be wholly or partly of Irish ancestry, a group that represents more than one in five white Americans. Most African Americans are part of the Irish diaspora, as they are descended from Northern Irish Protestant
(Scots-Irish) slave owners and overseers who arrived in America during the colonial era. Many are also descended from Irish immigrant workers.



Main article: Irish Indians

Irishmen have been known in India right from the days of the East India Company . While most of the early Irish came as traders, some also came as soldiers. However, the majority of these traders and soldiers were from the Protestant Ascendancy
Protestant Ascendancy
. Prominent among them were the generals Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1769–1852) who became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
in 1834 and his brother Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (1760–1842), who was Governor-General of India
Governor-General of India
(1798–1805) and who is also a great-great-great grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
. Later in the Victorian period, many thinkers, philosophers and Irish nationalists from the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
majority too made it to India, prominent among the nationalists being the theosophist Annie Besant
Annie Besant
. It is widely believed that there existed a secret alliance between the Irish and Indian independence movements. Some Indian intellectuals like Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
and V. V. Giri were certainly inspired by Irish nationalists when they studied in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. The Indian revolutionary group known as the Bengal Volunteers took this name in emulation of the Irish Volunteers .


People with Irish ancestry as a percentage of the population in Australia
divided geographically by statistical local area, as of the 2011 census Main article: Irish Australian

IRISH AUSTRALIANS form the second largest ethnic group in Australia, numbering 2,087,800 or 10.4 per cent of respondents in the 2011 Census.

It is not clear whether the Irish-born are considered "Irish Australians " or if the term only refers to their Australian-born descendants. The 2001 Census recorded 50,320 Irish-born in Australia, although this is a minimal figure as it only includes those who wrote in "Ireland" or "Republic of Ireland" as their country of birth. Responses which mentioned "Northern Ireland" as birthplace were coded as "United Kingdom". This interpretation may omit as few as 21,500 Irish-born present in the country, as many as 29,500, or possibly even more. Nevertheless, the number of persons born in Ireland, north and south, resident in Australia
in 2001 may be confidently extrapolated at around 75,000.

According to the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs White Paper on Foreign Policy, there were 213,000 Irish citizens living in Australia in 1997; nearly three times the number of Irish-born immigrants to the country. Most Irish Australians, however, do not have Irish citizenship and define their status in terms of self-perception, affection for Ireland
and an attachment to Irish culture .

Irish settlers – both voluntary and forced – were crucial to the development of the Australian colonies from the earliest days of European settlement. The Irish first came over in large numbers as convicts (50,000 were transported between 1791 and 1867), to be used as free labour; even larger numbers of free settlers came during the 19th century, partly due to the Donegal Relief Fund . Irish immigrants accounted for one-quarter of Australia's overseas-born population in 1871. Their children, the first Irish Australians in the sense we understand the term, played a definitive role in shaping Australian history, society and culture. It has been argued that the Irish language was the source of a significant number of words in Australian English .

Historian Patrick O\'Farrell noted in The Irish in Australia
(1987) that the term " Australia
first" became "what amounted to the Australian Irish Catholic slogan". These Australians of Irish background did not tend to regard Ireland
as their "mother country" – primarily because few had a wish to return to a home they had left in search of a better life. Rather, they tended to identify themselves as Australians.

According to census data released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004, Irish Australians are, by religion, 46.2% Roman Catholic , 15.3% Anglican
, 13.5% other Christian denomination, 3.6% other religions, and 21.5% as "No Religion".

The high percentage of Roman Catholics is largely the result of descendants of Irish immigrants.

The song Far Away in Australia
sung by the Irish ballad group The Wolfe Tones portrays the sorrow of two young Irish lovers who are separated when the male youth is forced to make his living far away in Australia, leaving his girl behind. Examples of the sad lyrics are: "Sweetheart I'm bidding you fond farewell" murmured the youth one day... "Must we be parted?" the young girl replied. "I cannot let you go"... "Far away in Australia, soon will fate be kind. When I will be ready to welcome at last, the girl I left behind".

The Irish have made a very significant contribution to education in Australia. Approximately 20% of Australian school students are currently enrolled in Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
schools that were, in large part, established by Irish Catholic religious orders. Large numbers of Irish priests, nuns and brothers followed other Irish immigrants to Australia
from the earliest years of European settlement to provide education to the children of those immigrants.


19th-century South Africa
South Africa
did not attract mass Irish migration, but Irish communities are to be found in Cape Town
Cape Town
, Port Elizabeth , Kimberley , and Johannesburg
, with smaller communities in Pretoria
, Barberton , Durban
and East London . A third of the Cape's governors were Irish, as were many of the judges and politicians. Both the Cape Colony and the Colony of Natal
Colony of Natal
had Irish prime ministers: Sir Thomas Upington , "The Afrikaner
from Cork "; and Sir Albert Hime , from Kilcoole in County Wicklow . Irish Cape Governors included Lord Macartney , Lord Caledon and Sir John Francis Cradock
Sir John Francis Cradock
. Irish settlers were brought in small numbers over the years, as from other parts of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Henry Nourse, a shipowner at the Cape, brought out a small party of Irish settlers in 1818. In 1823, John Ingram brought out 146 Irish from Cork. Single Irish women were sent to the Cape on a few occasions. Twenty arrived in November 1849 and 46 arrived in March 1851. The majority arrived in November 1857 aboard the Lady Kennaway. A large contingent of Irish troops fought in the Anglo-Boer War on both sides and a few of them stayed in South Africa after the war. Others returned home but later came out to settle in South Africa
South Africa
with their families. Between 1902 and 1905, there were about 5,000 Irish immigrants. Places in South Africa
South Africa
named after Irish people include Upington , Porterville , Caledon , Cradock , Sir Lowry\'s Pass , the Biggarsberg Mountains, Donnybrook , Himeville and Belfast


Main article: Irish New Zealanders

The Diaspora
population of Ireland
also got a fresh start on the islands of New Zealand
New Zealand
during the later half of the 19th century. The ideology of striking it rich in the gold mines caused many Irish people to flock to the docks; risking their lives on the long voyage to potential freedom and more importantly self-sufficiency. Most famous places including both Gabriel\'s Gully and Otago are examples of mining sites which, with the funding of large companies, allowed for the creation of wages and the appearance of mining towns. Women found jobs as housemaids cleaning the shacks of the single men at work thereby providing a second income to the Irish family household. The subsequent money accumulated with regards to this would allow for chain migration for the rest of the family left behind.

The Transition to New Zealand
New Zealand
was made easier due to the overexposure that the Irish had previously had with colonialism. They ventured upwards to the British ports, settling temporarily to accumulate the necessary finances before moving onwards towards the banks of the far away island. In doing so, they not only exposed themselves to the form of British form of government but likewise to capitalism. This aided to further the simplicity of the transition for the dispersed population.

The government aided through the use of both promissory notes and land grants. By promising to pay for the passage of a family the government ensured that the island would be populated and a British colony would be formed. Free passage was installed for women first between the ages of 15-35, while males between the ages of 18–40 years of age would be promised a certain amount of acres of land upon arrival in the New World. This was attributed to the installment of the New Zealand
New Zealand
Land act. To further aid with the financial burden, free passage to any immigrant was granted after 1874.

A final note with regards to importance of the Irish diaspora population in New Zealand
New Zealand
deals with the diminished amount of prejudice present for the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
population upon arrival. The lack of embedded hierarchy and social structure in the New World allowed for previous sectarian tensions to be dissolved. This can also be attributed to the sheer amount of distance between the respective religions due to the sparseness of the unpopulated area and the sheer size of the islands.


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Irish in North America

Irish American 33,348,049 10.50%

Self-identified "Irish" 33,348,049 10.50% of the US population (2013) Scotch-Irish Americans 27 to 30 million Up to 10% of the U.S. population 5,827,046 (Self-reported only, 2008) 1.9% of the total U.S. population

Irish Canadian 4,544,870 14%

Irish in South America

Irish Chilean 120,000 0.7%

Irish Uruguayan 120,000 3.6%

Irish Argentine 700,000–1,000,000 2.5%

– 1,000,000

Irish in Europe

Irish British 14,000,000 10%

869,093 Irish-born (1.4% of the British population) c. 6 million with at least 25% Irish ancestry (10% of the British population)

Northern Irish 828,220 45%

1,500,000 28%

Irish in Oceania

Irish Australian 7,000,000 30%

7,000,000 (30% of the Australian population of partial Irish ancestry) 80,000 (by birth, 2011) 2,087,800 (self-declared Irish ancestry, 2011; 10.4% of the Australian population)

Irish in Africa

Irish South African 330,000 1%


Irish people
Irish people
3,877,072 84.5%



Irish bishop Paul Cullen set out to spread Irish dominance over the English-speaking Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
in the 19th century. The establishment of an 'Irish Episcopal Empire' involved three transnational entities – the British Empire, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Irish diaspora. Irish clergy, notably Cullen, made particular use of the reach of the British Empire to spread their influence. From the 1830s until his death in 1878, Cullen held several key positions near the top of the Irish hierarchy and influenced Rome's appointment of Irish bishops on four continents. By contrast, a number of Irish people
Irish people
abroad converted to Asian religions and played significant roles in anti-colonial revival movements, such as the Irish Buddhist monk U Dhammaloka (?Laurence Carroll?) in Burma, Buddhist sympathiser Lafcadio Hearn in Japan, the Hindu nun Sister Sanghamitta (Margaret Noble) and the Theosophist Hindu couple James and Margaret Cousins .

Walker (2007) compares Irish immigrant communities in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Great Britain respecting issues of identity and 'Irishness.' Religion remained the major cause of differentiation in all Irish diaspora
Irish diaspora
communities and had the greatest impact on identity, followed by the nature and difficulty of socio-economic conditions faced in each new country and the strength of continued social and political links of Irish immigrants and their descendants with Ireland.

From the late 20th century onward, Irish identity abroad became increasingly cultural, non-denominational, and non-political, although many emigrants from Northern Ireland
stood apart from this trend. However, Ireland
as religious reference point is now increasingly significant in neopagan contexts.



See also Notable Americans of Scotch-Irish descent

* Tony Blair
Tony Blair
, British Prime Minister, born of an Irish mother * Ed Broadbent - politician and political scientist * Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
, French General and President of the Republic, of Irish descent (MacCartan) * James Callaghan
James Callaghan
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Labour Party Prime Minister, Chancellor and Foreign Secretary 1960s and 1970s. * Jean Charest
Jean Charest
, born of an Irish-Canadian mother, Premier of Quebec , 2003–12. * Richard J. Daley , Mayor of Chicago
Mayor of Chicago
, 1955–76. * Richard M. Daley , Mayor of Chicago
Mayor of Chicago
, 1989–2011. * Éamon de Valera , Taoiseach and President of Ireland, born in New York City. * Bernard Devlin
Bernard Devlin
- 19th-century lawyer, journalist, politician, Irish-Canadian patriot * Helen Gahagan Douglas , Actress and Congresswomen from California defeated by Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
. * James Duane , Mayor of New York City
Mayor of New York City
1784, son of a Galway man. * Edelmiro Farrell
Edelmiro Farrell
, 28th President of Argentina
(de facto; 1944–46). * Che Guevara
Che Guevara
, Argentine-born revolutionary. * Chaim Herzog , 6th President of Israel
President of Israel
, born in Belfast
. * Paul Keating
Paul Keating
, 24th Prime Minister of Australia. * John Curtin
John Curtin
, 14th Prime Minister of Australia. * James Scullin 9th Prime Minister of Australia. * John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
, 35th President of the United States; also Robert F. Kennedy and Edward M. Kennedy , members of the Kennedy Family , originally from Wexford
. * Ricardo López Murphy , Argentine politician and presidential candidate. * Patrice MacMahon, duc de Magenta
Patrice MacMahon, duc de Magenta
, first President of the Third French Republic * Santiago Mariño - Venezuelan-born of an Irish mother, aide de camp to Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
. * Paul Martin - 21st Prime Minister of Canada
* D\'Arcy McGee , Young Irelander , Father of Canadian Confederation who was assassinated for his criticism of the Fenian raids on Canada. * Dalton McGuinty , Premier of Ontario, Canada. * Tom Mulcair - Politician, Leader of Official Opposition * Brian Mulroney , 18th Prime Minister of Canada
, child of Irish Quebecers. * Álvaro Obregón
Álvaro Obregón
, President of Mexico 1920–24. * Barack Obama
Barack Obama
, 44th President of the United States, his mother Ann Dunham has Irish ancestry. * Kolouei O\'Brien , head of government of Tokelau
* Leopoldo O\'Donnell , 1st Duke of Tetuan, Spanish general and statesman, a descendant of Calvagh O\'Donnell , chieftain of Tyrconnell . * Juan O\'Donojú , last viceroy of New Spain. * Bernardo O\'Higgins , second Supreme Director of Chile
, and his father, Viceroy of Peru Ambrosio O\'Higgins, Marquis of Osorno , a Sligoman . * Louis St. Laurent , 12th Prime Minister of Canada, mother an Irish Quebecer . * Sir John Thompson - 4th Prime Minister of Canada

Isadora Duncan, legendary dancer Garland as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939)


* Lucille Ball , actress and comedian * Mischa Barton , actress * David Bowie
David Bowie
, singer/songwriter * Lara Flynn Boyle
Lara Flynn Boyle
, actress * Edward Burns , actor / filmmaker * Kate Bush , Singer and songwriter * Mariah Carey
Mariah Carey
, best selling female recording artist * George Carlin , comedian, ranked second greatest of all time by Comedy Central
Comedy Central
. * Raymond Chandler , writer of the Marlowe series. Irish mother. * George Clooney
George Clooney
, actor * Stephen Colbert , comedian * Steve Coogan , actor / comedian * Kevin Dillon , actor * Matt Dillon , actor * Patrick Duff , singer-songwriter (Strangelove ) * Patty Duke , actress * Isadora Duncan , dancer * Enya
, singer songwriter * Everlast white-space:nowrap;">of Riverdance * Liam Gallagher
Liam Gallagher
and Noel Gallagher of Oasis . * Judy Garland
Judy Garland
, actress and singer * Mel Gibson , actor / filmmaker * Thea Gilmore , singer-songwriter * Merv Griffin
Merv Griffin
, television host * Lafcadio Hearn , American writer. * Paul Hogan , actor. * Marian Jordan , Molly of long-time hit radio program Fibber McGee and Molly . * Mike Joyce , member of The Smiths . * Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
actor and dancer * Princess Grace of Monaco , actress (as Grace Kelly) and noblewoman. * Kennedy family * Jamie Kennedy , actor * Kevin Kline , actor * Denis Leary , actor, musician and comedian * Mac Lethal , Hip Hop
Hip Hop
musician * John Lydon a.k.a. Johnny Rotten, singer with the Sex Pistols
Sex Pistols
* Bill Maher talk show host, comedian. * Johnny Marr , member of The Smiths . * Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
, John Lennon
John Lennon
and George Harrison
George Harrison
of The Beatles
The Beatles
. * Rose McGowan , actress, born in Italy to an Irish father and French mother * Tom Meighan , lead singer of Kasabian * Colin Meloy , lead singer and songwriter of The Decemberists . * Steven Morrissey
, singer, member of The Smiths . * Brittany
Murphy actress * Mary Murphy , choreographer. * Katie Noonan
Katie Noonan
, Irish-Australian singer. * Conan O\'Brien , television host * George O\'Dowd , pop singer, also known as Boy George * Juan O\'Gorman , a 20th-century Mexican artist, both a painter and an architect. * Georgia O\'Keeffe , painter

Maureen O'Hara, Irish Actress and famous beauty in the trailer for The Black Swan (1942)

* Maureen O\'Hara , Irish-born actress and celebrated Hollywood beauty. * Eugene O\'Neill , writer. * Peter O\'Toole , Academy Award nominated actor * Aidan Quinn , Emmy Award
Emmy Award
-nominated actor * Anthony Quinn , Oscar -winning Mexican actor. * Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
, American actor, former child star * Johnny Rotten (b. John Lydon), singer of the Sex Pistols
Sex Pistols
. * Kevin Rowland , lead singer of Dexys Midnight Runners . * Andy Rourke , member of The Smiths . * Justin Sane , lead singer of Anti-Flag * Dusty Springfield , English-born singer. * Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
, songwriter, performer and political activist. * John Wayne
John Wayne
, actor, enduring American icon * Brian Whelan , painter and author * Catherine Zeta-Jones , actress * Lorde , New Zealand-born singer. * Rihanna
, R'n'B Barbados of African-Irish descent


* Robert Boyle
Robert Boyle
, philosopher and chemist. * Kathleen Lonsdale , London -based 20th century Chemist. * Ernest Walton , Cambridge
-based co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics , 1951. * James D. Watson
James D. Watson
, co-discoverer of DNA Nobel Prize winner * Erwin Schrödinger
Erwin Schrödinger
, Austrian-Irish physicist


* Muhammad Ali , American Boxer, his mother's father (Ali's grandfather) Abe Grady was from Ennis, Co. Clare * Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn
, Queen consort to King Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII of England
; Irish paternal grandmother Margaret Butler * Anne Bonney
Anne Bonney
, pirate, born in Cork . * James J. Braddock , boxer, also known as The Cinderella Man * Molly Brown , the "Unsinkable Molly Brown." * Nellie Cashman , "The Angel of Tombstone". * U Dhammaloka (?Laurence Carroll), Buddhist monk and anti-missionary agitator in Burma, born in Dublin * Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales
, noblewoman, her mother, Frances Burke Roche was a descendant of the Earls of Fermoy * Arthur Conan Doyle , author most famous for his Sherlock Holmes stories. * John Dunlap , printer of the first copies of the United States Declaration of Independence * Margaretta Eagar , governess to the last Russian Royal Family * Sarah, Duchess of York , former wife of a British prince, her paternal ancestors came from Northern Ireland
* Henry Ford
Henry Ford
, businessman and founder of the Ford Foundation
Ford Foundation
. * Cardinal James Gibbons , Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
prelate * Kathy Griffin , standup comic and TV personality (both parents Irish immigrants) * Sean Hannity , American political commentator * Mary Jemison , Irish captive adopted by Native American Seneca tribe.

Painting of Louise O'Murphy by François Boucher
François Boucher
c. 1751

* Dorothy Jordan , mistress to William IV of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Ned Kelly – Australian bushranger * Eliza Lynch , Irish-born mistress of President Francisco Solano López of Paraguay * Martin Maher , instructor at the United States
United States
Military Academy at West Point * Mary Mallon , also known as Typhoid Mary, a notorious cook * Lola Montez , mistress to Ludwig I of Bavaria * Annie Moore , first immigrant to USA to be processed at Ellis Island * George \'Bugs\' Moran , Prohibition era Chicago US gangster * Anne Mortimer
Anne Mortimer
, Irish-born English noblewoman * Evelyn Nesbit , model and actress * Mario O\'Donnell , historian * Marie-Louise O\'Murphy , mistress to King Louis XV of France.

Lola Montez, Irish-born mistress to King Ludwig I of Bavaria. Her real name was Eliza Gilbert

* Bill O\'Reilly , American political commentator * Count Joseph Cornelius O\'Rourke , Lieutenant-General of the Russian Imperial Guard . * Lee Harvey Oswald , assassin of John F. Kennedy, Irish great-grandmother Mary Tonry * Pat Quinn , Canadian hockey coach (former coach of Toronto
Maple Leafs and Team Canada) * Frank Wallace , criminal * James McLean , criminal * Mickey Spillane , criminal * James J. Bulger , criminal * Mary O\'Toole , first woman municipal judge of the United States
United States


* Irish Brigade (French) formed from the Irish army after the flight of the Wild Geese in 1691. * 1st Regiment Venezuelan Rifles - Irish regiment that took part in the Venezuelan War of Independence . * The Irish Battalion, or Los San Patricio , who fought on the side of Mexico against the US invasion of 1846–48 . * Irish Brigade (US) served on the Union side in the American Civil War in the 1860s. * Tyneside Irish Brigade , World War I brigade serving in the British army
British army
at the Somme . * Irish military diaspora , notable individuals, Irish by birth or extraction, who served in non-Irish military forces. * Irish regiments , many Irish regiments served in non-Irish military forces and took part in several conflicts of world history.


* Flight of the Earls
Flight of the Earls
* Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
* The Penal Laws affecting non-Conformists (c.1715–1869) * Irish Famine
(1740–1741) * Great Irish Famine (1845–1851) * Irish Famine
(1879) * Economic history of Ireland
* Economic history of the Republic of Ireland
* The Economic War
Economic War
, 1933–38. * "The Emergency" ( Ireland
during World War II) * "The Troubles" (c.1969–1998) * Post-2008 Irish economic downturn
Post-2008 Irish economic downturn


* List of expatriate Irish populations * Irish Travellers * Irish military diaspora * List of Ireland-related topics * Irish place names in other countries * The Gathering Ireland
2013 * Liverpool
Irish * Coatbridge
Irish * Against the Wind (TV series)



* ^ A B C Flechner and Meeder, The Irish in Early Medieval Europe, pp. 231-41 * ^ J. Matthew Gallman , Receiving Erin's Children: Philadelphia, Liverpool, and the Irish Famine
Migration, 1845-1855 (2000) * ^ David Fitzpatrick, "Emigration, 1801–70", in A New History of Ireland, vol. V: Ireland
under the Union, I, 1801–70, ed. W. E. Vaughan (Oxford, 1989), 569; David Fitzpatrick, "Emigration, 1871–1921", in A New History of Ireland, vol. VI: Ireland
under the Union, II, 1870–1921, ed. W. E. Vaughan (Oxford, 1996), 607 * ^ "U.S. Census". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 13 April 2008. * ^ The cultural and linguistic contexts are discussed in: Ó hAnnracháin, Stiofán (ed.), 1979. Go Meiriceá Siar. An Clóchomhar Tta, Baile Átha Cliath; Ihde, Thomas W. (ed.), 1994. The Irish Language in the United States: a historical, sociolinguistic and applied linguistic survey. Bergin Noone, Val , 2012. Hidden Ireland
in Victoria. Ballarat Historical Services. ISBN 978-1-876478-83-4 * ^ Nash, Catherine (2008), Of Irish Descent: Origin Stories, Genealogy, and the Politics of Belonging, Syracuse University Press, pp. 33-50. ISBN 9780815631590 * ^ "Irish Citizens Information Board". * ^ See, for example, 'Diaspóra éigin,' An Lúibín, 22 Meitheamh 2015: http://www.gaeilgesanastrail.com/newsletter-ir.php: "Os a choinne sin, tig le daoine áirithe a rá gur de shliocht Éireannach iad ach nach daoine d’aon Diaspóra iad. Orthu sin tá údar an phíosa seo. Astrálach é nó citoyen du monde. Gaeilge aige agus Béarla, agus teanga nó dhó eile. Agus níl sa Ghaeilge atá aige ach teanga de chuid a thíre féin". * ^ Tuathal Techtmar: A Myth or Ancient Literary Evidence for a Roman Invasion? By R. 8. Warner, The Ulster Museum . * ^ The 9th-century Irish monk and geographer Dicuil describes Iceland
in his work Liber de Mensura Orbis Terrae. * ^ Kennedy, Robert E. ' 'The Irish: Emigration, Marriage, and Fertility.' ' Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. * ^ Michelle Hudson, "The Effect of 'Roots' and the Bicentennial on Genealogical Interest among Patrons of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History," Journal of Mississippi History 1991 53(4): 321–336 * ^ Grow Your Family Tree in Salt Lake City – Genealogy is the Fastest Growing Hobby in North America * ^ Genealogy.com: Recent Maritz Poll Shows Explosion in Popularity of Genealogy * ^ Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Genealogy in the \'Information Age\': History\'s New Frontier?" National Genealogical Society Quarterly 91 (December 2003): 260–77. * ^ Fallon, Steve (2002). Home with Alice: A Journey in Gaelic Ireland. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. pp. 30–32. * ^ Mary J. Hickman . 2002. "'Locating' the Irish Diaspora." Irish Journal of Sociology 11(2):8-26. * ^ Bronwen Walter, 2005, "Irish Diaspora" in Immigration and asylum: from 1900 to the present, Volume 3 edited by Matthew J. Gibney, Randall Hansen. ISBN 1-57607-796-9 * ^ Teenager under fire (26 November 2006) Times (UK) * ^ McCullough, Ian. "Back of the Net". The Irish Post. Retrieved 5 January 2007. * ^ "A proud celebration of our new Irish identity" in The Irish Post (Wednesday, 10 May 2006) * ^ http://www.cis.strath.ac.uk/cis/research/publications/papers/strath_cis_publication_608.pdf * ^ Birmingham
man given suspended sentence for racist remarks * ^ Massie, Alex (17 March 2006). "Erin Go ARGH! – The case against St. Patrick\'s Day. (And, no, I\'m not British.)". National Review Online. Retrieved 7 January 2007. * ^ A B We\'re all Irish now Archived 28 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine ., Spiked online magazine * ^ Davies, Gareth A (10 June 2009). "Dan Hardy\'s UFC clash with Marcus Davis set to produce fireworks". The Daily Telegraph. London. * ^ "More than a Plastic Paddy" in Why I Am Still a Catholic: Essays in Faith and Perseverance * ^ Six million Britons are entitled to Irish citizenship * ^ A B Bowcott, Owen (13 September 2006). "More Britons applying for Irish passports". The Guardian. London. * ^ One in four Britons claim Irish roots * ^ http://www.chroniclelive.co.uk/news/north-east-news/irish-eyes-set-smile-tyneside-1550289 * ^ http://www.scrol.gov.uk/scrol/warehouse/NewWards_ER_CA.jsp * ^ Agnes Duff, Countess Fife * ^ http://www.landedestates.ie/LandedEstates/jsp/estate-show.jsp?id=3189 * ^ A B "Flying the Irish flag in Argentina". Western People . 14 March 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2008. * ^ Clear, Caitríona (2007). Social Change and Everyday Life in Ireland, 1850–1922. Manchester
University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-7438-7 . Retrieved 17 October 2009. * ^ Northern Ireland
Species Action Plan: Blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium bermudiania). The Department of the Environment (Northern Ireland). Northern Ireland
Environment Agency. March 2005 * ^ Wild Flowers of Ireland: Information on Blue-eyed Grass * ^ The New Yorker. 2 January, 1954. Page 2. ABSTRACT: DEPT. OF AMPLIFICATION about Saint Brendan. According to a talk story on Bermuda
in our Dec. 5, 1953 issue, Saint Brendan may have discovered Bermuda
in the 6th century. * ^ Brendan the Navigator, by Dan Graves, MSL. Christianity.com * ^ True North: Journeys Into the Great Northern Ocean, by Myron Arms. Publisher: Upper Access, Inc. 15 January 2010. ISBN 0942679334 * ^ Packwood, Cyril Outerbridge (1975). Chained on the Rock. New York: E. Torres. p. 159. ISBN 0-88303-175-2 . * ^ Craven, Wesley Frank (1990). An Introduction to the History of Bermuda. Bermuda: Bermuda
Maritime Museum Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-921560-04-4 . * ^ http://www.raceandhistory.com/cgi-bin/forum/webbbs_config.pl/noframes/read/1638 * ^ Zuill, W. S. (1987). The Story of Bermuda
and her People. London: Macmillan Caribbean. p. 91. ISBN 0-333-34156-2 . * ^ Packwood, Cyril Outerbridge (1975). Chained on the Rock. New York: E. Torres. p. 160. ISBN 0-88303-175-2 . * ^ Packwood, Cyril Outerbridge (1975). Chained on the Rock. New York: E. Torres. p. 143. ISBN 0-88303-175-2 . * ^ Outerbridge Packwood, Cyril (1975). Chained on the Rock. New York: E. Torres. p. 132. ISBN 0-88303-175-2 . * ^ Gentleman's Magazine. See American Vital Records from the Gentleman's Magazine, 1731-1868, by David Dobson, Page 160. * ^ British military presence in Bermuda, The Royal Gazette , 3 February 2007 * ^ Bermuda
Sampler 1815-1850, by William Zuill. Publisher: The Bermuda
Book Store. 1 January 1937 * ^ Bermuda
Online: British Army in Bermuda
from 1701 to 1977; 1881 to 1883 * ^ Mount St. Agnes Academy website: History * ^ Peter Doyle. Founders & Survivors Project website. Founders & Survivors Project, Centre for Health & Society, University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia. * ^ Faclair Gaidhlig gu Beurla le Dealbhan/Dwelly's Illustrated Gaelic to English Dictionary, compiled by Edward Dwelly. Gairm Publications, Glasgow* * ^ Ó Dónaill, Niall (1992). FOCLÓIR GAEILGE-BÉARLA (Irish-English Dictionary). Dublin: An Gúm. ISBN 1-85791-037-0 . * ^ World Wide Words; Killick * ^ BERMEWJAN VURDS – Our Bermuda
Dictionary (humorous), thanks to Peter A. Smith and Fred M. Barritt, who wrote the original works. * ^ Google search results for terms o\'connor Bermuda, with About 8,700,000 results * ^ Google search results for terms Crockwell Bermuda, with About 131,000 results * ^ Website of Hannibal Lodge #224: History of Irish Freemasonry in Bermuda * ^ Paul Magocsi, ed. Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples (1999) p 463 * ^ Tim Pat Coogan , "Wherever Green Is Worn: The Story of the Irish Diaspora", Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. * ^ * ^ "The Buried History of America\'s Largest Slave Rebellion and the Man Who Led It" New York Times * ^ Countries and Their Cultures: Montserrat
(2012), available online. * ^ " Montserrat
Hosts First Ever Volcano Half Marathon". Travel Video News. 28 September 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2009. * ^ Tri S Ranch: The Irish Slave Trade — The Forgotten "White" Slaves. The Slaves That Time Forgot, by John Martin * ^ * ^ A B Emerald Reflections, Retrieved 7 November 2007 * ^ Remembering the Past Archived 4 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ http://www.irlandeses.org/0711novillo1.htm * ^ http://www.trinidadexpress.com/news/When_the_Irish_came-115452139.html * ^ Patricia I. Folan Sebben, "U.S. Immigration Law, Irish Immigration and Diversity: Cead Mile Failte (A Thousand Times Welcome)," in Georgetown Immigration Law Journal, Vol. 6 Issue 4 (1992): 750 * ^ Patricia I. Folan Sebben, "U.S. Immigration Law, Irish Immigration and Diversity: Cead Mile Failte (A Thousand Times Welcome)," in Georgetown Immigration Law Journal, Vol. 6 Issue 4 (1992): 751–752. * ^ Patricia I. Folan Sebben, "U.S. Immigration Law, Irish Immigration and Diversity: Cead Mile Failte (A Thousand Times Welcome)," in Georgetown Immigration Law Journal, Vol. 6 Issue 4 (1992): 750. * ^ Collins, R.M. (2010). Irish Gandy Dancer: A tale of building the Transcontinental Railroad. Seattle: Create Space. p. 198. ISBN 978-1-4528-2631-8 . * ^ O'Hara, Megan (2002). Irish Immigrants: 1840–1920. Blue Earth Books: Coming to America. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press. pp. 6, 10. ISBN 978-0-7368-0795-1 . * ^ "Irish Immigration to America: History for kids ***". www.emmigration.info. Retrieved 2017-02-16. * ^ Hess, Mary A. "Scottish and scots-irish americans". Retrieved 20 June 2014. * ^ Bunbury, Turtie. "Now African Americans are trying to trace THEIR Irish roots after being inspired by Barack Obama". Retrieved 20 June 2014. * ^ Wiethoff, William E. (2006). Crafting the Overseer's Image. University of South Carolina press. p. 71. ISBN 1-57003-646-2 . * ^ See the discussion in Lonergan, Dymphna, Sounds Irish: The Irish Language in Australia, Lythrum Press, 2004, ISBN 1 921013 00 1 . * ^ Encyclopedia of New Zealand: "Gold and Gold mining" (updated July 13, 2012) pp 3,9 * ^ Fraser, Lyndon. "Structure and agency: Comparative perspectives on Catholic Irish experiences in New Zealand
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New Zealand
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(DP02): 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates" Archived 17 April 2016 at WebCite * ^ James Webb, Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America (New York: Broadway Books, 2004), front flap: 'More than 27 million Americans today can trace their lineage to the Scots, whose bloodline was stained by centuries of continuous warfare along the border between England and Scotland, and later in the bitter settlements of England's Ulster Plantation in Northern Ireland.' ISBN 0-7679-1688-3 * ^ James Webb, Secret GOP Weapon: The Scots Irish Vote, Wall Street Journal (23 October 2004). Accessed 7 September 2008. * ^ "U.S. Census Bureau, 2008". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-25. * ^ "National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, Canada, 2011". www12.statcan.gc.ca. National Household Survey. April 2, 2014. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014. * ^ Los irlandeses en Chile * ^ Rhodes, Stephen A. (1 May 1998). Where the nations meet: the church in a multicultural world. InterVarsity Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-8308-1936-2 . Retrieved 25 May 2011. * ^ * ^ http://www.irishabroad.com/news/irishpost/featurearticles/anirisheasterrising.asp * ^ Census home: Office for National Statistics * ^ "Statistical Classification and Delineation of Settlements" (PDF). Northern Ireland
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* Ronan, Gerard The Irish Zorro: the Extraordinary Adventures of William Lamport (1615–1659) * Murray, Thomas (1919) The Story of the Irish in Argentina * Glazier, Michael (ed.) (1999) The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press ISBN 0-268-02755-2 * Akenson, Donald. The Irish Diaspora: a Primer. (Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, 1993) * Bielenberg, Andy, ed. The Irish Diaspora
(London: Pearson, 2000) * Campbell, Malcolm. Ireland's New Worlds: Immigrants, Politics, and Society in the United States
United States
and Australia, 1815–1922 (2007) * Coleman, Philip Coleman, James Byrne and Jason King, eds. Ireland and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History (3 vol. ABC-CLIO, 2008), 967pp excerpt and text search * Coogan, Tim Pat. Wherever Green Is Worn: The Story of the Irish Diaspora
(2002), popular * Darby, Paul, and David Hassan, eds. Sport and the Irish Diaspora: Emigrants at Play (2008) * Delaney, Enda, Kevin Kenny, and Donald Mcraild. "The Irish Diaspora", Irish Economic and Social History (2006): 33:35–58 * Fanning, Charles. New Perspectives on the Irish Diaspora
(2000) * Flechner, Roy, and Sven Meeder, eds., The Irish in Early Medieval Europe: Identity, Culture and Religion (2016), On Google Books * Gallman, J. Matthew. Receiving Erin's Children: Philadelphia, Liverpool, and the Irish Famine
Migration, 1845-1855 (2000) * Glazier, Michael, ed. The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America (U. of Notre Dame Press, 1999) 988pp * Gray, Breda. Women and the Irish Diaspora
(2003) * Gribben, Arthur, and Ruth-Ann M. Harris. The Great Famine
and the Irish Diaspora
in America (1999) * Jordan, Thomas (1856). "Effects of emigration; can it be made a means of relieving distress?". Journal of Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland. Dublin: Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland. 1 (vii): 378–84. ISSN 0081-4776 . * Kenny, Kevin. " Diaspora
and Comparison: the Global Irish as a Case Study", Journal of American History 2003 90(1): 134–162, In JSTOR * Kenny, Kevin. The American Irish: A History. (London/New York: Longman/Pearson, 2000). * Lalor, Brian, ed. The Encyclopedia of Ireland
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