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The IRISH FREE STATE (Irish : _Saorstát Éireann_ pronounced ; 6 December 1922 – 29 December 1937) was an independent state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921. That treaty ended the three-year Irish War of Independence between the forces of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic , the Irish Republican Army (IRA), and British Crown forces.

The Free State was established as a Dominion
Dominion
of the British Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
. It comprised 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland
Ireland
. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
, which comprised the remaining six counties, exercised its right under the Treaty to opt out of the new state. The Free State government consisted of the Governor-General , the representative of the king, and the Executive Council , which replaced both the revolutionary Dáil Government and the Provisional Government set up under the Treaty. W. T. Cosgrave , who had led both of these governments since August 1922, became the first President of the Executive Council . The legislature consisted of Dáil Éireann (the lower house) and Seanad Éireann , also known as the Senate. Members of the Dáil were required to take an Oath of Allegiance , swearing fidelity to the king. The oath was a key issue for opponents of the Treaty, who refused to take the oath and therefore did not take their seats. Pro-Treaty members, who formed Cumann na nGaedheal in 1923, held an effective majority in the Dáil from 1922 to 1927, and thereafter ruled as a minority government until 1932.

In the first months of the Free State, the Irish Civil War was waged between the newly established National Army and the anti-Treaty IRA , who refused to recognise the state. The Civil War ended in victory for the government forces, with the anti-Treaty forces dumping its arms in May 1923. The anti-Treaty political party, Sinn Féin , refused to take its seats in the Dáil, leaving the relatively small Labour Party as the only opposition party. In 1926, when Sinn Féin president Éamon de Valera failed to have this policy reversed, he resigned from Sinn Féin and founded Fianna Fáil . Fianna Fáil entered the Dáil following the 1927 general election , and entered government after the Irish general election, 1932 , when it became the largest party.

De Valera abolished the Oath of Allegiance and embarked on an economic war with Britain. In 1937 he drafted a new constitution , which was passed by a referendum in July of that year. The Free State came to an end with the coming into force of the new constitution on 29 December 1937. Under the new constitution the Irish state was named Ireland.

CONTENTS

* 1 Historical background

* 1.1 A war for a new independent Ireland
Ireland

* 2 Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
"opts out"

* 3 Governmental and constitutional structures

* 3.1 The Representative of the Crown * 3.2 Oath of Allegiance

* 4 The Irish Civil War

* 5 The "freedom to achieve freedom"

* 5.1 Governance * 5.2 Constitutional evolution * 5.3 Currency * 5.4 Demographics

* 6 After the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The Easter Rising of 1916, and particularly the execution of fifteen people by firing squad, the imprisonment or internment of hundreds more, and the imposition of martial law caused a profound shift in public opinion towards the republican cause in Ireland
Ireland
. Meanwhile, opposition increased to Ireland\'s participation in World War I in Europe and the Middle East. This came about when the Irish Parliamentary Party supported the Allied cause in World War I in response to the passing of the Third Home Rule Bill in 1914 . Many people had begun to doubt whether the Bill, passed by Westminster
Westminster
in September 1914 but suspended for the duration of the war, would ever come into effect. Due to the war situation deteriorating badly on the Western Front in April 1918, which coincided with the publication of the final report and recommendations of the Irish Convention , the British Cabinet drafted a doomed "dual policy" of introducing Home Rule linked to compulsory military service for Ireland
Ireland
which it eventually had to drop. Sinn Féin, the Irish Party and all other Nationalist elements joined forces in opposition to the idea during the Conscription Crisis of 1918 . At the same time the Irish Parliamentary lost in support on account of the crisis. Irish republicans felt further emboldened by successful anti-monarchical revolutions in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(1917), the German Empire
German Empire
(1918), and the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1918). In the December 1918 General Election , Sinn Féin won a large majority of the Irish seats in the Westminster
Westminster
parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
: 73 of the 105 constituencies returned Sinn Féin members (25 uncontested). The Sinn Féin party, founded by Arthur Griffith in 1905, had espoused non-violent separatism. Under Éamon de Valera 's leadership from 1917, it campaigned aggressively and militantly for an Irish republic.

On 21 January 1919, Sinn Féin MPs (who became known as _Teachta Dála _, TDs), refusing to sit at Westminster
Westminster
, assembled in Dublin and formed a single-chamber Irish parliament called Dáil Éireann (Assembly of Ireland). It affirmed the formation of an Irish Republic and passed a Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence
,

the Irish people is resolved... to promote the common weal, to re-establish justice... with equal rights and equal opportunity for every citizen.

and calling itself _Saorstát Éireann_ in Irish. Although the less than overwhelming majority of Irish people accepted this course, America and Soviet Russia were targeted to recognise the Irish Republic internationally. The Message to the Free Nations of the World called on

every free nation to support the Irish Republic by recognizing Ireland's national status... the last outpost of Europe towards the West... demanded by the Freedom of the Seas.

Cathal Brugha , elected President of the Ministry Pro-Tem, warned, "Deputies you understand from this that we are now done with England."

A WAR FOR A NEW INDEPENDENT IRELAND

The War of Independence (1919–1921) pitted the army of the Irish Republic, the Irish Republican Army (known subsequently as the "Old IRA" to distinguish it from later organisations of that name), against the British Army
British Army
, the Black and Tans , the Royal Irish Constabulary , the Auxiliary Division , the Dublin
Dublin
Metropolitan Police , the Ulster Special
Special
Constabulary and the Ulster Volunteer Force . On 9 July 1921 a truce came into force. By this time the Ulster Parliament had opened, established under the Government of Ireland Act 1920
Government of Ireland Act 1920
, and presenting the republican movement with a _fait accompli_ and guaranteeing the British permanent entanglement in Ireland. On 11 October negotiations opened between the British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
, and Arthur Griffith, who headed the Irish Republic's delegation. The Irish Treaty delegation (Griffith, Collins, Duggan, Barton, and Gavan Duffy) set up headquarters in Hans Place , Knightsbridge. On 5 December 1921 at 11:15 am the delegation decided during private discussions at 22 Hans Place to recommend the negotiated agreement to the Dáil Éireann; negotiations continued until 2:30 am on 6 December 1921, after which the parties signed Anglo-Irish Treaty . Nobody had doubted that these negotiations would produce a form of Irish government short of the independence wished for by republicans. The United Kingdom could not offer a republican form of government without losing prestige and risking demands for something similar throughout the Empire. Furthermore, as one of the negotiators, Michael Collins , later admitted (and he would have known, given his leading role in the independence war), the IRA at the time of the truce was weeks, if not days, away from collapse, with a chronic shortage of ammunition. "Frankly, we thought they were mad", Collins said of the sudden British offer of a truce – although the republicans would probably have continued the struggle in one form or another, given the level of public support. Since Lloyd George had already, after the truce had come into effect, made it clear to President of the Republic , Éamon de Valera, "that the achievement of a republic through negotiation was impossible", de Valera decided not to become a member of the treaty delegation and so not to risk more militant republicans labelling him as a "sellout". Yet his own proposals – published in January 1922 – fell far short of an autonomous all- Ireland
Ireland
republic. Sinn Féin's abstention was unambiguous.

As expected, the Anglo-Irish Treaty explicitly ruled out a republic. It offered Ireland
Ireland
dominion status, as a state within the then British Empire – equal to Canada, Newfoundland, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Though less than expected by the Sinn Féin leadership, this deal offered substantially more than the initial form of home rule within the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
sought by Charles Stewart Parnell
Charles Stewart Parnell
from 1880, and represented a serious advance on the Home Rule Bill of 1914 that the Irish nationalist leader John Redmond had achieved through parliamentary proceedings. However, it all but confirmed the partition of Ireland
Ireland
between Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and the Irish Free State. The Second Dáil in Dublin
Dublin
ratified the Treaty (7 January 1922), splitting Sinn Féin in the process.

NORTHERN IRELAND "OPTS OUT"

The Treaty, and the legislation introduced to give it legal effect, implied that Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
would be a part of the Free State on its creation, but legally the terms of the Treaty applied only to the 26 counties, and the government of the Free State never had any powers—even in principle—in Northern Ireland.

The Treaty was given legal effect in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
through the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922 . That act, which established the Free State, allowed Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
to "opt out" of it. Under Article 12 of the Treaty, Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
could exercise its option by presenting an address to the King requesting not to be part of the Irish Free State. Once the Treaty was ratified, the Houses of Parliament of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
had one month (dubbed the "Ulster month") to exercise this option during which month the Government of Ireland
Ireland
Act continued to apply in Northern Ireland.

Realistically it was always certain that Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
would opt out of the Free State. The Prime Minister of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
, Sir James Craig , speaking in the Parliament in October 1922 said that "when 6 December is passed the month begins in which we will have to make the choice either to vote out or remain within the Free State". He said it was important that that choice be made as soon as possible after 6 December 1922 "in order that it may not go forth to the world that we had the slightest hesitation". On the following day, 7 December 1922, the Parliament resolved to make the following address to the King so as to opt out of the Irish Free State:

MOST GRACIOUS SOVEREIGN, We, your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Senators and Commons of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
in Parliament assembled, having learnt of the passing of the Irish Free State Constitution Act, 1922, being the Act of Parliament for the ratification of the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty between Great Britain and Ireland, do, by this humble Address, pray your Majesty that the powers of the Parliament and Government of the Irish Free State shall no longer extend to Northern Ireland.

Discussion in the Parliament of the address was short. Prime Minister Craig left for London with the memorial embodying the address on the night boat that evening, 7 December 1922. The King received it the following day, _The Times_ reporting:

YORK COTTAGE, SANDRINGHAM, DEC. 8. The Earl of Cromer (Lord Chamberlain ) was received in audience by The King this evening and presented an Address from the Houses of Parliament of Northern Ireland, to which His Majesty was graciously pleased to make reply.

If the Houses of Parliament of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
had not made such a declaration, under Article 14 of the Treaty Northern Ireland, its Parliament and government would have continued in being but the Oireachtas would have had jurisdiction to legislate for Northern Ireland
Ireland
in matters not delegated to Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
under the Government of Ireland
Ireland
Act. This, of course, never came to pass.

On 13 December 1922 Prime Minister Craig addressed the Parliament informing them that the King had responded to the Parliament's address as follows:

I have received the Address presented to me by both Houses of the Parliament of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
in pursuance of Article 12 of the Articles of Agreement set forth in the Schedule to the Irish Free State (Agreement) Act, 1922, and of Section 5 of the Irish Free State Constitution Act, 1922, and I have caused my Ministers and the Irish Free State Government to be so informed.

GOVERNMENTAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES

A symbol most often associated with the new state's postal system .

The Treaty established that the new Irish Free State
Irish Free State
would be a constitutional monarchy , with a Governor-General. The _Constitution of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
_ made more detailed provision for the state's system of government, with a three-tier parliament, called the Oireachtas , made up of the King and two houses, Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
and Seanad Éireann (the Irish Senate). Executive authority was vested in the King, and exercised by a cabinet called the Executive Council , presided over by a prime minister called the President of the Executive Council .

THE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE CROWN

Main article: Governor-General of the Irish Free State

The King in the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
was represented by a Governor-General of the Irish Free State . The office replaced the previous Lord Lieutenant , who had headed English and British administrations in Ireland
Ireland
since the Middle Ages. Governors-General were appointed by the King initially on the advice of the British Government, but with the consent of the Irish Government. From 1927 the Irish Government alone had the power to advise the King whom to appoint.

OATH OF ALLEGIANCE

As with all dominions, provision was made for an Oath of Allegiance. Within dominions, such oaths were taken by parliamentarians personally towards the monarch. The Irish Oath of Allegiance was fundamentally different. It had two elements; the first, an _oath to the Free State, as by law established_, the second part a promise of _fidelity, to His Majesty, King George V, his heirs and successors_. That second fidelity element, however, was qualified in two ways. It was to the King _in_ Ireland, not specifically to the King of the United Kingdom. Secondly, it was to the King explicitly in his role as part of the Treaty settlement, not in terms of pre-1922 British rule. The Oath itself came from a combination of three sources, and was largely the work of Michael Collins in the Treaty negotiations. It came in part from a draft oath suggested prior to the negotiations by President de Valera. Other sections were taken by Collins directly from the Oath of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), of which he was the secret head. In its structure, it was also partially based on the form and structure used for ' Dominion
Dominion
status'.

Although 'a new departure', and notably indirect in its reference to the monarchy, it was criticised by nationalists and republicans for making any reference to the Crown, the claim being that it _was_ a direct oath to the Crown, a fact demonstrably incorrect by an examination of its wording. But in 1922 Ireland
Ireland
and beyond, it was the perception, not the reality, that influenced public debate on the issue. Had its original author, Michael Collins, survived, he might have been able to clarify its actual meaning, but with his assassination in August 1922, no major negotiator to the Oath's creation on the Irish side was still alive, available or pro-Treaty. (The leader of the Irish delegation, Arthur Griffith , had also died in August 1922). The Oath became a key issue in the resulting Irish Civil War that divided the pro- and anti-treaty sides in 1922–23.

THE IRISH CIVIL WAR

Main article: Irish Civil War

The compromises contained in the agreement caused the civil war in the 26 counties in June 1922—April 1923, in which the pro-Treaty Provisional Government defeated the anti-Treaty Republican forces. The latter were led, nominally, by Éamon de Valera , who had resigned as President of the Republic on the treaty's ratification. His resignation outraged some of his own supporters, notably Seán T. O\'Kelly , the main Sinn Féin organizer. On resigning, he then sought re-election but was defeated two days later on a vote of 60–58. The pro-Treaty Arthur Griffith followed as President of the Irish Republic. Michael Collins was chosen at a meeting of the members elected to sit in the House of Commons of Southern Ireland (a body set up under the Government of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1920) to become Chairman of the Provisional Government of the Irish Free State in accordance with the Treaty. The general election in June gave overwhelming support for the pro-Treaty parties. W. T. Cosgrave 's Crown-appointed Provisional Government effectively subsumed Griffith's republican administration with the death of both Collins and Griffith in August 1922.

THE "FREEDOM TO ACHIEVE FREEDOM"

Irish Free State
Irish Free State
passport (holder's name removed)

GOVERNANCE

The following were the principal parties of government of the Irish Free State between 1922 and 1937:

* Cumann na nGaedheal under W. T. Cosgrave (1922–32) * Fianna Fáil under Éamon de Valera (1932–37)

CONSTITUTIONAL EVOLUTION

Overprinted stamp

Michael Collins described the Treaty as "the freedom to achieve freedom". In practice, the Treaty offered most of the symbols and powers of independence. These included a functioning, if disputed, parliamentary democracy with its own executive, judiciary and written constitution which could be changed by the Oireachtas . However, a number of conditions existed:

* The King remained king _in_ Ireland; * Prior to the passage of the Statute of Westminster
Westminster
, the UK government continued to have a significant role in Irish governance. Officially the representative of the King, the Governor-General also received instructions from the British Government on his use of the Royal Assent , namely a Bill passed by the Dáil and Seanad could be Granted Assent (signed into law), Withheld (not signed, pending later approval) or Denied (vetoed). Letters patent to the first Governor-General Tim Healy had named explicitly Bills that if passed were to be blocked, such as any attempt to abolish the Oath. In the event, no such Bills were ever introduced, so the issue was moot. * As a dominion, the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
had limited independence. Entitlement of citizenship of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
was defined in the Irish Free State Constitution , but the status of that citizenship was contentious. One of the first projects of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
was the design and production of the Great Seal of Saorstát Éireann which was carried out on behalf of the Government by Hugh Kennedy .

_ Poster promoting Irish Free State
Irish Free State
farm goods for breakfast to Canadians (" Irish Free State
Irish Free State
Butter, Eggs and Bacon for our Breakfasts").

* The meaning of ' Dominion
Dominion
status' changed radically during the 1920s, starting with the Chanak crisis in 1922 and quickly followed by the directly negotiated Halibut Treaty of 1923. A reform of the King's title following an Imperial Conference decision and given effect by the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 _, changed the King's royal title so that it took account of the fact that there was no longer a United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland . The King adopted the following style by which he would be known in all of his Empire: _By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland
Ireland
and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India_. That was the King's title in Ireland
Ireland
just as elsewhere in his Empire. * In the conduct of external relations, the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
tried to push the boundaries of its status as a Dominion. It 'accepted' credentials from international ambassadors to Ireland, something no other dominion up to then had done. It registered the treaty with the League of Nations
League of Nations
as an international document, over the objections of the United Kingdom, which saw it as a mere _internal_ document between a dominion and the United Kingdom.

The Statute of Westminster
Westminster
(of 1931), embodying a decision of an Imperial Conference, enabled each dominion to enact new legislation or to change any extant legislation, without resorting to any role for the British parliament that may have enacted the original legislation in the past.

The Free State symbolically marked these changes in two mould-breaking moves:

* It sought, and got, the King's acceptance to have an Irish minister, to the complete exclusion of British ministers, formally advising the King in the exercise of his powers and functions as King in the Irish Free State. Two examples of this are the signing of a treaty between the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
and the Portuguese Republic in 1931, and the act recognising the abdication of King Edward VIII
Edward VIII
in 1936 separately from the recognition by the British Parliament. * The unprecedented replacement of the use of the Great Seal of the Realm and its replacement by the Great Seal of the Irish Free State , which the King awarded to the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
in 1931. (The Irish Seal consisted of a picture of 'King George V' enthroned on one side, with the Irish state harp and the words _Saorstát Éireann_ on the reverse. It is now on display in the Irish National Museum, Collins Barracks in Dublin.)

When Éamon de Valera became President of the Executive Council (prime minister) in 1932 he described Cosgrave's ministers' achievements simply. Having read the files, he told his son, Vivion, "they were magnificent, son".

The Statute of Westminster
Westminster
allowed de Valera, on becoming President of the Executive Council (February 1932), to go even further. With no ensuing restrictions on his policies, he abolished the Oath of Allegiance (which Cosgrave intended to do had he won the 1932 general election ), the Senate, university representation in the Dáil, and appeals to the Privy Council
Privy Council
. One major policy error occurred in 1936 when he attempted to use the abdication of King Edward VIII
Edward VIII
to abolish the crown and governor-general in the Free State with the "Constitution (Amendment No. 27 Act)". He was advised by senior law officers and other constitutional experts that, as the crown and governor-generalship existed separately from the constitution in a vast number of acts, charters, orders-in-council, and letters patent, they both still existed. A second bill, the "Executive Powers (Consequential Provisions) Act, 1937" was quickly introduced to repeal the necessary elements. De Valera retroactively dated the second act back to December 1936.

CURRENCY

The new state continued to use sterling from its inception; there is no reference in the Treaty or in either of the enabling Acts to currency. Nonetheless and within a few years, the Dáil passed the Coinage Act, 1926 (which provided for a _Saorstát_ coinage) and the Currency Act, 1927 (which provided _inter alia_ for banknotes of the Saorstát pound ). The new Saorstát pound was defined by the 1927 Act to have exactly the same weight and fineness of gold as was the sovereign at the time, making the new currency pegged at 1:1 with sterling. The State circulated its new national coinage in 1928, marked _Saorstát Éireann_ and a national series of banknotes . British coinage remained acceptable in the Free State at an equal rate. In 1937, when the Free State was superseded by Ireland (_Éire_), the pound became known as the "Irish pound" and the coins were marked _Éire_.

DEMOGRAPHICS

According to one report, in 1924, shortly after the Irish Free State's establishment, the new dominion had the "lowest birth-rate in the world". The report noted that amongst countries for which statistics were available (Ceylon, Chile, Japan, Spain, South Africa, Netherlands, Canada, Germany, Australia, United States, Britain, New Zealand, Finland and the Irish Free State). Ceylon had the highest birth rate at 40.8 per 1,000 while the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
had a birth rate of just 18.6 per 1,000.

AFTER THE IRISH FREE STATE

In 1937 the Fianna Fáil government presented a draft of an entirely new Constitution to Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
. An amended version of the draft document was subsequently approved by the Dáil. A referendum was then held on the same day as the 1937 general election , when a relatively narrow majority approved it. The new Constitution of Ireland (_Bunreacht na hÉireann_) repealed the 1922 Constitution, and came into effect on 29 December 1937.

The state was named Ireland
Ireland
( Éire in the Irish language ), and a new office of President of Ireland was instituted in place of the Governor-General of the Irish Free State. The new constitution claimed jurisdiction over all of Ireland
Ireland
while recognising that legislation would not apply in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
(see Articles 2 and 3 ). Articles 2 and 3 were reworded in 1998 to remove jurisdictional claim over the entire island and to recognise that "a united Ireland
Ireland
shall be brought about only by peaceful means with the consent of a majority of the people, democratically expressed, in both jurisdictions in the island".

With respect to religion, a section of Article 44 included the following:

The State recognises the special position of the Holy Catholic Apostolic and Roman Church as the guardian of the Faith professed by the great majority of the citizens. The State also recognises the Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland
, the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, the Methodist Church in Ireland, the Religious Society of Friends in Ireland, as well as the Jewish Congregations and the other religious denominations existing in Ireland
Ireland
at the date of the coming into operation of this Constitution.

Following a referendum, this section was deleted in 1973.

It was left to the initiative of de Valera's successors in government to achieve the country's formal transformation into a republic . A small but significant minority of Irish people, usually attached to parties like Sinn Féin and the smaller Republican Sinn Féin , denied the right of the twenty-six county state to use the name _Ireland_ and continued to refer to the state as the Free State. With Sinn Féin's entry into Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
and the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Executive at the close of the 20th century, the number of those who refuse to accept the legitimacy of the state, which was already in a minority, declined further. After the setting up of the Free State in 1923, some Protestants left southern Ireland
Ireland
and unionism there largely came to an end.

SEE ALSO

* Irish states since 1171 * "Series A" Banknotes – First issued by the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
in 1928

REFERENCES

* ^ Officially adopted in July 1926. O'Day, Alan (1987). Alan O'Day, ed. _Reactions to Irish nationalism_. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-907628-85-9 . Retrieved 28 April 2011. * ^ Marie Coleman, _The Republican Revolution, 1916-1923_, Routledge, 2013, chapter 2 "The Easter Rising", pp. 26-8. ISBN 140827910X * ^ J. J. Lee : _ Ireland
Ireland
1912-1985 Politics and Society_ p.41, Cambridge University Press (1989, 1990) ISBN 9780521266482 * ^ Arthur Mitchell, "Revolutionary Government in Ireland: Dáil Éireann 1919-22" ( Dublin
Dublin
1995), p.17. * ^ Townshend, p.70. * ^ Townshend, p.54 * ^ Hanna Sheehy Skeffington, "Impressions of Sinn Féin in America" ( Dublin
Dublin
1919), cited by C Townshend, "The Republic: The Fight for Irish Independence" (Penguin 2014), 66-8. * ^ Macardle, Dorothy, " Irish Republic 1911-1923" (London 1937) Appendix 1, no.10. * ^ Brollay, Sylvain, " Ireland
Ireland
in Rebellion" ( Dublin
Dublin
1922) translated from articles written in 1920-1 entitled "L'Irlande Insurgee" Paris, 1921. * ^ Garvin, Tom: _The Evolution of Irish Nationalist Politics_ : p.143 _Elections, Revolution and Civil War_ Gill & Macmillan (2005) ISBN 0-7171-3967-0 * ^ Frank Thornton told a meeting, related in Sean O' Sullivan's Memoir, "Make no mistake the IRA was going to fight and going to make the Irish Republic a living fact." cited by Townshend, p.89., Military Archives, Ireland, CD 308/1/5 * ^ Lee, J. J., p.47 * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Boundary Question: Debate Resumed, Dáil Éireann, 20 June 1924". _Oireachteas.ie_. Retrieved 30 September 2015. Article 12 of the Treaty reads: 'If before the expiration of the said month an address is presented to his Majesty by both Houses of the Parliament of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
to that effect, the powers of the Parliament and Government of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
shall no longer extend to Northern Ireland.' By implication that is a declaration that it did extend, but after the exercise of its option this power was no longer extended. * ^ Martin, Ged (1999). "The Origins of Partition". In Anderson, Malcolm; Bort, Eberhard. _The Irish Border: History, Politics, Culture_. Liverpool University Press. p. 68. ISBN 0853239517 . Retrieved 8 September 2015. It is certainly true that the Treaty went through the motions of including Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
within the Irish Free State while offering it the provision to opt out * ^ Morgan, Austen (2000). _The Belfast Agreement: A Practical Legal Analysis_ (PDF). The Belfast Press. pp. 66, 68. Retrieved 25 September 2015. * ^ Gibbons, Ivan (2015). _The British Labour Party and the Establishment of the Irish Free State, 1918-1924_. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 107. ISBN 1137444088 . Retrieved 23 September 2015. * ^ Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Parliamentary Debates, 27 October 1922 * ^ Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Parliamentary Report, 7 December 1922 * ^ Times, 9 December 1922 * ^ Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Parliamentary Report, 13 December 1922, Volume 2 (1922) / pages 1191–1192, 13 December 1922 * ^ Long after the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
had ceased to exist, when Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
ascended the Throne, the Royal Titles Act 1953 was passed, as were other Acts concerning her Style in other parts of the Empire. Until then the British monarch had only one style. The King was never simply the "King of Ireland" or the "King of the Irish Free State". * ^ Except perhaps by inference: the Treaty assigned to the Irish Free State the same status in the Empire as Canada
Canada
and the latter had already replaced the British Pound (with the Canadian Dollar). * ^ Otautau Standard and Wallace County Chronicle, Volume XVIX, Issue 971, 11 March 1924, Page 1

FURTHER READING

* Coogan, Tim Pat. _Éamon de Valera_. ISBN 0-09-175030-X . * Coogan, Tim Pat. _Michael Collins_. ISBN 0-09-174106-8 . * Longford, Lord. _Peace by Ordeal_. * McCardle, Dorothy. _The Irish Republic_. ISBN 0-86327-712-8 . * Corcoran, Donal. "Public Policy in an emerging state: The Irish Free State 1922–25". _Irish Journal of Public Policy_. ISSN 2009-1117 .

* v * t * e

Irish Free State
Irish Free State

* Anglo-Irish Treaty * Provisional Government * Constitution of the Irish Free State * Statute of Westminster
Westminster
* Great Seal of the Irish Free State

EXECUTIVE

* King * Governor-General * President of the Executive Council * Vice-President of the Executive Council * Executive Council * Extern minister * Ministers and Secretaries Act

LEGISLATIVE

* Oireachtas of the Irish Free State

* Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
* Seanad Éireann

* Royal Assent * Ceann Comhairle * Cathaoirleach * Oath of Allegiance * Governor-General\'s Address to Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann

JUDICIARY

* Supreme Court * High Court * Chief Justice * Courts of Justice Act 1924

ELECTIONS

GENERAL

* 1922 * 1923 * 1927 (Jun) * 1927 (Sep) * 1932 * 1933 * 1937

SEANAD

* 1925

SEE ALSO

* Constitution (Amendment No. 27) Act 1936 * External Relations Act 1936 * Constitution of Ireland plebiscite * Executive Powers (Consequential Provisions) Act 1937

* v * t * e

Irish states since 1171

* Ireland
Ireland
(1937 onward) * United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
(1922† onward)

MEDIEVAL PERIOD

* Gaelic Ireland (until 1607) * Lordship of Ireland (1171–1541)

MODERN PERIOD

* Kingdom of Ireland (1541–1801) * United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922†)

TWENTIETH CENTURY

* Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(1922–37)

NOTABLE DECLARED STATES

* Republic of Connacht (1798) * Irish Republic (1919–22)

SEE ALSO

* Confederate Ireland (1642–53) * Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
Ireland
(1649–60) * Patriot Parliament (1689)

* † This date marks the secession of the majority of Ireland
Ireland
from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
rather than the creation of a new state. Official name was changed in 1927.

* v * t * e

Ireland
Ireland
topics

* Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
topics * Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
topics

HISTORY

TIMELINE

* Prehistory * Protohistory * Early history

* Gaelic Ireland / Lordship of Ireland

* 800–1169 * 1169–1536

* Kingdom of Ireland

* 1536–1691 * 1691–1801

* United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

* 1801–1923

* United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland

* since 1922

* Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(1922–1937) * Ireland
Ireland
(since 1922)

EVENTS

* Battles of Tara / Glenmama / Clontarf * Norman invasion * Bruce campaign * Black Death * Tudor conquest * Desmond Rebellions * Spanish Armada * Tyrone\'s Rebellion * Flight of the Earls
Flight of the Earls
* Plantation of Ulster * 1641 Rebellion / Confederate War * Cromwellian conquest / Settlement of 1652 * Williamite War * Penal Laws * First Great Famine * 1798 Rebellion * Act of Union (1800) * 1803 Rebellion * Tithe War * Second Great Famine * Land War
Land War
* Fenian Rising * Dublin
Dublin
Lock-out * Home Rule crisis * Easter Rising * War of Independence * Anglo-Irish Treaty * Civil War * The Emergency * IRA Northern Campaign * IRA Border Campaign * The Troubles * Peace process * Economy of the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
* Celtic Tiger * Post-2008 Irish economic downturn * Post-2008 Irish banking crisis

OTHER TOPICS

* List of conflicts in Ireland * List of Irish tribes * List of High Kings * Gaelic clothing and fashion * List of World Heritage Sites in the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland

GEOGRAPHY

NATURAL

* Climate * Coastline * Extreme points * Fauna * Islands * Loughs * Mountains

* Rivers

* list

* List of national parks of the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
/ in Northern Ireland
Ireland

HUMAN

* Architecture

* Notable buildings * Tallest buildings and structures

* Cities * Counties * Demographics of the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
/ of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
* Ports * Provinces * ROI–UK border * Towns * Tourist attractions * Transport

POLITICS

IDEOLOGIES

* Nationalism * Republicanism * Ulster loyalism * Unionism

REPUBLIC OF IRELAND

* Constitution * Economy * Education * Foreign relations

* Government

* local

* _Oireachtas_ parliament

* _Dáil Éireann_ (lower house) * _Seanad Éireann_ (upper house) * President

NORTHERN IRELAND

* Assembly

* D\'Hondt method

* Economy * Education

* Government

* local

* Peace process

CULTURE

CUISINE

FOOD

* List of dishes * Barmbrack
Barmbrack
* Boxty * Champ * Coddle * Colcannon * Drisheen * Goody * Skirts and kidneys * Soda bread
Soda bread
* Stew * Ulster fry

DRINKS

* Coffee * Cream * Guinness
Guinness
* Mist * Poitín * Whiskey

DANCE

* Jig * _Sean-nós _ * Set dancing * Stepdance

FESTIVALS

* Imbolc * Saint Patrick\'s Day * Bealtaine * The Twelfth
The Twelfth
* Lúnasa * Rose of Tralee * Samhain / Halloween
Halloween
* Wren Day

LANGUAGES

* Hiberno-English * Irish * Shelta * Ulster Scots

LITERATURE

* Annals * Fiction * _Gaeilge _ * Poetry * Theatre * Triads

MUSIC

* Ballads * _Céilí _

* Folk music

* session

* Instruments * Rock music * Traditional singing

MYTHOLOGY

* Cycles

* Fenian * Mythological * Ulster

* _ Aos Sí _ * _Echtrai _ * _Immrama _ * _ Tuatha Dé Danann _ * Legendary creatures

PEOPLE

* Anglo-Irish

* Gaels

* Gaelic Ireland

* Hiberno-Normans * Irish diaspora * List of Irish people * Travellers * Ulster Scots

SPORT

* Association football * Camogie * Gaelic football
Gaelic football
* Gaelic handball * Hurling * Martial arts * Road bowling * Rounders * Rugby union

SYMBOLS

* Brighid\'s Cross * _Cláirseach _ * County coats of arms

* Flags

* N. Ireland
Ireland
flags issue

* Irish Wolfhound * National coat of arms * Red Hand * Shamrock

OTHER

* Calendar * Homelessness * Names * Place names in Ireland
Ireland
/ outside Ireland
Ireland
* Prostitution (Republic) / in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
* Public holidays in the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
/ in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
* Public houses

IRELAND PORTAL

* v * t * e

Commonwealth realms and dominions

CURRENT

* Antigua and Barbuda (monarchy ) * Australia
Australia
(monarchy ) * Bahamas (monarchy ) * Barbados
Barbados
(monarchy ) * Belize
Belize
(monarchy ) * Canada
Canada
(monarchy ) * Grenada (monarchy ) * Jamaica
Jamaica
(monarchy )

* Realm of New Zealand

* Cook Islands * New Zealand * Niue

* Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
(monarchy ) * Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
(monarchy ) * Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
(monarchy ) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(monarchy ) * Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(monarchy ) * Tuvalu
Tuvalu
(monarchy ) * United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(monarchy )

FORMER

* Ceylon * Fiji (monarchy ) * The Gambia * Ghana * Guyana * India 1 * Ireland1 (monarchy ) * Kenya * Malawi * Malta * Mauritius
Mauritius
* Newfoundland 2 * Nigeria * Pakistan * _ Rhodesia
Rhodesia
3_ * Sierra Leone * South Africa (monarchy ) * Tanganyika
Tanganyika
* Trinidad and Tobago * Uganda

1 Dominion, became republic before adoption of the term "realm" 2 Dominion, never ratified Statute of Westminster
Westminster
1931 , London-based external government 1934–1949, annexed by Canada
Canada
in 1949 3 Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence as a realm in 1965, but this was not recognised internationally. Declared itself a republic in 1970.

* v * t * e

_ British Empire
British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
_ _Historical flags of the British Empire
British Empire
_

EUROPE

* 1542–1800 Ireland
Ireland
(integrated into UK) * 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca * Since 1713 Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* 1800–1813 _Malta (Protectorate) _ * 1813–1964 _Malta (Colony) _ * 1807–1890 Heligoland * 1809–1864 Ionian Islands * 1878–1960 _ Cyprus
Cyprus
_ * 1921–1937 Irish Free State

NORTH AMERICA

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

* 1579 New Albion * 1583–1907 Newfoundland * 1605–1979 *_ Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
_ * 1607–1776 Virginia * Since 1619 Bermuda
Bermuda
* 1620–1691 Plymouth * 1623–1883 Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
* 1624–1966 *_ Barbados
Barbados
_ * 1625–1650 Saint Croix * 1627–1979 *_ Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
_ * 1628–1883 Nevis
Nevis
* 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay * 1632–1776 Maryland * since 1632 Montserrat * 1632–1860 Antigua
Antigua
* 1636–1776 Connecticut * 1636–1776 Rhode Island * 1637–1662 New Haven

* 1643–1860 Bay Islands * Since 1650 Anguilla
Anguilla
* 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast * 1655–1962 *_ Jamaica
Jamaica
_ * 1663–1712 Carolina * 1664–1776 New York * 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey * Since 1666 Virgin Islands * Since 1670 Cayman Islands * 1670–1973 *_Bahamas _ * 1670–1870 Rupert\'s Land * 1671–1816 Leeward Islands * 1674–1702 East Jersey * 1674–1702 West Jersey * 1680–1776 New Hampshire * 1681–1776 Pennsylvania * 1686–1689 New England * 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

* 1701–1776 Delaware * 1712–1776 North Carolina * 1712–1776 South Carolina * 1713–1867 Nova Scotia * 1733–1776 Georgia * 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island * 1762–1974 *_ Grenada _ * 1763–1978 _Dominica _ * 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island * 1763–1791 Quebec * 1763–1783 East Florida * 1763–1783 West Florida * 1784–1867 New Brunswick * 1791–1841 Lower Canada
Canada
* 1791–1841 Upper Canada
Canada
* Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

* 1818–1846 Columbia District / Oregon Country 1 * 1833–1960 Windward Islands * 1833–1960 Leeward Islands * 1841–1867 Canada
Canada
* 1849–1866 Vancouver Island * 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands * 1858–1866 British Columbia * 1859–1870 North-Western Territory
North-Western Territory
* 1860–1981 *_British Antigua and Barbuda _ * 1862–1863 Stickeen * 1866–1871 British Columbia * 1867–1931 *_ Dominion
Dominion
of Canada
Canada
_2 * 1871–1964 Honduras * 1882–1983 *_ Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
_ * 1889–1962 _Trinidad and Tobago _ * 1907–1949 Newfoundland 3 * 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

* 1. Occupied jointly with the United States. * 2. In 1931, Canada
Canada
and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster
Westminster
. See Name of Canada
Canada
. * 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a _de jure _ Dominion until it joined Canada
Canada
in 1949.

SOUTH AMERICA

* 1631–1641 Providence Island * 1651–1667 Willoughbyland * 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands 4 * 1831–1966 _Guiana _ * Since 1833 Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
5 * Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 5

* 4. Now a department of Colombia . * 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

AFRICA

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

* Since 1658 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
14 * 1792–1961 _Sierra Leone _ * 1795–1803 Cape Colony
Cape Colony

* Since 1815 Ascension Island
Ascension Island
14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha 14 * 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope * 1807–1808 Madeira * 1810–1968 _ Mauritius
Mauritius
_ * 1816–1965 The Gambia * 1856–1910 Natal * 1862–1906 Lagos * 1868–1966 Basutoland * 1874–1957 Gold Coast * 1882–1922 Egypt

* 1884–1900 Niger Coast * 1884–1966 Bechuanaland * 1884–1960 Somaliland * 1887–1897 Zululand * 1890–1962 _Uganda _ * 1890–1963 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
* 1891–1964 Nyasaland * 1891–1907 Central Africa * 1893–1968 _Swaziland _ * 1895–1920 East Africa * 1899–1956 Sudan

* 1900–1914 Northern Nigeria * 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria * 1900–1910 Orange River * 1900–1910 Transvaal * 1903–1976 _ Seychelles
Seychelles
_ * 1910–1931 _South Africa _ * 1914–1960 Nigeria * 1915–1931 South-West Africa * 1919–1961 Cameroons 6 * 1920–1963 _Kenya _ * 1922–1961 Tanganyika
Tanganyika
6 * 1923–1965 and 1979–1980Southern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
7 * 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia
Rhodesia

* 6. League of Nations
League of Nations
mandate . * 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia
Rhodesia
) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement . After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

ASIA

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

* 1685–1824 Bencoolen * 1702–1705 Pulo Condore * 1757–1947 Bengal * 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite * 1781-1784 and 1795-1819 Padang
Padang
* 1786–1946 Penang * 1795–1948 Ceylon * 1796–1965 _Maldives _

* 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton * 1819–1826 Malaya * 1826–1946 Straits Settlements
Straits Settlements
* 1839–1967 Aden * 1839–1842 Afghanistan * 1841–1997 Hong Kong * 1841–1946 Sarawak * 1848–1946 Labuan * 1858–1947 India * 1874–1963 Borneo

* 1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) * 1882–1963 North Borneo * 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States * 1888–1984 _Brunei _ * 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman * 1892–1971 Trucial States
Trucial States
* 1895–1946 Federated Malay States * 1898–1930 Weihai * 1878–1960 _ Cyprus
Cyprus
_

* 1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) * 1918–1961 Kuwait * 1920–1932 Mesopotamia 8 * 1921–1946 Transjordan 8 * 1923–1948 Palestine 8 * 1945–1946 South Vietnam * 1946–1963 North Borneo * 1946–1963 Sarawak * 1946–1963 _Singapore _ * 1946–1948 Malayan Union * 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya * Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia (before as part of Cyprus
Cyprus
) * Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory (before as part of Mauritius
Mauritius
and the Seychelles
Seychelles
)

8 League of Nations
League of Nations
mandate . Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

OCEANIA

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

* 1788–1901 New South Wales * 1803–1901 Van Diemen\'s Land /Tasmania * 1807–1863 Auckland Islands 9 * 1824–1980 New Hebrides * 1824–1901 Queensland * 1829–1901 Swan River /Western Australia
Australia
* 1836–1901 South Australia
Australia
* since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

* 1841–1907 New Zealand * 1851–1901 Victoria * 1874–1970 _Fiji _10 * 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories * 1884–1949 Papua * 1888–1901 Rarotonga /Cook Islands 9 * 1889–1948 Union Islands 9 * 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands
Gilbert and Ellice Islands
11 * 1893–1978 Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
12

* 1900–1970 Tonga * 1900–1974 Niue 9 * 1901–1942 *_ Australia
Australia
_ * 1907–1953 *_New Zealand _ * 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru * 1919–1949 New Guinea * 1949–1975 _Papua and New Guinea _13

* 9. Now part of the *_ Realm of New Zealand _. * 10. Suspended member. * 11. Now _ Kiribati _ and *_ Tuvalu
Tuvalu
_. * 12. Now the *_ Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
_. * 13. Now *_ Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
_.

ANTARCTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC

* Since 1658 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
14 * Since 1815 Ascension Island
Ascension Island
14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha 14 * Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory 15 * 1841–1933 _ Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
_ (transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia
Australia
) * 1841–1947 _ Ross Dependency _ (transferred to the Realm of New Zealand )

* 14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha ; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha (1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. * 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

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