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The Irish Army, known simply as the Army
Army
(Irish: an tArm), is the land component of the Defence Forces of Ireland.[7] As of May 2016, approximately 7,300 men and women serve in the Irish Army,[1] divided into two geographically organised brigades.[8][9] As well as maintaining its primary roles of defending the State and internal security within the State, since 1958 the Army
Army
has had a continuous presence in peacekeeping missions around the world. The Army
Army
also participates in the European Union Battlegroups. The Air Corps and Naval Service support the Army
Army
in carrying out its roles.

Contents

1 Roles of the Army 2 History

2.1 Beginning of the Army 2.2 Civil War period 2.3 National Army 2.4 The Emergency

3 Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
missions

3.1 Congo 3.2 Cyprus
Cyprus
and the Sinai 3.3 Lebanon 3.4 Iran
Iran
and Iraq 3.5 Somalia
Somalia
and Eritrea 3.6 Bosnia and Kosovo 3.7 East Timor 3.8 Liberia 3.9 Chad 3.10 Syria

4 Duties

4.1 Border duties 4.2 Aid to the civil power

5 Current overseas deployments 6 Training 7 Organisation

7.1 Brigades 7.2 Defence Forces Training Centre 7.3 Army
Army
Reserve

8 Army
Army
Corps

8.1 Infantry Corps 8.2 Artillery
Artillery
Corps 8.3 Cavalry Corps 8.4 Engineer Corps 8.5 Ordnance Corps 8.6 Transport Corps 8.7 Medical Corps 8.8 Military Police Corps 8.9 Communications & IT Corps

9 Rank structure

9.1 Officer Ranks 9.2 Other Rank Insignia

10 Weapons 11 Vehicles 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Roles of the Army[edit] The roles of the Army
Army
are:

To defend the Irish state against armed aggression. To give aid to the civil power (ATCP). This means that the Army assists, when requested, the Garda Síochána, who have primary responsibility for law and order in Ireland. To participate in multinational peace support, crisis management and humanitarian relief operations in support of the United Nations peacekeeping missions, and EUFOR
EUFOR
(UN-sanctioned peacekeeping missions only). To carry out other duties which may be assigned to them from time to time. For example, assistance on the occasion of natural disasters, assistance in connection with the maintenance of essential services, etc.

History[edit] Beginning of the Army[edit] The Defence Forces, including the Army, trace their origins to the Irish Republican Army
Army
(IRA), the guerrilla organisation that fought British government forces during the Irish War of Independence. In February 1922, the Provisional Government began to recruit volunteers into the new National Army. The Provisional Government was set up on 16 January 1922 to assume power in the new Irish Free State. On 31 January 1922, a former IRA unit (the Dublin
Dublin
Guard) assumed its new role as the first unit of the new National Army
Army
and took over Beggars Bush Barracks, the first British barracks to be handed to the new Irish Free State. The National Army's first Commander-in-Chief, Michael Collins, envisaged the new Army
Army
being built around the pre-existing IRA, but over half of this organisation rejected the compromises required by the Anglo-Irish Treaty which established the Irish Free State, and favoured upholding the revolutionary Irish Republic
Irish Republic
which had been established in 1919. As such, from January 1922 until late June and the outbreak of the Irish Civil War, there existed two antagonistic armed forces: the National Army, built from a nucleus of pro-Treaty IRA units, and armed and paid by the Provisional Government; and the anti-Treaty IRA who refused to accept the legitimacy of the new state. Both forces continued to use the Irish-language title Óglaigh na hÉireann, which had previously been used by both the original IRA and its predecessor, the Irish Volunteers
Irish Volunteers
of the mid-1910s. In July 1922, Dáil Éireann authorised raising a force of 35,000 men; by May 1923 this had grown to 58,000. The National Army
Army
lacked the expertise necessary to train a force of that size, such that approximately one fifth of its officers and half of its soldiers were Irish ex-servicemen of the British Army, who brought considerable experience to it.[10] Civil War period[edit]

Rolls-Royce Armoured Cars pictured during the Civil War

The Irish Civil War
Irish Civil War
broke out on 28 June 1922. The pro-Treaty Sinn Féin party had won an election on 16 June. The British were applying increasing pressure on the government to assert its control over the anti-Treaty units of the IRA who had occupied the Four Courts
Four Courts
in Dublin; this garrison had kidnapped JJ O'Connell, a lieutenant-general in the National Army. In the early weeks of the Civil War, the newly formed National Army was mainly composed of pro-Treaty IRA units, especially the Dublin Guard, whose members had personal ties to Michael Collins. Its size was estimated at about 7,000 men, in contrast to about 15,000 anti-Treaty IRA men. However, the Free State soon recruited far more troops, with the army's size mushrooming to 55,000 men and 3,500 officers by the end of the Civil War in May 1923. Many of its recruits were war-hardened Irishmen who had served in the British Army
Army
during the First World War. W.R.E. Murphy, a second-in-command of the National Army
Army
in the civil war (from January until May 1923), had been a lieutenant colonel in the British Army, as had Emmet Dalton. Indeed, the Free State recruited experienced soldiers from wherever it could; two more of its senior generals, John T. Prout and JJ "Ginger" O'Connell, had served in the United States
United States
Army. The British government supplied the National Army
Army
with uniforms, small arms, ammunition, artillery and armoured units, which enabled it to bring the Civil War to a relatively speedy conclusion. Dublin
Dublin
was taken from anti-Treaty IRA units during the Battle of Dublin
Dublin
in July 1922. The anti-Treaty IRA were also dislodged from Limerick
Limerick
and Waterford
Waterford
in that month and Cork and County Kerry
County Kerry
were secured in a decisive seaborne offensive in August. The remainder of the war was a Guerrilla
Guerrilla
War concentrated particularly in the south and west of the country. On 15 October, directives were sent to the press by Free State director of communications, Piaras Béaslaí to the effect that Free State troops were to be referred to as the "National Army", the "Irish Army", or just "troops". The Anti-Treaty troops were to be called "Irregulars" and were not to be referred to as "Republicans", "IRA", "forces", or "troops", nor were the ranks of their officers allowed to be given.[11] National Army units, especially the Dublin
Dublin
Guard, were implicated in a series of atrocities against captured anti-Treaty fighters. The National Army
Army
suffered about 800 fatalities in the Civil War, including its commander-in-chief, Michael Collins. Collins was succeeded by Richard Mulcahy. In April 1923, the anti-Treaty IRA called a ceasefire, and in May it ordered its fighters to "dump arms", effectively ending the war. National Army[edit] Main article: National Army
Army
(Ireland) With the end of the Civil War, the National Army
Army
had grown too big for a peacetime role and was too expensive for the new Irish state to maintain. In addition, many of the civil war recruits were badly trained and undisciplined, making them unsuitable material for a full-time professional army. The Special
Special
Infantry Corps was established to perform the army's first post-war duty, breaking the strikes of agricultural labourers in Munster and south Leinster, as well as reversing factory seizures by socialists.[12] Richard Mulcahy, the new Irish defence minister, proposed to reduce the army from 55,000 to 18,000 men in the immediate post-Civil War period.[13] This provoked mutiny among National Army
Army
officers in 1923–24, particularly among former IRA officers who considered that former British Army
Army
officers were being treated better than they were.[14] On 3 August 1923, the new State passed the Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, putting the existing armed forces on a legal footing.[15] This Act raised "an armed force to be called Óglaigh na hÉireann (hereinafter referred to as the Forces) consisting of such number of officers, non-commissioned officers, and men as may from time to time be provided by the Oireachtas."[16][17][18] The date of the establishment of the Defence Forces was 1 October 1924.[not in citation given][17][dead link][18][not in citation given] The term "National Army" fell into disuse. The Army
Army
had a new establishment, organisation, rank markings, head dress and orders of dress.[18][19] The National Army's Air Service became the Air Corps and remained part of the Army
Army
until the 1990s. An all Irish language
Irish language
speaking unit was created - An Chéad Chathlán Coisithe (English: The First Infantry Battalion) was established in Galway, and functioned exclusively through the medium of the Irish state's first official language.[20] The Emergency[edit]

Volunteer Force recruitment poster, 1930s

Ireland
Ireland
remained neutral for the Second World War, which was referred to as "The Emergency" by the Irish government. About 5,000 soldiers deserted and joined the British military. Those who returned in 1945 were summarily dismissed from the armed forces and disqualified from any form of state-funded employment for seven years.[21] These soldiers received an official amnesty and apology from the government of Ireland
Ireland
on 7 May 2013.[22] Despite the Irish neutral stance, the Army
Army
was greatly expanded during the war. It grew from about 10,000 men up to about 40,000 by the war's end (with more recruited to reserve forces). By early 1941, this comprised an all-volunteer force of two infantry divisions and two independent brigades, as well as coastal artillery and garrison units.[citation needed] The expansion was undertaken in the face of potential invasions from either the Allied or Axis powers (both of whom had drawn up contingency plans to invade Ireland).[23] In 1939, the remnants of the IRA stole a large quantity of the Irish Army's reserve ammunition from its dump at the Magazine Fort
Magazine Fort
in Dublin's Phoenix Park. While this was seen as an embarrassment for the Irish Army, most of it was recovered. As the war went on, more and newer equipment was purchased from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States.[citation needed] For the duration of the war, Ireland, while formally neutral, tacitly supported the Allies in several ways. For example, the Donegal Corridor allowed British military aircraft based in Fermanagh
Fermanagh
to fly through Irish airspace to the Atlantic, thereby greatly increasing their operational range.[24] G2, the Army's intelligence section, played a role in the detection and arrest of German spies, such as Hermann Görtz.[25] Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
missions[edit] Since Ireland
Ireland
joined the United Nations
United Nations
in 1955, the Army
Army
has been deployed on many peacekeeping missions. The first of these took place in 1958, when a small number of observers were sent to Lebanon. A total of 86 Irish soldiers have died in the service of the United Nations since 1960 (see List of Irish military casualties overseas).[26]

Irish ONUC
ONUC
troops (36 Bn) man a position over the Elizabeth road tunnel during the Congo Crisis, December 1961 (Image: Defence Forces)

Congo[edit] The first major overseas deployment came in 1960, when Irish troops were sent to the Congo as part of the UN force ONUC. The Belgian Congo became an independent Republic on 30 June 1960. Twelve days later, the Congolese government requested military assistance from the United Nations to maintain its territorial integrity. On 28 July 1960 Lt-Col Murt Buckley led the 32nd Irish Battalion
Battalion
to the newly independent central African country. This was the most costly enterprise for the Army
Army
since the Civil War, as 26 Irish soldiers lost their lives. Nine died in a single incident called the "Niemba Ambush", in which an eleven-man Irish patrol was ambushed by local tribesmen. Nine Irish soldiers and some 25 tribesmen were killed. A Niemba Ambush commemoration is hosted annually by the Irish Veterans Organisation (ONET) in Cathal Brugha Barracks, on the nearest Saturday to the actual date of the ambush. One of the largest ONUC
ONUC
engagements in which Irish troops were involved was the Siege of Jadotville. During this action, a small party of 150 Irish soldiers ("A" Company, 35th Battalion) was attacked by a larger force of almost 4,000 Katangese troops, as well as French, Belgian and Rhodesian mercenaries, and supported by a trainer jet (a Fouga CM.170 Magister), equipped for ground attack. The Irish soldiers repeatedly repelled the attackers, and knocked out enemy artillery and mortar positions using 60mm mortars.[27] An attempt was made by 500 Irish and Swedish soldiers to break through to the besieged company, but it failed. The Irish commander eventually surrendered his forces. A small number of Irish soldiers were wounded, but none killed. It is estimated that up to 300 of their attackers were killed, including 30 white mercenaries, and up to 1,000 wounded.[27] A total of 6,000 Irishmen served in the Congo from 1960 until 1964. Cyprus
Cyprus
and the Sinai[edit] Starting in 1964, Irish troops have served as UN peacekeepers in Cyprus
Cyprus
(UNFICYP). Over 9,000 Irish personnel have served there to date, without suffering casualties. In 1973, an infantry group and some logistical troops were pulled out of Cyprus
Cyprus
at short notice to serve in the Sinai
Sinai
desert between Egypt and Israel
Israel
as part of the UN force that supervised the ceasefire that ended the Yom Kippur War. From 1976 to 1981, UNFICYP
UNFICYP
was commanded by an Irish officer, Major-General
Major-General
James Quinn. Lebanon[edit] Main articles: Multinational Force in Lebanon
Lebanon
and William O'Callaghan (Irish Army
Army
officer)

Irish troops serving with UNIFIL
UNIFIL
in 2013.

From 1978 to 2001, a battalion of Irish troops was deployed in southern Lebanon, as part of the UN mandate force UNIFIL. The Irish battalion consisted of 580 personnel which were rotated every six months, plus almost 100 others in UNIFIL
UNIFIL
headquarters and the Force Mobile Reserve. In all, 30,000 Irish soldiers served in Lebanon
Lebanon
over 23 years. The Irish troops in Lebanon
Lebanon
were initially intended to supervise the withdrawal of the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces from the area after an invasion in 1978 and to prevent fighting between the Palestine Liberation Organization forces and Israel. In April 1980, three Irish soldiers were killed in an episode of violence near At Tiri in Southern Lebanon. On 16 April 1980, soldiers attempting to set up a checkpoint near At Tiri were attacked by members of the South Lebanon
Lebanon
Army
Army
(an Israeli-backed Christian militia). Private Stephen Griffin, of the 46th Irish Battalion
Battalion
was shot in the head and died. Two days later, a party of three Irish soldiers, an American officer, a French officer and two journalists were travelling to a UN post near the Israeli border when they were intercepted by members of the S.L.A.. Private John O'Mahony from Killarney, County Kerry
County Kerry
was shot and wounded and his two comrades Privates Thomas Barrett from Cork and Derek Smallhorne from Dublin were driven away. Both men were found shot dead nearby, with their bodies showing signs of torture.[28][29] Another Israeli invasion in 1982 forced the PLO out of southern Lebanon, and occupied the area. The following eighteen years until 2000 saw prolonged guerrilla warfare between Israeli forces, their allies in the South Lebanon
Lebanon
Army
Army
and Hezbollah. UNIFIL
UNIFIL
was caught in the middle of this conflict. The Irish battalion's role consisted of manning checkpoints and observations posts and mounting patrols. A total of 47 soldiers were killed. In addition to peacekeeping, the Irish provided humanitarian aid to the local population - for example aiding the orphanage at Tibnin. From 25 April 1995 to 9 May 1996, Brigadier General P. Redmond served as Deputy Force Commander of UNIFIL
UNIFIL
during a period that coincided with the Israeli Operation Grapes of Wrath offensive in 1996. Most Irish troops were withdrawn from Lebanon
Lebanon
in 2001, following the Israeli evacuation of their forces the previous year. However, 11 Irish troops remained there as observers. They were present during the 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War. After this conflict, UNIFIL
UNIFIL
was reinforced and a mechanised infantry company of 165 Irish troops was deployed to southern Lebanon. Their role was to provide perimeter protection for a Finnish Army
Army
engineering unit. After 12 months, the 1st Finnish/Irish Battalion
Battalion
ceased operations and was stood down from duty after having completed its mandate with UNIFIL. A number of Irish personnel remained in service at UNIFIL
UNIFIL
HQ in Southern Lebanon.[30] Irish battalions returned to Lebanon
Lebanon
in 2011 - initially with roughly 480 troops deployed in the region.[30] This was reduced to approximately 330 troops in May 2013,[31] and further to 180 troops in November 2013.[32][33] As of May 2016, there were 194 Irish soldiers deployed to UNIFIL
UNIFIL
serving alongside Finnish Armed Forces as part of a joint Battalion
Battalion
which is currently under Finnish command. Ireland takes over command of the Battalion
Battalion
from Finland in November 2016 at which time an additional Company of some 150 personnel will be deployed to UNIFIL
UNIFIL
bringing Ireland’s contribution to this mission to 340 personnel. [34] Iran
Iran
and Iraq[edit] From August 1988 until May 1991, Irish soldiers were deployed under the UN force UNIIMOG, on the border between Iraq
Iraq
and Iran
Iran
to supervise the withdrawal of both sides' forces to within their respective borders after the end of the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War. The Irish provided 177 of the 400 UNIIMOG
UNIIMOG
personnel involved with the mission. The mission came to an end in 1991, when Iran
Iran
and Iraq
Iraq
completed the withdrawal of their troops. A small number of Irish observers were stationed in Kuwait
Kuwait
from 1991 to 2002 as part of UNIKOM.[35] Somalia
Somalia
and Eritrea[edit] In 1993, 100 troops forming a transport company were deployed in Somalia, as part of the UNOSOM II
UNOSOM II
peace-enforcing mission. In December 2001, 221 Irish soldiers were sent to Eritrea
Eritrea
as part of UNMEE, and were tasked with the defence of the UN headquarters there. Bosnia and Kosovo[edit] In 1997 an Irish Army
Army
Military Police unit and some other troops were deployed to Bosnia as part of SFOR
SFOR
(1995–2005) and EUFOR
EUFOR
(December 2005 to present). The MP company was based in SFOR
SFOR
HQ in Sarajevo and policed the 8,000 SFOR
SFOR
troops based in the area. From 1999 until 2010, a company of Irish troops was stationed in Kosovo
Kosovo
as part of KFOR. East Timor[edit] In July 1999, Irish officers were sent to East Timor
East Timor
as part of the UNAMET
UNAMET
observer group (Timorese Independence Referendum). In October, a platoon of Rangers (1 Ircon) from the Army
Army
Ranger Wing (ARW) were sent as part of the INTERFET
INTERFET
peacekeeping force after the Referendum.[36] The ARW platoon served in the reconnaissance company of the 1st Battalion, Royal New Zealand Regiment (1 RNZIR) Battalion Group for a four-month tour. INTERFET
INTERFET
handed over to UNTAET
UNTAET
during ARW 2 Ircon's tour in 2000. The third contingent to East Timor
East Timor
(3 Ircon) in June 2000 marked a new departure for the Defence Forces, as all the infantry sections were drawn from the 2nd Infantry Battalion.[36] Late 2000 saw the 12th Infantry supply 4 Ircon. Nine contingents in total were deployed including 4 Infantry Battalion, 5 Infantry Battalion, 28 Infantry Battalion, 1 Cathlán Coisithe, and finally the 6 Infantry Battalion
Battalion
under UNMISET until May 2004. Liberia[edit] After November 2003, Irish troops were stationed in Liberia
Liberia
as part of UNMIL. The Liberian mission was the largest Irish overseas deployment since Lebanon
Lebanon
and consisted of a single composite battalion. The UN force, UNMIL, was 15,000 strong and was charged with stabilising the country after the Second Liberian Civil War. The Irish troops were based in Camp Clara, near Monrovia
Monrovia
and were tasked with acting as the Force Commander's "Quick Reaction Force" (QRF) in the Monrovia
Monrovia
area. This meant the securing of key locations, conducting searches for illegally held weapons, patrolling and manning checkpoints on the main roads and providing security to civilians under threat of violence. The Irish deployment to Liberia
Liberia
was due to end in November 2006. However, at that time the deployment was extended for a further 6 months to May 2007.[37] During the UNMIL
UNMIL
deployment, a detachment of Irish Army
Army
Rangers successfully rescued a group of civilians being held hostage by renegade Liberian gunmen. Acting on intelligence, twenty heavily armed Rangers were dropped by helicopter, freeing the hostages and capturing the rebel leader.[38] In all the following battalions were involved in 2,745 cumulative missions under UNMIL:[39]

90th Infantry Battalion
Battalion
(4th Western Brigade) - Nov 2003-May 2004 91st Infantry Battalion
Battalion
(2nd Eastern Brigade) - May 2004-Nov 2004 92nd Infantry Battalion
Battalion
(1st Southern Brigade) - Nov 2004-May 2005 93rd Infantry Battalion
Battalion
(4th Western Brigade) - May 2005-Nov 2005 94th Infantry Battalion
Battalion
(2nd Eastern Brigade) - Nov 2005-May 2006 95th Infantry Battalion
Battalion
(1st Southern Brigade) - May 2006-Nov 2006 96th Infantry Battalion
Battalion
(4th Western Brigade) - Nov 2006-May 2007

Chad[edit] In August 2007, the Irish government announced that 200 Irish soldiers would be sent to support the United Nations
United Nations
effort as part of EUFOR Chad/CAR. As of 2008 500 troops had been deployed[40] - 54 of whom were Irish Army
Army
Rangers. In announcing the mission, the Minister for Defence recognised the regional nature of the crisis, involving instability in Darfur, Chad
Chad
and the Central African Republic.[41] In accordance with their terms of reference, the deployment of Irish forces was confined to Chad. Ireland
Ireland
contributed the second largest contingent of soldiers to EUFOR
EUFOR
Chad/CAR, after France, as part of the mission to establish peace in Chad
Chad
and to protect refugees from neighbouring Darfur.[42][43] The Irish soldiers conducted operations concerned with the delivery of humanitarian aid, protection of civilians, and ensuring the safety of UN personnel.[44] There were a number of deployments to the mission, rotating every four months, with the final contingent completing their tour in May 2010:[45]

97th Infantry Battalion
Battalion
- June 2008-Oct 2008 98th Infantry Battalion
Battalion
- Oct 2008-Jan 2009 99th Infantry Battalion
Battalion
- Jan 2009-May 2009 100th Infantry Battalion
Battalion
- May 2009-Oct 2009 101st Infantry Battalion
Battalion
- Oct 2009-Jan 2010 102nd Infantry Battalion
Battalion
- Jan 2010-May 2010[46]

Syria[edit] In 2013 the United Nations
United Nations
asked Ireland
Ireland
to send peacekeepers as part of the United Nations
United Nations
Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) in the Golan region of Syria, to try to contain the Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
from spreading into Israel. The 43 Infantry Group, consisting of 115 personnel, deployed into Syria in September 2013. The group is tasked primarily to serve as the Force Mobile Reserve within the UNDOF
UNDOF
Area of Responsibility.[47] The Irish peacekeepers were attacked by Syrian rebels on 29 November 2013. The Irish convoy came under small arms fire and a Mowag APC later struck a land mine, damaging the vehicle, when driving out of the attack. The Irish returned fire with 12.7mm (.50 calibre) heavy machine guns mounted on their vehicles before the rebels retreated.[48] The Irish were involved in a combat mission in August 2014 after 44 Filipino UN troops were captured by the rebel militia Al Nusra. Some of the UN troops managed to escape and an armoured escort from the Irish 44th Infantry Group escorted the Filipino soldiers to safety.[49] Fire was exchanged with heavy machine guns but there were no casualties on the UN side.[50] The Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs stated he would withdraw the Irish contingent from Golan unless guarantees could be given about their safety. '"We don't want to see Irish troops or the UN contingent being drawn into a Syrian civil war"', he said.[51] Nevertheless, as of late 2016, 138 Irish troops remain deployed in the region under UNDOF.[52] Duties[edit] Border duties[edit] At home, the Army
Army
was deployed to aid the Garda Síochána
Garda Síochána
(the police force) along the border with Northern Ireland
Ireland
during the conflict known as the Troubles (1969–1998). In the early 1970s, it was suggested that the Army
Army
might cross the Border to protect the Irish nationalist community within Northern Ireland.[53] This was never acted upon, although units were moved to the border region in 1969–70 during the Battle of the Bogside, in order to provide medical support to those wounded in the fighting.[54] Aid to the civil power[edit] The Army's largest aid to the civil power role is its cash-in-transit escorts, with over 2000 missions carried out every year. All large shipments of cash within the State have been provided with armed military escorts since 1978. The Army
Army
provides 24-hour armed security at the maximum security Portlaoise Prison and armed escorts for the Prison Service transporting Ireland's most dangerous criminals. The Central Bank of Ireland
Ireland
had the Government put in place contingency plans to provide armed Defence Force security for major Irish banks over public order fears if a cash shortage was triggered at the height of the 2008/2009 financial crisis.[55] Current overseas deployments[edit] As of 1 December 2015, 493 Defence Force personnel are serving in 12 different missions throughout the world including Lebanon
Lebanon
(UNIFIL), Syria (UNDOF), Middle East (UNTSO), Kosovo
Kosovo
(KFOR), German-led Battle Group 2016 and other observer and staff appointments to UN, EU, OSCE and PfP posts.[56] The largest deployments include:[56]

Lebanon
Lebanon
(UNIFIL) 51 Infantry Group[57] Syria (UNDOF) 50 Infantry Group[57]

Training[edit]

Two soldiers undergoing sniper training

Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) training

All enlisted members of the Army
Army
undergo 29 weeks of training in order to become a fully trained infantry soldier. The first 17 weeks is recruit training, after which they become a 2 Star Private. They then undergo a further 12 weeks of advanced training, after which they pass-out as a 3 Star Private, Trooper or Gunner depending on their respective Corps. During this continuous 29 weeks of training they are required to live in barracks. The Army
Army
recruits both men and women.[58] Recruit training includes foot drill, arms drill, field-craft, medical, radio operation, rifle marksmanship, unarmed combat, counter-IED, tactical and daily physical training (PT). During this stage of training they are also given weapons training on the Steyr Rifle, General Purpose Machine Gun and grenade. On completion of recruit training, soldiers become 2 Star Privates and immediately begin 3 Star training. This includes more advanced training of everything covered by recruit training plus riot training, navigation, CBRN, helicopter drills, survival, FIBUA, ATCP training, live fire tactical training, etc. They also receive further weapons training on the M203 Grenade Launcher and Short Range Anti-Armour Weapon. Throughout their service, soldiers must complete Trained Soldier Specialist Training courses to advance their skills and for promotion. Organisation[edit] The Army
Army
has an establishment of 7,310[1] personnel and consists of a single division sized element made up of two brigades.[8] Prior to 2012, the army was divided into three brigades, organised to be responsible for a geographical area of the State: Southern, Eastern and Western.[9] Following budgetary decisions in 2011,[59] the army was reorganised in late 2012 into a two brigades structure.[8][60] The training element of the army, the Defence Forces Training Centre, operates independently of the brigade structure. Brigades[edit]

Structure of the Irish Army

The 1st Brigade is headquartered in Collins Barracks, Cork, and has an area of territorial responsibility which includes the counties of Carlow, Cork, Galway, Kerry, Kilkenny, Laois, Limerick, Offaly, Tipperary, Waterford
Waterford
and Wexford. Units of the 1st Brigade include:

1 Infantry Battalion
Battalion
(Galway) 3 Infantry Battalion
Battalion
(Kilkenny) 12 Infantry Battalion
Battalion
(Limerick) 1 Brigade Artillery
Artillery
Regiment (Cork) 1 Brigade Cavalry Squadron (Cork) 1 Brigade Communication and Information Services Company (Cork) 1 Brigade Engineer Group (Cork) 1 Brigade Supply & Transport Group (Cork) 1 Brigade Ordnance Group (Cork) 1 Brigade Military Police Company (Cork)

The 2nd Brigade is headquartered in Cathal Brugha Barracks, Dublin, and has an area of territorial responsibility which includes the counties of Cavan, Donegal, Dublin, Kildare, Leitrim, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Sligo, Westmeath and Wicklow. Units of the 2nd Brigade include:

6 Infantry Battalion
Battalion
(Athlone) 7 Infantry Battalion
Battalion
(Dublin) 27 Infantry Battalion
Battalion
(Dundalk) 28 Infantry Battalion
Battalion
(Ballyshannon) 2 Brigade Artillery
Artillery
Regiment (Athlone) 2 Brigade Cavalry Squadron (Dublin) 2 Brigade Communication and Information Services Company (Dublin) 2 Brigade Engineer Group (Athlone) 2 Brigade Supply & Transport Group (Athlone) 2 Brigade Ordnance Group (Athlone) 2 Brigade Military Police Company (Dublin)

Defence Forces Training Centre[edit] Main article: Defence Forces Training Centre In addition to the two brigades in the Army, there is the Defence Forces Training Centre (DFTC). This element is responsible for providing professional training to the Irish Army
Army
through three separate colleges:

Military College Combat Support College (Cavalry/Engineering/Signal Schools) Combat Service Support College (Transport/Ordnance/Military Police/Medical/Admin/Catering (in Dublin) & Physical Fitness Schools)

There are several units located at the DFTC that are not part of the brigade structure:

Operational Units

Army
Army
Ranger Wing 1 Armoured Cavalry Squadron 1 Mechanised Infantry Company

Support Units

Supply and Services Unit Defence Force Logistics Base DFTC Military Police Company

The operational units fall under the direct command of the Defence Force HQ, and may be deployed either in support of brigade units or separately on any operation. Army
Army
Reserve[edit] Main article: Army
Army
Reserve (Ireland) The Army
Army
Reserve (AR) (Irish: Cúltaca an Airm) is the second line reserve of the Irish Army, the land component of the Reserve Defence Forces (RDF). The Army
Army
Reserve is a part-time, voluntary organisation which was established on 1 October 2005 to replace and reorganise the previous reserve organisation, and to improve training and courses similar to those of the Regular Army. In late 2015, there were 2,188 active personnel, with plans to increase this to 3,869 Army Reservists.[61] Army
Army
Corps[edit] Infantry Corps[edit] Main article: Infantry Corps (Ireland) The Infantry Corps represent the largest component and are the operational troops of the Army. They must be prepared for tactical deployment in any location at short notice. In wartime this means that they will be among the frontline troops in the defence of the Irish state. In peacetime they can be seen daily performing operational duties in aid to the civil power such as providing escorts to cash, prisoner or explosive shipments, patrols of vital state installations and border patrols, including checkpoints. Artillery
Artillery
Corps[edit]

105mm L118 light gun
L118 light gun
crewed by the Artillery
Artillery
Corps ( Army
Army
Reserve)

Main article: Artillery
Artillery
Corps (Ireland) The Artillery
Artillery
Corps provides fire support as required by infantry or armoured elements. The Corps was founded in 1924 and today consists of two main branches: Field Artillery
Artillery
and Air Defence.[citation needed] Between them, the two branches of the Corps provide several vital services;

Fire support of Infantry or Armoured troops. Ground to low level air defence. Light field battery support to Irish overseas battalion. Aid to the civil power duties.

Each brigade has a single artillery regiment.[citation needed] Cavalry Corps[edit]

Cavalry Corps MOWAG Piranha

Main article: Cavalry Corps (Ireland) The Cavalry Corps is the army's armoured reconnaissance formation. Engineer Corps[edit] Main article: Engineer Corps (Ireland) The Engineer Corps is the combat engineering unit of the Defence Forces. The Engineer Corps is responsible for all military engineering matters across the Defence Forces. Ordnance Corps[edit]

A member of an Irish Army
Army
Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) team

Main article: Ordnance Corps (Ireland) The responsibility for the procurement and maintenance of all ordnance equipment is vested in the Ordnance Corps and encompasses a spectrum of equipment ranging from anti-aircraft missiles and naval armament to the uniforms worn by military personnel. The corps is also responsible for the procurement of food and provision of commercial catering services. These tasks are of a technical nature and the corps personnel are appropriately qualified and with the expertise to afford technical evaluation of complete weapon systems, it also includes embracing weapons,[clarification needed] ammunition, fire control instruments and night vision equipment. The Ordnance Corps provides improvised explosive device disposal within the state, in support of the Garda Síochána. Courses are conducted for its own personnel and for students from the military and police of other nations. Ordnance Corps personnel continue to serve in overseas missions and are an essential component of missions involving troops.[62] Transport Corps[edit] Main article: Transport Corps (Ireland) The Transport Corps is responsible for procurement, management and maintenance of soft skinned vehicles, and maintenance of armoured vehicles. It is also responsible for the driving standards, training and certification, as well as providing vehicle fuels and lubricants, and certain logistics - such as heavy lift capabilities. Medical Corps[edit] Main article: Medical Corps (Ireland) The Medical Corps is responsible for promoting health and treating sick or wounded personnel, and has provided medical and dental support in all the Army's main UN missions.[63] As with similar branches in other militaries, they also sometimes provide humanitarian assistance to local civilian populations - by giving medical aid where local health services are not functioning adequately.[63] Military Police Corps[edit] Main article: Military Police Corps (Ireland) The Military Police (Irish: Póilíní Airm, hence the nickname "PAs") are responsible for the prevention and investigation of offences, the enforcement of discipline and the general policing of the Defence Forces. In wartime, additional tasks include the provision of a traffic control organisation to allow rapid movement of military formations to their mission areas. Other wartime rules include control of prisoners of war and refugees. Traditionally, the Military Police have had an involvement at state and ceremonial occasions. In recent years the Military Police have been deployed in UN missions (such as Iran
Iran
and Iraq) and later in the former Yugoslavia (SFOR). The Gardaí assist in providing specialist police training to the Military Police in the field of crime investigation. Communications & IT Corps[edit] Main article: CIS Corps (Ireland) The Communications and Information Services (CIS) Corps is a support corps responsible for installing, maintaining and operating telecommunications equipment and information systems. Rank structure[edit] Main article: Irish Defence Forces rank insignia The rank structure of the Irish Army
Army
is organised along standard military rank and command structures. These consist of the following ranks: Officer Ranks[edit]

Equivalent NATO Code OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF-Cdt

Ireland

Leifteanant-Ghinearál Maor-Ghinearál Briogáidire-Ghinearál Coirnéal Leifteanant-Choirnéal Ceannfort Captaen Leifteanant Dara Leifteanant Dalta Sinsir Dalta Sóisir

English language equivalent Lieutenant-General Major-General Brigadier-General Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Senior Cadet Junior Cadet

Abbreviation Lt Gen Maj Gen Brig Gen Col Lt Col Comdt Capt Lt 2nd Lt Sr Cdt Jr Cdt

Other Rank Insignia[edit]

Equivalent NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1

Ireland

No Insignia

Maor-Sáirsint Cathláin/Reisiminte Ceathrúsháirsint Cathláin/Reisiminte Sáirsint Complachta Ceathrúsháirsint Complacht Sáirsint Ceannaire Saighdiúr Singil, 3 Réalta Saighdiúr Singil, 2 Réalta Earcach

English Equivalent Battalion/Regimental Sergeant
Sergeant
Major Battalion/Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant Company Sergeant Company Quartermaster Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Private/Gunner/Trooper 3 Star Private 2 Star Recruit

Abbreviation BSM/RSM BQMS/RQMS BS/CS/SS BQ/CQ/SQ Sgt Cpl Pte/Gnr/Tpr 3* Pte 2* Rec

Weapons[edit]

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Army
Army
parade (march past) with Steyr AUG
Steyr AUG
service rifles in service dress

Main article: Modern weapons of the Irish Army The Army
Army
has historically purchased and used weapons and equipment from other western countries, mainly from European nations.[citation needed] Ireland
Ireland
has a very limited arms industry and rarely produces its own armaments.[citation needed] From its establishment the Army
Army
used the British-made Lee–Enfield .303 rifle, which would be the mainstay for many decades. In the 1960s some modernisation came with the introduction of the Belgian-made FN FAL 7.62 mm battle rifle. Since 1989 the service rifle for the Army
Army
is the Austrian-made Steyr AUG
Steyr AUG
5.56 mm assault rifle (used by all branches of the Defence Forces). Other weapons in use by the Army
Army
include the USP 9mm pistol, FN MAG machine gun, M2 Browning machine gun, Accuracy International Arctic Warfare sniper rifles, AT4
AT4
SRAAW, FGM-148 Javelin
FGM-148 Javelin
Anti-tank guided missile, L118
L118
105mm Howitzer, RBS 70
RBS 70
Surface to Air Missile system.[citation needed] Vehicles[edit]

The RG Outrider, in use with the Irish Army
Army
in various roles

Main article: Modern vehicles of the Irish Army The Army
Army
has purchased 80 Swiss made Mowag Piranha
Mowag Piranha
Armoured personnel carriers which have become the Army's primary vehicle in the Mechanized infantry
Mechanized infantry
role. These are equipped with 12.7 mm HMGs, or the Oto Melara
Oto Melara
30 mm Autocannon.[64] .The Army
Army
operates a number of RG Outriders. As of 2009, the army operated the FV101 Scorpion light tank. See also[edit]

Modern weapons of the Irish Army Modern vehicles of the Irish Army

Armoured Fighting Vehicles of the Irish Army

Modern Irish Army
Army
Uniform Irish Defence Forces cap badge Defence Forces (Ireland) Reserve Defence Forces Irish Army
Army
deafness claims General Michael Joe Costello Colonel
Colonel
Daniel Bryan RACO - Commissioned Officers PDFORRA - Permanent Enlistees RDFRA
RDFRA
- Reserve Enlistees

References[edit]

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