HOME
        TheInfoList






Iraqi and allied victory against ISIL[24]

Main belligerents

 Iraq[1]

Allied groups:

 Iran

 Hezbollah
 Syria (2014)[2]


Iraqi Kurdistan[1]

Sinjar Alliance
 Iraq[1]

Allied groups:

Peshmerga tank at the frontlines, south of Kirkuk, in June 2014

In the course of their Anbar campaign, ISIL militants seized at least 70% of Al Anbar Governorate by June 2014,[92] including the cities of Fallujah,[93][94]

In the course of their Anbar campaign, ISIL militants seized at least 70% of Al Anbar Governorate by June 2014,[92] including the cities of Fallujah,[93][94] Al Qaim,[95] and half of the provincial capital of Ramadi.[96] ISIL forces also infiltrated Abu Ghraib in Baghdad Governorate.[97]

In early June 2014, following further large-scale offensives in Iraq, ISIL seized control of Mosul, the second most populous city in Iraq,[98] the nearby town of Tal Afar[99] and most of the surrounding Nineveh Governorate.[100] ISIL also captured parts of Kirkuk and Diyala Governorates[101] and Tikrit, the administrative center of the Salahuddin Governorate,[102] with the ultimate goal of capturing Baghdad, the Iraqi capital.[103] ISIL was believed to have only 2,000–3,000 fighters up until the Mosul campaign, but during that campaign, it became evident that this number was a gross underestimate.[104] There were also reports that the number of Sunni groups in Iraq that were opposed to the predominantly Shia government had joined ISIL, thus bolstering the group numbers.<

In early June 2014, following further large-scale offensives in Iraq, ISIL seized control of Mosul, the second most populous city in Iraq,[98] the nearby town of Tal Afar[99] and most of the surrounding Nineveh Governorate.[100] ISIL also captured parts of Kirkuk and Diyala Governorates[101] and Tikrit, the administrative center of the Salahuddin Governorate,[102] with the ultimate goal of capturing Baghdad, the Iraqi capital.[103] ISIL was believed to have only 2,000–3,000 fighters up until the Mosul campaign, but during that campaign, it became evident that this number was a gross underestimate.[104] There were also reports that the number of Sunni groups in Iraq that were opposed to the predominantly Shia government had joined ISIL, thus bolstering the group numbers.[105] However, the Kurds—who are mostly Sunnis—in the northeast of Iraq, were unwilling to be drawn into the conflict, and there were clashes in the area between ISIL and the Kurdish Peshmerga.[106][107]

On 12 June 2014 ISIL killed 1,700 unarmed Iraqi Air Force cadets who were caught trying to flee to safety and released many images of mass executions via its Twitter feed and various websites.[108]

In late June, ISIL militants captured two key crossings in Anbar, a day after seizing the border crossing at Al-Qaim. According to analysts, capturing these crossings could aid ISIL in transporting weapons and equipment to different battlefields.[109] Two days later, the Syrian Air Force bombed ISIL positions in Iraq near the Al-Qaim border post. Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki stated: "There was no coordination involved, but we welcome this action. We welcome any Syrian strike against Isis because this group targets both Iraq and Syria."[110]

At this point, The Jerusalem Post reported that the Obama administration had requested US$500 million from the US Congress to use in the training and arming of "moderate" Syrian rebels fighting against the Syrian government, in order to counter the growing threat posed by ISIL in Syria and Iraq.[111]

On 29 June, ISIL announced the establishment of a new caliphate. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was appointed its caliph, and group formally changed its name to the Islamic State.At this point, The Jerusalem Post reported that the Obama administration had requested US$500 million from the US Congress to use in the training and arming of "moderate" Syrian rebels fighting against the Syrian government, in order to counter the growing threat posed by ISIL in Syria and Iraq.[111]

On 29 June, ISIL announced the establishment of a new caliphate. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was appointed its caliph, and group formally changed its name to the Islamic State.[112] Four days later, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the self-proclaimed caliph of the new Islamic State, said that Muslims should unite to capture Rome in order to "own the world."[113][114] He called on Muslims all over the world to unite behind him as their leader.[115]

On 24 July, ISIL blew up the Mosque and tomb of the Prophet Yunus (Jonah) in Mosul,[116] with no reported casualties.[117] Residents in the area said that ISIL had erased a piece of Iraqi heritage.[118] Jonah's tomb was an important holy site in the Jewish heritage as well.[119] A few days later, ISIL also blew up the Nabi Shiyt (Prophet Seth) shrine in Mosul. Sami al-Massoudi, deputy head of the Shia endowment agency which oversees holy sites, confirmed the destruction and added that ISIL had taken artifacts from the shrine to an unknown location.[120]

In an August offensive, ISIL captured Sinjar and a number of other towns in the north of the country. Almost 200,000 civilians, mostly Yazidis, managed to flee from the fighting in Sinjar city,[121][122] about 50,000 of them fled into the Sinjar Mountains,[122] where they were trapped without food, water or medical care,[123] facing starvation and dehydration.[122] They had been threatened with death if they refused conversion to Islam. A UN representative said that "a humanitarian tragedy is unfolding in Sinjar."[124] In addition, during this latest offensive, the Islamic State advanced to within 30 km of the Iraqi Kurdish capital of Erbil in northern Iraq.[125][126]

Prompted by the siege and killings of the Yazidis, on 7 August, President Obama authorized targeted airstrikes in Iraq against ISIL, along with airdrops of aid.[127] The UK offered the US assistance with surveillance and refueling, and planned humanitarian airdrops to Iraqi refugees.[128] The US asserted that the systematic destruction of the Yazidi people by the Islamic State was genocide.[129] The Arab League also accused the Islamic State of committing crimes against humanity.[130][131]

On 13 August, US airstrikes and Kurdish ground forces broke the ISIL siege of Mount Sinjar.[132][133][134] Also, five days later, Kurdish Peshmerga ground troops, with the help of Iraqi Special Forces and the US air campaign, overran ISIL militants and reclaimed the Mosul Dam.[135][136][137]

On 31 August, the United States, France, United Kingdom and Australia began humanitarian aid drops of food, water and medical supplies to help prevent a potential massacre against the Shia Turkmen minority in Amirli. The US also carried out air strikes on ISIL positions around and near Amirli. Iraqi officials stated that they had reached Amirli and broken the siege and that the military was fighting to clear the areas around the town. This is known to be the first major turning point against ISIL in Iraq.[138]

In September, the United States sent an additional 250 troops to protect American personnel,[139] while the first engagement of the British military against ISIL targets took place when a British Panavia Tornado jet dropped a Paveway IV bomb on "a heavy weapon position" operated by ISIL in northwest Iraq at the end of the month.[140] In addition, Australia offered 200 special forces to the Kurds[141] and 600 Australian troops landed in the UAE.[142][143] The following month, Australia authorized its special forces troops to go to Iraq as part of the anti-ISIL coalition that day,[144][145] as well as authorizing airstrikes.[146]

In mid-October ISIL forces captured the city of Hīt after the 300-strong Iraqi Army garrison abandoned and set fire to its local base and supplies. As a result, an estimated 180,000 civilians (including refugees of the previous Anbar offensive) attempted to flee the area.[147][148] Later that month, Operation Ashura was launched by Iraqi forces and Iranian-backed Shia militias, scoring a major victory and retaking the strategic town of Jurf al-Sakhar near Baghdad, and securing the way for millions of Shia pilgrims who were going to Karbala and Najaf On the Day of Ashura. Kurdish forces, meanwhile, recaptured Zumar.[149]

On 21 October, ISIL seized terrain north of the Sinjar Mountains, thus cutting the area's escape route to Kurdish areas. The Yazidi militias then withdrew from there into the mountains, where the number of Yazidi civilian refugees was estimated at 2,000–7,000.[150] The mountains had once again been partially surrounded by ISIL.[151]

In mid-November, Iraqi forces retook control of most of the strategic city Baiji from the Islamic State[152][153] and broke the siege of the nearby oil refinery.[154] However, by the following month, ISIL recaptured Baiji and reestablished the siege of the refinery.[155][156][157]

On 17 December, Peshmerga forces, backed by 50 US-led coalition airstrikes on ISIL positions,[158] launched an offensive to liberate Sinjar[158] and to break the partial ISIL siege of the Sinjar Mountains.[151] In less than two days, the siege was broken. After ISIL forces retreated, Kurdish fighters were initially faced with the clearing out mines around the area,[159] but quickly opened a land corridor to those mountains, enabling Yazidis to be evacuated. The operation left 100 ISIL fighters dead.[158]

Later on 21 December, Syrian Kurdish YPG fighters south of the mountain range reached Peshmerga lines, thus linking their two fronts.[151] The next day, the YPG broke through ISIL lines, thus opening a corridor from Syria to the town of Sinjar. By the evening, the Peshmerga took control of much of Sinjar.[151]

In late January, Iraqi forces recaptured the entire province of Diyala from the Islamic State.[160] Furthermore, 21 January saw the launching of the Mosul offensive (2015) in which Peshmerga forces captured large amount of territory surrounding Mosul.[161]

On 2 March, the Second Battle of Tikrit began[162] and after more than a month of hard fighting, government troops and pro-Iranian Shiite militias overcame ISIL fighters and took Tikrit.Second Battle of Tikrit began[162] and after more than a month of hard fighting, government troops and pro-Iranian Shiite militias overcame ISIL fighters and took Tikrit.[163] This success was off-set in late May, by ISIL's capture of the provincial capital of Ramadi in Anbar Governorate.[164]

On 17 July, a suicide bomber detonated a car bomb in a crowded marketplace in the city of Khan Bani Saad during Eid al-Fitr celebrations, killing 120–130 people and injuring 130 more. Twenty more people were reported missing since the bombing.[165][166]

On 13 August, a suicide bomber detonated a truck bomb in a crowded marketplace in Sadr City, Baghdad, killing at least 75 people and injuring 212 more.[167] On 27 August, a suicide bomber assassinated General Abdel Rahman Abu Ragheef, deputy commander of operations in the province of Anbar, and Brigadier Safeen Abdel Majeed, a divisional commander.[168]

ISIL forces lost Sinjar on November 13 to Kurdish forces.[169]

During 16–17 December, ISIL forces mounted a major offensive north-east of Mosul against Kurdish position but were repelled.[170] Starting December 22, the Iraqi Army began a campaign to recapture detonated a truck bomb in a crowded marketplace in Sadr City, Baghdad, killing at least 75 people and injuring 212 more.[167] On 27 August, a suicide bomber assassinated General Abdel Rahman Abu Ragheef, deputy commander of operations in the province of Anbar, and Brigadier Safeen Abdel Majeed, a divisional commander.[168]

ISIL forces lost Sinjar on November 13 to Kurdish forces.[169]

During 16–17 December, ISIL forces mounted a major offensive north-east of Mosul against Kurdish position but were repelled.[170] Starting December 22, the Iraqi Army began a campaign to recapture Ramadi.[171] On December 28, Iraq declared Ramadi liberated from ISIL forces and under the control of the Iraqi government.[172]

Iraqi forces regained control of Hīt[173] and Ar-Rutbah[174] in offensive operations in 2016 and then Fallujah as well in the Third Battle of Fallujah ending in June 2016.[175]

On 16 October 2016, the Battle of Mosul began.[176]

2017