The Info List - Iranian Languages

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The IRANIAN LANGUAGES or IRANIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages
Indo-Iranian languages
, which in turn are a branch of the Indo-European language family . The speakers of Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are known as Iranian peoples . Historical Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are grouped in three stages: Old Iranian (until 400 BC), Middle Iranian (400 BC – 900 AD), and New Iranian (since 900 AD). Of the Old Iranian languages, the better understood and recorded ones are Old Persian (a language of Achaemenid Iran) and Avestan (the language of the Avesta
). Middle Iranian languages
Iranian languages
included Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(a language of Sassanid Iran), Parthian , and Bactrian .

As of 2008, there were an estimated 150–200 million native speakers of Iranian languages. Ethnologue estimates that there are 86 Iranian languages, the largest among them being Persian , Pashto
and Kurdish dialect continuum .


* 1 Term * 2 Proto-Iranian

* 3 Old Iranian

* 3.1 Isoglosses

* 4 Middle Iranian languages
Iranian languages
* 5 New Iranian languages
Iranian languages
* 6 Comparison table * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Notes * 10 External links


See also: Indo-Iranian languages
Indo-Iranian languages
Iranian languages
Iranian languages
family tree

The term Iranian is applied to any language which descends from the ancestral Proto-Iranian language . Iranian derives from the Persian and Sanskrit origin word Arya.

The use of the term for the Iranian language family was introduced in 1836 by Christian Lassen
Christian Lassen
. Robert Needham Cust used the term Irano-Aryan in 1878, and Orientalists such as George Abraham Grierson and Max Müller contrasted Irano-Aryan (Iranian) and Indo-Aryan (Indic). Some recent scholarship, primarily in German, has revived this convention.

The Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are divided into the following branches:

* The Western Iranian languages subdivided into:

* Southwestern, of which Persian is the dominant member; * Northwestern, of which Kurdish is the largest member.

* The Eastern Iranian languages subdivided into:

* Southeastern, of which Pashto
is the dominant member; * Northeastern, by far the smallest branch, of which Ossetian is the dominant member.


Historical distribution in 100 BC: shown is Sarmatia , Scythia
, Bactria
(Eastern Iranian, in orange); and the Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
(Western Iranian, in red)

All Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are descended from a common ancestor, Proto-Iranian . In turn, and together with Proto-Indo-Aryan and the Nuristani languages , Proto-Iranian descends from a common ancestor Proto-Indo-Iranian . The Indo-Iranian languages
Indo-Iranian languages
are thought to have originated in Central Asia. The Andronovo culture
Andronovo culture
is the suggested candidate for the common Indo-Iranian culture ca. 2000 BC.

It was situated precisely in the western part of Central Asia
Central Asia
that borders present-day Russia
(and present-day Kazakhstan
). It was in relative proximity to the other satem ethno-linguistic groups of the Indo-European family , like Thracian
, Balto-Slavic and others, and to common Indo-European's original homeland (more precisely, the steppes of southern Russia
to the north of the Caucasus
), according to the reconstructed linguistic relationships of common Indo-European.

Proto-Iranian thus dates to some time after Proto-Indo-Iranian break-up, or the early second millennium BCE, as the Old Iranian languages began to break off and evolve separately as the various Iranian tribes migrated and settled in vast areas of southeastern Europe, the Iranian plateau , and Central Asia.

Innovations of Proto-Iranian compared to Proto-Indo-Iranian include (from Witzel, 2001):

* *s other than * turns into * * *bʰ, *dʰ, *gʰ merge into *b, *d, *g

* Fricativization of voiceless stops

* *p, *t, *k become *f, *θ, *x before another consonant * in all positions, *pʰ, *tʰ, *kʰ become *f, *θ, *x


The multitude of Middle Iranian languages
Iranian languages
and peoples indicate that great linguistic diversity must have existed among the ancient speakers of Iranian languages. Of that variety of languages/dialects, direct evidence of only two have survived. These are:

* Avestan , the two languages/dialects of the Avesta
, i.e. the liturgical texts of Zoroastrianism . * Old Persian , the native language of a south-western Iranian people known as Persians .

Indirectly attested Old Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are discussed below .

Old Persian is the Old Iranian dialect as it was spoken in south-western Iran by the inhabitants of Parsa , who also gave their name to their region and language. Genuine Old Persian is best attested in one of the three languages of the Behistun inscription, composed circa 520 BC, and which is the last inscription (and only inscription of significant length) in which Old Persian is still grammatically correct. Later inscriptions are comparatively brief, and typically simply copies of words and phrases from earlier ones, often with grammatical errors, which suggests that by the 4th century BC the transition from Old Persian to Middle Persian
Middle Persian
was already far advanced, but efforts were still being made to retain an "old" quality for official proclamations.

The other directly attested Old Iranian dialects are the two forms of Avestan , which take their name from their use in the Avesta
, the liturgical texts of indigenous Iranian religion that now goes by the name of Zoroastrianism but in the Avesta
itself is simply known as vohu daena (later: behdin). The language of the Avesta
is subdivided into two dialects, conventionally known as "Old (or 'Gathic') Avestan", and "Younger Avestan". These terms, which date to the 19th century, are slightly misleading since 'Younger Avestan' is not only much younger than 'Old Avestan', but also from a different geographic region. The Old Avestan dialect is very archaic, and at roughly the same stage of development as Rigvedic Sanskrit . On the other hand, Younger Avestan is at about the same linguistic stage as Old Persian, but by virtue of its use as a sacred language retained its "old" characteristics long after the Old Iranian languages
Iranian languages
had yielded to their Middle Iranian stage. Unlike Old Persian, which has Middle Persian as its known successor, Avestan has no clearly identifiable Middle Iranian stage (the effect of Middle Iranian is indistinguishable from effects due to other causes).

In addition to Old Persian and Avestan, which are the only directly attested Old Iranian languages, all Middle Iranian languages
Iranian languages
must have had a predecessor "Old Iranian" form of that language, and thus can all be said to have had an (at least hypothetical) "Old" form. Such hypothetical Old Iranian languages
Iranian languages
include Carduchian (the hypothetical predecessor to Kurdish ) and Old Parthian . Additionally, the existence of unattested languages can sometimes be inferred from the impact they had on neighbouring languages. Such transfer is known to have occurred for Old Persian, which has (what is called) a "Median " substrate in some of its vocabulary. Also, foreign references to languages can also provide a hint to the existence of otherwise unattested languages, for example through toponyms/ethnonyms or in the recording of vocabulary, as Herodotus did for what he called "Scythian ".


Conventionally, Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are grouped in "western" and "eastern" branches. These terms have little meaning with respect to Old Avestan as that stage of the language may predate the settling of the Iranian peoples into western and eastern groups. The geographic terms also have little meaning when applied to Younger Avestan since it isn't known where that dialect (or dialects) was spoken either. Certain is only that Avestan (all forms) and Old Persian are distinct, and since Old Persian is "western", and Avestan was not Old Persian, Avestan acquired a default assignment to "eastern". Confusing the issue is the introduction of a western Iranian substrate in later Avestan compositions and redactions undertaken at the centers of imperial power in western Iran (either in the south-west in Persia, or in the north-west in Nisa/ Parthia and Ecbatana/Media).

Two of the earliest dialectal divisions among Iranian indeed happen to not follow the later division into Western and Eastern blocks. These concern the fate of the Proto-Indo-Iranian first-series palatal consonants, *ć and *dź:

* Avestan and most other Iranian languages
Iranian languages
have deaffricated and depalatalized these consonants, and have *ć > s, *dź > z. * Old Persian, however, has fronted these consonants further: *ć > θ, *dź > *ð > d.

As a common intermediate stage, it is possible to reconstruct depalatalized affricates: *c, *dz. (This coincides with the state of affairs in the neighboring Nuristani languages .) A further complication however concerns the consonant clusters *ćw and *dźw:

* Avestan and most other Iranian languages
Iranian languages
have shifted these clusters to sp, zb. * In Old Persian, these clusters yield s, z, with loss of the glide *w, but without further fronting. * The Saka language , attested in the Middle Iranian period, and its modern relative Wakhi fail to fit into either group: in these, palatalization remains, and similar glide loss as in Old Persian occurs: *ćw > š, *dźw > ž.

A division of Iranian languages
Iranian languages
in at least three groups during the Old Iranian period is thus implied:

* Persid ( Old Persian and its descendants) * Sakan (Saka, Wakhi, and their Old Iranian ancestor) * Central Iranian (all other Iranian languages)

It is possible that other distinct dialect groups were already in existence during this period. Good candidates are the hypothethical ancestor languages of Alanian/Scytho-Sarmatian subgroup of Scythian in the far northwest; and the hypothetical "Old Parthian" (the Old Iranian ancestor of Parthian) in the near northwest, where original *dw > *b (paralleling the development of *ćw).


What is known in Iranian linguistic history as the "Middle Iranian" era is thought to begin around the 4th century BCE lasting through the 9th century. Linguistically the Middle Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are conventionally classified into two main groups, Western and Eastern .

The Western family includes Parthian (Arsacid Pahlavi) and Middle Persian , while Bactrian , Sogdian , Khwarezmian , Saka
, and Old Ossetic (Scytho-Sarmatian) fall under the Eastern category. The two languages of the Western group were linguistically very close to each other, but quite distinct from their eastern counterparts. On the other hand, the Eastern group was an areal entity whose languages retained some similarity to Avestan. They were inscribed in various Aramaic
-derived alphabets which had ultimately evolved from the Achaemenid Imperial Aramaic
script, though Bactrian was written using an adapted Greek script.

Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(Pahlavi) was the official language under the Sasanian dynasty in Iran. It was in use from the 3rd century CE until the beginning of the 10th century. The script used for Middle Persian
Middle Persian
in this era underwent significant maturity. Middle Persian, Parthian and Sogdian were also used as literary languages by the Manichaeans , whose texts also survive in various non-Iranian languages, from Latin to Chinese. Manichaean texts were written in a script closely akin to the Syriac script .


See also: Persian literature , Pashto literature , Ossetian literature , Kurdish literature , and Tajik literature Dark green: countries where Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are official. Teal: regional co-official/de facto status.

Following the Islamic Conquest of Persia (Iran), there were important changes in the role of the different dialects within the Persian Empire. The old prestige form of Middle Iranian , also known as Pahlavi, was replaced by a new standard dialect called Dari as the official language of the court. The name Dari comes from the word darbâr (دربار), which refers to the royal court, where many of the poets, protagonists, and patrons of the literature flourished. The Saffarid dynasty in particular was the first in a line of many dynasties to officially adopt the new language in 875 CE. Dari may have been heavily influenced by regional dialects of eastern Iran, whereas the earlier Pahlavi standard was based more on western dialects. This new prestige dialect became the basis of Standard New Persian. Medieval Iranian scholars such as Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa (8th century) and Ibn al-Nadim (10th century) associated the term "Dari" with the eastern province of Khorasan , while they used the term "Pahlavi" to describe the dialects of the northwestern areas between Isfahan and Azerbaijan , and "Pârsi" ("Persian" proper) to describe the Dialects of Fars . They also noted that the unofficial language of the royalty itself was yet another dialect, "Khuzi", associated with the western province of Khuzestan
. Geographic distribution of modern Iranian languages
Iranian languages

The Islamic conquest also brought with it the adoption of Arabic script for writing Persian and much later, Kurdish, Pashto
and Balochi. All three were adapted to the writing by the addition of a few letters. This development probably occurred some time during the second half of the 8th century, when the old middle Persian script began dwindling in usage. The Arabic script
Arabic script
remains in use in contemporary modern Persian. Tajik script , used to write the Tajik language , was first Latinised in the 1920s under the then Soviet nationality policy. The script was however subsequently Cyrillicized in the 1930s by the Soviet government.

The geographical regions in which Iranian languages
Iranian languages
were spoken were pushed back in several areas by newly neighbouring languages. Arabic spread into some parts of Western Iran (Khuzestan), and Turkic languages spread through much of Central Asia, displacing various Iranian languages
Iranian languages
such as Sogdian and Bactrian in parts of what is today Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan
and Tajikistan
. In Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, mostly comprising the territory of modern-day Ukraine
, southern European Russia
, and parts of the Balkans
, the core region of the native Scythians , Sarmatians , and Alans had been decisively been taken over as a result of absorption and assimilation (e.g. Slavicisation ) by the various Proto-Slavic population of the region, by the 6th century AD. This resulted in the displacement and extinction of the once predominant Scythian languages of the region. Sogdian 's close relative Yaghnobi barely survives in a small area of the Zarafshan valley east of Samarkand
, and Saka
as Ossetic in the Caucasus, which is the sole remnant of the once predominant Scythian languages in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
proper and large parts of the North Caucasus
. Various small Iranian languages
Iranian languages
in the Pamir Mountains survive that are derived from Eastern Iranian.


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BEAUTIFUL rınd, xasek řind, nayab, bedew, delal/cwan x̌kūlay, x̌āista xojir ghašang sharr, soherâ, mah rang xoşgel, xojir zibā/xuš-čehr(e)/xoşgel(ak)/ghashanq/najib hučihr, hužihr hužihr naiba vahu-, srîra ræsughd

BLOOD goyni xwîn/xwên wīna xevn xun hon xun xūn xōn gōxan

vohuni- tug

BREAD nan, non nan ḍoḍəi, məṛəi nun nun nān, nagan nun nān nān nān


BRING ardene anîn/hênan/weranîn, hawirdin (rā)wṛəl vârden, biyordon varde âurten, yārag, ārag biyârden āwurdan, biyār ("(you) bring!") āwurdan, āwāy-, āwar-, bar- āwāy-, āwar-, bar- bara- bara, bar- xæssyn

BROTHER bıra brader, bra, bira wror bərâr bira, boli brāt, brās birâr barādar brād, brâdar brād, brādar brātar brātar- æfsymær

COME ameyene hatin, were rā tləl biyâmiyan ome āhag, āyag,hatin biyamona, enen, biyâmuen āmadan āmadan, awar awar, čām āy-, āgam āgam- cæwyn

CRY bermayene girîn, giryan žəṛəl bərma berame, bame greewag, greeten birme gerīstan/gerīye griy-, bram- barmâdan


DARK tari tarî/tarîk skəṇ, skaṇ, tyara ul, gur, târica, târek toki thár sîyo, sîyu tārīk tārīg/k tārīg, tārēn

sâmahe, sâma tar

DAUGHTER keyne, çêneke keç, kîj, qîz, dot/kiç, kîj, kenişk, düet (pehlewanî) lūr titiye, dətar kinə, kila dohtir, duttag kîjâ, deter doxtar duxtar duxt, duxtar

duxδar čyzg (Iron ), kizgæ (Digor )

DAY roce/roje/roze řoj wrəd͡z (rwəd͡z) revj, ruz ruj roç ruz, ruj rūz rōz

raucah- raocah- bon

DO kerdene kirin/kirdin kawəl korden karde kanag, kurtin hâkerden kardan kardan kartan kạrta- kәrәta- kænyn

DOOR ber, keyber,çêber derî, derge/derke, derga wər darvâca bə gelo, darwāzag dar, loş dar dar dar, bar duvara- dvara- dwar

DIE merdene mirin/mirdin mrəl bamarden marde mireg bamerden murdan murdan

mạriya- mar- mælyn

DONKEY here ker xər astar, xar hə, hər har,her, kar xar xar xar


EAT werdene xwarin / xwardin xwāṛə, xurāk / xwaṛəl harden harde warag, warâk xerâk / baxârden xordan / xurāk parwarz / xwâr, xwardīg parwarz / xwâr

hareθra / ad-, at- xærinag

EGG hak, akk hêk/hêlke, tuxm hagəi merqâna, karxâ morqana, uyə heyg, heyk, ā morg merqâne, tîm, balî toxm, xāya ("testicle") toxmag, xâyag taoxmag, xâyag

taoxma- ajk

EARTH erd zemîn, zewî, ʿerz, erd d͡zməka (md͡zəka) zemin zamin zemin zamîn, bene zamīn zamīg zamīg zam- zãm, zam, zem zæxx

EVENING şan êvar/êware māx̌ām (māš̥ām) nemâzi sar shav begáh nemâşun begáh ēvārag êbêrag


EYE çım çav/çaw/çaş stərga coš čaş,gelgan ch.hem, chem çəş, bəj čashm čašm čašm čaša- čašman- cæst

FATHER pi, pêr bav/bab, bawk, ba plār piyar, piya, dada piya, lala, po pit, piss pîyer, per pedar, baba pidar pid pitar pitar fyd

FEAR ters tirs wēra (yara), bēra târs tars turs, terseg taşe-vaşe tars tars tars tạrsa- tares- tas

FIANCé waşti xwestî, nîşankirî, dezgîran čənghol , čənghəla numuzâ nomja nāmzād numze nāmzād - -


FINE weş, hewl xweş x̌a (š̥a), səm, ṭik ( Urdu
origin) xojir, xar xoş wash, hosh xâr, xeş, xojir xoš, xūb, beh dārmag

srîra xorz, dzæbæx

FINGER engışte, gışte, bêçıke til/qamik, bêçî, pêçîk, engust, pence gwəta anquš anqiştə lenkutk, mordâneg,changol angus angošt angust

dišti- ængwyldz

FIRE adır, adfır agir/awir, ahir wōr (ōr) taš otaş âch, âs taş, âtar ātaš, āzar âdur, âtaxsh ādur âç- âtre-/aêsma- art

FISH mase masî kəb mâyi moy māhi, māhig mâhî māhi māhig māsyāg

masya kæsag

GO şo (şiyayış) çûn, řoştin, řoyiştin tləl šiyen, bišiyan şe jwzzegh, shutin şunen / burden ro/şo şow/row ay- ai- ay-, fra-vaz cæwyn

GOD homa, huma, oma, heq Yezdan, xwedê, xuda, xodê, xwa(y) xwədāi xədâ Xıdo hwdâ xedâ xodā/izad xudā/yazdān

baga- baya- xwycaw

GOOD hewl, rınd, weş baş, řind/baş, çak x̌ə (š̥ə) xâr, xojir çok jawáin, šarr,zabr xâr, xeş, xojir xub, nīkū, beh xūb, nêkog, beh

vahu- vohu, vaŋhu- xorz

GRASS vaş giya/gya wāx̌ə (wāš̥ə) vâš alaf rem, sabzag vâş sabzeh, giyāh giyâ giya viş urvarâ kærdæg

GREAT gırd, gırs, pil mezin, gir/gewre, mezin lōy, stər pilla yol, yal, vaz,dıjd mastar, mazan,tuh gat, pilla bozorg wuzurg, pīl, yal

vazraka- uta-, avañt styr

HAND dest dest, des lās bâl dast dast das, bāl dast dast dast dasta- zasta- k'ux / arm

HEAD ser ser sər kalla sə, sər saghar,sar, sarag kalle,sar sar sar

kalli sairi sær

HEART zerri, zerre dil/dił/dir(Erbil)/zil zṛə dəl dıl dil, hatyr del, zel, zil del dil dil

aηhuš zærdæ

HORSE estor, (ostor/astor) asp/hesp/esp, hês(t)ir ās , aspa asb, astar asp asp asp, as asb asp, stōr asp, stōr aspa aspa- bæx

HOUSE keye, ban mal/mał, xanu, xang kor kiya ka log, dawâr,ges sere, xene, kime xāne xânag

demâna-, nmâna- xædzar

HUNGRY veyşan birçî/birsî lwəga vašnâ, vešir, gosna vahşian shudhagh veşnâ gorosne, goşne gursag, shuy veşnâg

LANGUAGE (also TONGUE) zıwan, zon, zuan, zuon, juan, jüan ziman, ziwan žəba zobun, zəvân zivon zevān, zobān zivun, zebun zabān zuwān izβān hazâna- hizvā- ævzag

LAUGH huyayene kenîn/pêkenîn, kenîn xandəl/xənda xurəsen, bexandastan sıre xendegh, hendeg rîk, baxendesten xande xande, xand

karta Syaoθnâvareza- xudyn

LIFE cu/cuye, cewiyayış jiyan žwəndūn, žwənd zindәgi jimon zendegih, zind zindegî, jan zendegi, jan zīndagīh, zīwišnīh žīwahr, žīw-

gaêm, gaya- card

MAN merdêk, camêrd, cuamêrd merd, mêr, pîyaw səṛay, mēṛə mardak, miarda merd merd mard(î) mard mard mard martiya- mašîm, mašya adæjmag

MOON aşme, menge (for month) heyv, meh/mang (for month) spūgməi (spōẓ̌məi) mâng mang, owşum máh ma, munek mâh māh māh mâh- måŋha- mæj

MOTHER maye, marde, maya dayek, dayk, daye, mak mōr mâr, mâya, nana moa, ma, ina mât, mâs mâr mâdar mâdar dayek mâtar mâtar- mad

MOUTH fek dev, fek/dem xūla (xʷəla) duxun, dâ:ân gəv dap dâhun, lâmîze dahân dahân, rumb

åŋhânô, âh, åñh dzyx

NAME name nav/naw, nam, nêw nūm num nom nâm num nâm nâm

nâman nãman nom

NIGHT şewe şev/şew špa šö, šav şav šap, shaw şow shab shab

xšap- xšap- æxsæv

OPEN (V) a-kerdene vekirin/kirdinewe prānistəl vâ-korden okarde pabožagh, paç vâ-hekârden bâz-kardan, va-kardan abâz-kardan, višādag

būxtaka- būxta- gom kænyn

PEACE pêameyış, werêameyış aştî, aramî rōɣa, t͡sōkāləi dinj aşiş ârâm âştî âshti, ârâmeš, ârâmî âštih, râmīšn râm, râmīšn šiyâti- râma- fidyddzinad

PIG xoz, xonz beraz, soḍər, xənd͡zir (Arabic) xu, xuyi, xug xug khug xî xūk xūk

hū xwy

PLACE ca jî, jih, je(jega), ga d͡zāi yâga vira hend, jâgah jâ jâh/gâh gâh gâh gâθu- gâtu-, gâtav- ran

READ wendene xwendin/xwêndin lwastəl, kōtəl baxânden hande, xwande wánagh baxinden, baxundesten xândan xwândan


SAY vatene gotin/gutin, witin wayəl vâten, baguten vote gushagh baowten goftan, gap(-zadan) guftan, gōw-, wâxtan gōw- gaub- mrû- dzuryn

SISTER waye xweh, xweşk, xoşk, xuşk, xoyşk xōr (xʷōr) xâke, xâv, xâxor, xuâr hova gwhâr xâxer xâhar/xwâhar xwahar

x ̌aŋhar- "sister" xo

SMALL qıc, qıyt, qıj, qıçkek, qıtek, werdi biçûk, giçke, qicik, hûr kūčnay, waṛ(ū)kay qijel, qolâ hırd gwand, hurd peçik, biçuk, xurd kuchak, kam, xurd, rîz kam, rangas kam kamna- kamna- chysyl

SON lac, laj, kaz, pısa kur, law/kuř d͡zoy (zoy) pur, zâ zoə, zurə baç, phusagh piser/rîkâ pesar, baça pur, pusar puhr puça pūθra- fyrt

SOUL roh, gan jan, giyan, rewan, revan sā rəvân con rawân

ravân, jân rūwân, jyân rūwân, jyân

urvan- ud

SPRING wesar, usar behar, bihar, wehar spərlay vâ:âr əvəsor, bahar bhârgâh vehâr bahâr wahâr

vâhara- θūravâhara-

TALL berz bilind/berz lwəṛ, ǰəg pilla barz, bılınd bwrz, borz bilen(d) boland / bârez buland, borz bârež

barez- bærzond

TEN des deh/de ləs da da deh da dah dah

datha dasa dæs

THREE hirê, hiri, hirı sê, sisê drē so se, he sey se se sê hrē çi- θri- ærtæ

VILLAGE dewe gund, dêhat, dê kəlay döh, da di helk, kallag, dê dih, male, kola deh, wis wiž dahyu- vîs-, dahyu- vîs qæw

WANT waştene xwastin, xwestin, wîstin ɣ(ʷ)ux̌təl begovastan, jovastan piye lotagh bexâsten xâstan xwâstan


WATER awe, owe, ou av/aw obə/ūbə âv, ö ov, wat(orandian dialect) âp ow âb âb/aw aw âpi avô- don

WHEN key, çı wext kengê/key, kengê kəla key keyna kadi,ked ke key kay ka

čim- kæd

WIND va ba, wa (pehlewanî) siləi vâ vo gwáth vâ bâd wâd wa

vâta- dymgæ / wad

WOLF verg gur/gurg, wurg lewə, šarmux̌ (šarmuš̥) varg varg gurkh verg gorg gurg

varka- vehrka birægh

WOMAN cêniye, cênıke jin x̌əd͡za (š̥əd͡za) zeyniye, zenak jen, jiyan jan,jinik zan zan zan žan

gǝnā, γnā, ǰaini-, sylgojmag / us

YEAR serre sal/sał kāl sâl sor, sal sâl sâl sâl sâl

θard ýâre, sarәd az

YES / NO ya, heya, ê / nê, ney, ni erê, bełê, a / na, ne Hao, ao, wō / na, ya ahan / na ha / ne, na ere / na are / nâ baleh, ârē, hā / na, née ōhāy / ne hâ / ney yâ / nay, mâ yâ / noit, mâ o / næ

YESTERDAY vizêri duh/dwênê, duêke parūn azira, degiru zir, zinə zí dîruz diruz dêrûž

diya(ka) zyō znon



* Indo-Iranian languages
Indo-Iranian languages
* Iranian peoples


* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Iranian". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Toward a Typology of European Languages edited by Johannes Bechert, Giuliano Bernini, Claude Buridant * ^ Persian Grammar: History and State of its Study by Gernot L. Windfuhr * ^ Windfuhr, Gernot. The Iranian languages. Routledge
Taylor and Francis Group. * ^ " Ethnologue report for Iranian". Ethnologue.com. * ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Report for Iranian languages". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (Fifteenth ed.). Dallas: SIL International. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ (Skjærvø 2006 )

* ^ Lassen, Christian. 1936. Die altpersischen Keil-Inschriften von Persepolis. Entzifferung des Alphabets und Erklärung des Inhalts. Bonn: Weber. S. 182. This was followed by Wilhelm Geiger in his Grundriss der Iranischen Philologie (1895). Friedrich von Spiegel (1859), Avesta, Engelmann (p. vii) used the spelling Eranian. * ^ Cust, Robert Needham. 1878. A sketch of the modern languages of the East Indies. London: Trübner.

* ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan . 1989. History of northern areas of Pakistan. Historical studies (Pakistan) series. National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research. "We distinguish between the Aryan languages of Iran, or Irano-Aryan, and the Aryan languages of India, or Indo-Aryan. For the sake of brevity, Iranian is commonly used instead of Irano-Aryan". * ^ Lazard, Gilbert . 1977. Preface in: Oranskij, Iosif M. Les langues iraniennes. Traduit par Joyce Blau. * ^ Schmitt, Rüdiger. 1994. Sprachzeugnisse alt- und mitteliranischer Sprachen in Afghanistan in: Indogermanica et Caucasica. Festschrift für Karl Horst Schmidt zum 65. Geburtstag. Bielmeier, Robert und Reinhard Stempel (Hrg.). De Gruyter. S. 168–196. * ^ Lazard, Gilbert. 1998. Actancy. Empirical approaches to language typology. Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-015670-9 , ISBN 978-3-11-015670-6 * ^ Michael Witzel (2001): Autochthonous Aryans? The evidence from Old Indian and Iranian texts. Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies 7(3): 1–115. * ^ Roland G. Kent: "Old Persion: Grammar Texts Lexicon". Part I, Chapter I: The Linguistic Setting of Old Persian. American Oriental Society, 1953. * ^ (Skjaervo 2006 ) vi(2). Documentation. * ^ Nicholas Sims-Williams, Iranica, under entry: Eastern Iranian languages * ^ Windfuhr, Gernot (2009). "Dialectology and Topics". The Iranian Languages. Routledge
. pp. 18–21. * ^ Mary Boyce. 1975. A Reader in Manichaean Middle Persian
Middle Persian
and Parthian, p. 14. * ^ Brzezinski, Richard; Mielczarek, Mariusz (2002). The Sarmatians, 600 BC-AD 450. Osprey Publishing. p. 39. (..) Indeed, it is now accepted that the Sarmatians merged in with pre-Slavic populations. * ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. p. 523. (..) In their Ukrainian and Polish homeland the Slavs were intermixed and at times overlain by Germanic speakers (the Goths) and by Iranian speakers (Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans) in a shifting array of tribal and national configurations. * ^ Atkinson, Dorothy; et al. (1977). Women in Russia. Stanford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780804709101 . (..) Ancient accounts link the Amazons with the Scythians and the Sarmatians, who successively dominated the south of Russia
for a millennium extending back to the seventh century B.C. The descendants of these peoples were absorbed by the Slavs who came to be known as Russians. * ^ Slovene Studies. 9–11. Society for Slovene Studies. 1987. p. 36. (..) For example, the ancient Scythians, Sarmatians (amongst others), and many other attested but now extinct peoples were assimilated in the course of history by Proto-Slavs.


* Bailey, H. W. (1979). Dictionary of Khotan Saka. Cambridge University Press. 1979. 1st Paperback edition 2010. ISBN 978-0-521-14250-2 . * Schmitt, Rüdiger (ed.) (1989). Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum (in German). Wiesbaden: Reichert. ISBN 3-88226-413-6 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Sims-Williams, Nicholas (1996). "Iranian languages". Encyclopedia Iranica. 7. Costa Mesa: Mazda. pp. 238–245. * Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.) (1996). "Iran". Encyclopedia Iranica. 7. Costa Mesa: Mazda. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Frye, Richard N. (1996). "Peoples of Iran". Encyclopedia Iranica. 7. Costa Mesa: Mazda. * Windfuhr, Gernot L. (1995). "Cases in Iranian languages
Iranian languages
and dialects". Encyclopedia Iranica. 5. Costa Mesa: Mazda. pp. 25–37. * Lazard, Gilbert (1996). "Dari". Encyclopedia Iranica. 7. Costa Mesa: Mazda. * Henning, Walter B. (1954). "The Ancient language of Azarbaijan". Transactions of the Philological Society. 53 (1): 157. doi :10.1111/j.1467-968X.1954.tb00282.x . * Rezakhani, Khodadad (2001). "The Iranian Language Family". * Skjærvø, Prods Oktor (2006). " Encyclopædia Iranica ". 13. contribution= ignored (help ) * Delshad, Farshid (2010). Georgica et Irano-Semitica (PDF). Ars Poetica . Deutscher Wissenschaftsverlag DWV . ISBN 978-3-86888-004-5 .

* Mallory, J. P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (2006). The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2


* Society for Iranian Linguistics * Kurdish and other Iranic Languages * Iranian EFL Journal * Audio and video recordings for over 50 languages spoken in Iran * Iranian language tree in Russian, identical with above classification. * Old Iranian Lessons (free online through the Linguistics Research Center at UT Austin)

* v * t * e

Indo-Iranian languages
Indo-Iranian languages




* Vedic

* Sanskrit

* Classical * Buddhist

* Mitanni-Aryan


* Abahatta * Apabhraṃśa

* Dramatic Prakrits

* Magadhi * Maharashtri * Shauraseni

* Elu * Gāndhārī * Paisaci * Pāli * Prakrit




* Awadhi * Bagheli * Bhojpuri * Bombay Hindi * Braj Bhasha * Bundeli * Caribbean Hindi * Chhattisgarhi * Fiji Hindi * Haflong Hindi * Haryanvi * Kannauji * Khari Boli
Khari Boli
* Sansi Boli