Iraq boundary runs for 1,458 kilometers, from the Shatt
al-Arab (known as Arvand Rud in Iran) waterway to the tripoint
Turkey at the Kuh e-Dalanper. Although the boundary was
first determined in 1639, certain disputes fester, particularly
surrounding navigation on the
Shatt al-Arab waterway.
1 Boundary line
3 Border crossings
4 See also
The boundary begins in the
Persian Gulf at the "lowest point of low
water" at the mouth of the
Shatt al-Arab at 29°51′16″N
48°44′45″E / 29.85444°N 48.74583°E / 29.85444;
48.74583 (WGS84.) It then closely follows the thalweg of the Shatt
al-Arab for some 105 km in a series of short straight line segments,
reaching the confluence of the
Shatt al-Arab and the Nahr al-Khayin
tributary. From there, it winds northward, following a series of
boundary markers across plain and hill, through the Zagros Mountains
Nahr at-Tib, and Nahr Wadi. It meets the boundary with
Turkey at 37°
08' 44" N and 44° 47' 05" E.
The boundary line in the
Shatt al-Arab waterway is still disputed
Iran and Iraq.
The boundary dates back to the 1639 Zuhab Treaty between Ottoman
Turkey and Safavid Iran, which left the former in decisive control of
what is present-day Iraq. The agreement stipulated that the
boundary would run between the
Zagros Mountains and the Tigris River.
In 1724, the Ottomans rejected the boundary-line and invaded Iran, but
when peace was finally concluded in 1746, the two states recognized
the 1639 boundary as official. That was affirmed by the 1847 Treaty of
Erzerum, but the new treaty first raised the issue of the Shatt
al-Arab waterway. The boundary was set at the eastern bank of the
Persian gulf so that the entire waterway remained under Turkish
(Iraqi) control. In the following years, the boundary-line was further
delineated, and a detailed map was produced in 1860.
Iraq border in 2015
A more precise demarcation was begun in 1911 at the urging of Russia
and the Britain, both of whom had colonial aspirations in the region.
In 1913 and 1914, a commission established by the Constantinople
Protocol set the revised boundary, with control of the Shatt al-Arab
going to Turkey. In general, the line was to follow the east bank of
the waterway except in the region surrounding the Iranian town of
Khorramshahr, where it was to follow the thalweg.
That was challenged by
Iran in 1934, as the validity of both the
Treaty of Erzurum and the Istanbul Protocol was called into question.
The dispute was resolved in 1937, following the general lines of the
old boundary, with the exception of the area immediately around the
Iranian town of Abadan, where the boundary was moved from the east
bank to the thalweg, as had been done around
Khorramshahr two decades
While that resolved Iran's major grievances, it failed to respond to
the issue of freedom of navigation in the Shatt al-Arab.
accepted the new boundary in 1991, during the occupation of Kuwait, in
United Nations Resolution 598.
Border crossings are Shalamja, Mundhiriya, al-Shib, Zarbatiya, and
Mandali Soomar. Additionally the
Kurdistan Region has four
international border crossing between Kurdistan and
Iran at Haji
Omaran (in Erbil Province), Parwezkhan, Bashmaq, and (from 2016) at
Sayran Ban located in the town of Penjwen in Sulaimani Province.
Al-Fakkah Field dispute
^ Kia 2017, p. 46.
Biger, Gideon. The Encyclopedia of International Boundaries, Facts on
File, 1995. ISBN 0-8160-3233-5
Kia, Mehrdad (2017). The Ottoman Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia.
ABC-CLIO. p. 46. ISBN 978-1610693899.
Borders of Iraq
Borders of Iran