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Iowa
Iowa
(/ˈaɪ.əwə/ ( listen))[6][7][8] is a U.S. state
U.S. state
in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
to the east and the Missouri
Missouri
and Big Sioux
Sioux
rivers to the west. It is bordered by six states; Wisconsin
Wisconsin
to the northeast, Illinois
Illinois
to the east, Missouri
Missouri
to the south, Nebraska
Nebraska
to the west, South Dakota
South Dakota
to the northwest, and Minnesota
Minnesota
to the north. In colonial times, Iowa
Iowa
was a part of French Louisiana
Louisiana
and Spanish Louisiana; its state flag is patterned after the flag of France. After the Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase, people laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy in the heart of the Corn Belt.[9] In the latter half of the 20th century, Iowa's agricultural economy made the transition to a diversified economy of advanced manufacturing, processing, financial services, information technology, biotechnology, and green energy production.[10][11] Iowa
Iowa
is the 26th most extensive in land area and the 30th most populous of the 50 U.S states. Its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines. Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in which to live.[12] Its nickname is the Hawkeye State.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Boundaries 2.2 Geology and terrain 2.3 Ecology and environment

3 Climate 4 Prehistory 5 History

5.1 Early exploration and trade, 1673–1808 5.2 War of 1812
War of 1812
and unstable U.S. control 5.3 Trade and Indian removal, 1814–1832 5.4 U.S. settlement and statehood, 1832–1860 5.5 Civil War, 1861–1865 5.6 Agricultural expansion, 1865–1930 5.7 Depression, World War II, and the rise of manufacturing, 1930–1985 5.8 Reemergence as a mixed economy, 1985–present

6 Demographics

6.1 Population 6.2 Settlement 6.3 Birth data 6.4 Religion 6.5 Language

7 Attractions

7.1 Central Iowa 7.2 Eastern Iowa 7.3 Western Iowa 7.4 Northeast and Northern Iowa 7.5 Statewide

8 Economy

8.1 Manufacturing 8.2 Agriculture 8.3 Health insurance 8.4 Other sectors 8.5 Taxation

9 Transportation

9.1 Interstate highways 9.2 Airports with scheduled flights 9.3 Railroads

10 Law and government

10.1 State 10.2 National 10.3 Political parties 10.4 Voter trends 10.5 Presidential caucus 10.6 Civil rights

11 Sister jurisdictions 12 Education

12.1 Primary and secondary schools 12.2 Colleges and universities

13 Culture

13.1 Arts 13.2 Sports

13.2.1 College sports 13.2.2 Baseball 13.2.3 Ice hockey 13.2.4 Soccer 13.2.5 Other sports

14 Notable Iowans 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 External links

Etymology Iowa
Iowa
derives its name from the Ioway
Ioway
people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration.[13] Geography Main article: Geography of Iowa Boundaries See also: List of counties in Iowa

Topography
Topography
of Iowa, with counties and major streams

Iowa
Iowa
is bordered by the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
on the east; the Missouri River and the Big Sioux River
Big Sioux River
on the west; the northern boundary is a line along 43 degrees, 30 minutes north latitude.[14][note 1] The southern border is the Des Moines River
Des Moines River
and a not-quite-straight line along approximately 40 degrees 35 minutes north, as decided by the U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Supreme Court
in Missouri
Missouri
v. Iowa
Iowa
(1849) after a standoff between Missouri
Missouri
and Iowa
Iowa
known as the Honey War.[15][16] Iowa
Iowa
is the only state whose east and west borders are formed entirely by rivers.[17] Iowa
Iowa
has 99 counties, but 100 county seats because Lee County has two. The state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County.[18] Geology and terrain

DeSoto Lake at DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge

Fountain Springs Park
Fountain Springs Park
in Delaware
Delaware
County, Iowa

Iowa's bedrock geology generally increases in age from west to east. In northwest Iowa, Cretaceous
Cretaceous
bedrock can be 74 million years old; in eastern Iowa
Iowa
Cambrian
Cambrian
bedrock dates to c. 500 million years ago.[19] Iowa
Iowa
is generally not flat; most of the state consists of rolling hills. Iowa
Iowa
can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils, topography, and river drainage.[20] Loess
Loess
hills lie along the western border of the state, some of which are several hundred feet thick.[21] Northeast Iowa
Iowa
along the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
is part of the Driftless Zone, consisting of steep hills and valleys which appear almost mountainous. Several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, and East Okoboji Lake
East Okoboji Lake
in northwest Iowa
Iowa
(see Iowa
Iowa
Great Lakes). To the east lies Clear Lake. Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa,[22] Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, and Rathbun Lake. The state's northwest area has many remnants of the once common wetlands, such as Barringer Slough. Ecology and environment Main article: Environment of Iowa Iowa's natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in upland areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys, and pothole wetlands in northern prairie areas.[20] Most of Iowa
Iowa
is used for agriculture; crops cover 60% of the state, grasslands (mostly pasture and hay with some prairie and wetland) cover 30%, and forests cover 7%; urban areas and water cover another 1% each.[23] There is a dearth of natural areas in Iowa; less than 1% of the tallgrass prairie that once covered most of Iowa
Iowa
remains intact; only about 5% of the state's prairie pothole wetlands remain, and most of the original forest has been lost.[24] As of 2005[update] Iowa
Iowa
ranked 49th of U.S. states in public land holdings.[25] Threatened or endangered animals in Iowa
Iowa
include the interior least tern, piping plover, Indiana
Indiana
bat, pallid sturgeon, the Iowa
Iowa
Pleistocene
Pleistocene
land snail, Higgins' eye pearly mussel, and the Topeka shiner.[26] Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid, Mead's milkweed, prairie bush clover, and northern wild monkshood.[27] The explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa
Iowa
has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality.[28] Other factors negatively affecting Iowa's environment include the extensive use of older coal-fired power plants,[29] fertilizer and pesticide runoff from crop production,[30] and diminishment of the Jordan Aquifer.[31] Climate

Köppen climate types in Iowa

Iowa
Iowa
annual rainfall, in inches

Iowa
Iowa
has a humid continental climate throughout the state (Köppen climate classification Dfa) with extremes of both heat and cold. The average annual temperature at Des Moines
Des Moines
is 50 °F (10 °C); for some locations in the north the figure is under 45 °F (7 °C), while Keokuk, on the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, averages 52 °F (11 °C). Winters are often harsh and snowfall is common. Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather season. Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year.[32] The 30 year annual average Tornadoes in Iowa
Iowa
is 47.[33] In 2008, twelve people were killed by tornadoes in Iowa, making it the deadliest year since 1968 and also the second most tornadoes in a year with 105, matching the total from 2001.[34] Iowa
Iowa
summers are known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures sometimes near 90 °F (32 °C) and occasionally exceeding 100 °F (38 °C). Average winters in the state have been known to drop well below freezing, even dropping below −18 °F (−28 °C). Iowa's all-time hottest temperature of 118 °F (48 °C) was recorded at Keokuk on July 20, 1934; the all-time lowest temperature of −47 °F (−44 °C) was recorded at Elkader on February 3, 1996.

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Iowa
Iowa
cities (°F)[35]

City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Davenport[36] 30/13 36/19 48/29 61/41 72/52 81/63 85/68 83/66 76/57 65/45 48/32 35/20

Des Moines[37] 31/14 36/19 49/30 62/41 72/52 82/62 86/67 84/65 76/55 63/43 48/31 34/18

Keokuk[38] 34/17 39/21 50/30 63/42 73/52 83/62 87/67 85/65 78/56 66/44 51/33 33/21

Mason City[39] 24/6 29/12 41/23 57/35 69/46 79/57 82/61 80/58 73/49 60/37 43/25 28/11

Sioux
Sioux
City[40] 31/10 35/15 47/26 62/37 73/49 82/59 86/63 83/63 76/51 63/38 46/25 32/13

Iowa
Iowa
has a relatively smooth gradient of varying precipitation across the state, with areas in the southeast of the state receiving an average of over 38 inches (97 cm) of rain annually, and the northwest of the state receiving less than 28 inches (71 cm).[41] The pattern of precipitation across Iowa
Iowa
is seasonal, with more rain falling in the summer months. In Des Moines, roughly in the center of the state, over two-thirds of the 34.72 inches (88.2 cm) of rain falls from April through September, and about half of the average annual precipitation falls from May through August.[42] Prehistory

Excavation of the 3,800-year-old Edgewater Park Site.

Main articles: Iowa archaeology
Iowa archaeology
and Indians of Iowa When American Indians first arrived in what is now Iowa
Iowa
more than 13,000 years ago, they were hunters and gatherers living in a Pleistocene
Pleistocene
glacial landscape. By the time European explorers and traders visited Iowa, American Indians were largely settled farmers with complex economic, social, and political systems. This transformation happened gradually. During the Archaic period (10,500–2,800 years ago), American Indians adapted to local environments and ecosystems, slowly becoming more sedentary as populations increased.[43] More than 3,000 years ago, during the Late Archaic period, American Indians in Iowa
Iowa
began utilizing domesticated plants. The subsequent Woodland period
Woodland period
saw an increased reliance on agriculture and social complexity, with increased use of mounds, ceramics, and specialized subsistence. During the Late Prehistoric period (beginning about AD 900) increased use of maize and social changes led to social flourishing and nucleated settlements.[43] The arrival of European trade goods and diseases in the Protohistoric period led to dramatic population shifts and economic and social upheaval, with the arrival of new tribes and early European explorers and traders. There were numerous Indian tribes living in Iowa
Iowa
at the time of early European exploration. Tribes which were probably descendants of the prehistoric Oneota
Oneota
include the Dakota, Ho-Chunk, Ioway, and Otoe. Tribes which arrived in Iowa
Iowa
in the late prehistoric or protohistoric periods include the Illiniwek, Meskwaki, Omaha, and Sauk.[43] History Main article: History of Iowa Early exploration and trade, 1673–1808

Iowa
Iowa
in 1718. Modern state area highlighted.

The first known European explorers to document Iowa
Iowa
were Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet
Louis Jolliet
who traveled the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in 1673 documenting several Indian villages on the Iowa
Iowa
side.[44][45] The area of Iowa
Iowa
was claimed for France and remained a French territory until 1763. The French, before their impending defeat in the French and Indian War, transferred ownership to their ally, Spain.[46] Spain practiced very loose control over the Iowa
Iowa
region, granting trading licenses to French and British traders, who established trading posts along the Mississippi
Mississippi
and Des Moines
Des Moines
Rivers.[44] Iowa
Iowa
was part of a territory known as La Louisiane or Louisiana, and European traders were interested in lead and furs obtained by Indians. The Sauk and Meskwaki
Meskwaki
effectively controlled trade on the Mississippi in the late 18th century and early 19th century. Among the early traders on the Mississippi
Mississippi
were Julien Dubuque, Robert La Salle, and Paul Marin.[44] Along the Missouri River
Missouri River
at least five French and English trading houses were built before 1808.[47] In 1800, Napoleon Bonaparte took control of Louisiana
Louisiana
from Spain in a treaty. After the 1803 Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase, Congress divided the Louisiana Purchase into two parts—the Territory of Orleans and the District of Louisiana. The latter, of which in was placed. Iowa
Iowa
was placed under United States
United States
jurisdiction of the Territory of Indiana, with William Henry Harrison. Much of Iowa
Iowa
was mapped by Zebulon Pike
Zebulon Pike
in 1805,[48] but it was not until the construction of Fort Madison
Fort Madison
in 1808 that the U.S. established tenuous military control over the region.[49] War of 1812
War of 1812
and unstable U.S. control

Plan of Fort Madison, 1810.

Fort Madison
Fort Madison
was built to control trade and establish U.S. dominance over the Upper Mississippi, but it was poorly designed and disliked by the Sauk and Ho-Chunk, many of whom allied with the British, who had not abandoned claims to the territory.[49][50] Fort Madison
Fort Madison
was defeated by British-supported Indians in 1813 during the War of 1812, and Fort Shelby in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, also fell to the British. Black Hawk took part in the siege of Fort Madison.[51][52] After the war, the U.S. re-established control of the region through the construction of Fort Armstrong, Fort Snelling
Fort Snelling
in Minnesota, and Fort Atkinson in Nebraska.[53] Trade and Indian removal, 1814–1832

A map of Iowa
Iowa
Indian Territory Accessions.

The U.S. encouraged settlement of the east side of the Mississippi
Mississippi
and removal of Indians to the west. Trade continued in furs and lead, but disease and forced population movement decimated Indian cultures and economies. A disputed 1804 treaty between Quashquame
Quashquame
and William Henry Harrison that surrendered much of Illinois
Illinois
to the U.S. enraged many Sauk and led to the 1832 Black Hawk War. As punishment for the uprising, and as part of a larger settlement strategy, treaties were subsequently designed to remove all Indians from Iowa. The Sauk and Meskwaki
Meskwaki
were pushed out of the Mississippi
Mississippi
valley in 1832, out of the Iowa River
Iowa River
valley in 1843, and out of Iowa
Iowa
altogether in 1846. Many Meskwaki
Meskwaki
later returned to Iowa
Iowa
and settled near Tama, Iowa; the Meskwaki
Meskwaki
Settlement remains to this day. In 1856 the Iowa Legislature
Legislature
passed an unprecedented act allowing the Meskawki to purchase the land; Indians were not usually permitted to do so. The Ho-Chunk
Ho-Chunk
were removed from Iowa
Iowa
in 1850, and the Dakota were removed by the late 1850s. Western Iowa
Iowa
around modern Council Bluffs was used as a way station for other tribes being moved west, including the Potawatomi. U.S. settlement and statehood, 1832–1860

Iowa
Iowa
Territorial Seal.

The first American settlers officially moved to Iowa
Iowa
in June 1833.[54] Primarily, they were families from Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Indiana, Kentucky, and Virginia.[54] On July 4, 1838, the U.S. Congress established the Territory of Iowa. President Martin Van Buren appointed Robert Lucas governor of the territory, which at the time had 22 counties and a population of 23,242.[55] Almost immediately after achieving territorial status, a clamor arose for statehood. On December 28, 1846, Iowa
Iowa
became the 29th state in the Union when President James K. Polk
James K. Polk
signed Iowa's admission bill into law. Once admitted to the Union, the state's boundary issues resolved, and most of its land purchased from the Indians, Iowa
Iowa
set its direction to development and organized campaigns for settlers and investors, boasting the young frontier state's rich farmlands, fine citizens, free and open society, and good government.[56] Iowa
Iowa
has a long tradition of state and county fairs. The first and second Iowa
Iowa
State Fairs were held in the more developed eastern part of the state at Fairfield. The first fair was held October 25–27, 1854, at a cost of around $323. Thereafter, the fair moved to locations closer to the center of the state and in 1886 found a permanent home in Des Moines. The State Fair has been held every year since except for the year 1898 due to the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
and the World's Fair
World's Fair
being held in nearby Omaha, Nebraska. The fair was also a World War II
World War II
wartime casualty from 1942–1945, as the fairgrounds were being used as an army supply depot.[57] Civil War, 1861–1865

Jane and Samuel Kirkwood, 1852.

Iowa
Iowa
supported the Union during the Civil War, voting heavily for Abraham Lincoln, though there was a strong antiwar "Copperhead" movement among settlers of southern origins and among Catholics.[citation needed] There were no battles in the state, although the battle of Athens, Missouri, 1861, was fought just across the Des Moines River
Des Moines River
from Croton, Iowa, and shots from the battle landed in Iowa. Iowa
Iowa
sent large supplies of food to the armies and the eastern cities.[58] Much of Iowa's support for the Union can be attributed to Samuel J. Kirkwood, its first wartime governor. Of a total population of 675,000, about 116,000 men were subjected to military duty. Iowa contributed proportionately more men to Civil War military service than did any other state, north or south, sending more than 75,000 volunteers to the armed forces, over one-sixth of whom were killed before the Confederates surrendered at Appomattox.[58] Most fought in the great campaigns in the Mississippi Valley
Mississippi Valley
and in the South.[59] Iowa
Iowa
troops fought at Wilson's Creek in Missouri, Pea Ridge in Arkansas, Forts Henry and Donelson, Shiloh, Chattanooga, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, and Rossville Gap as well as Vicksburg, Iuka, and Corinth. They served with the Army of the Potomac in Virginia
Virginia
and fought under Union General Philip Sheridan
Philip Sheridan
in the Shenandoah Valley. Many died and were buried at Andersonville. They marched on General Nathaniel Banks' ill-starred expedition to the Red River. Twenty-seven Iowans
Iowans
have been awarded the Medal of Honor, the highest military decoration awarded by the United States
United States
government, which was first awarded in the Civil War.[60] Iowa
Iowa
had several brigadier generals and four major generals—Grenville Mellen Dodge, Samuel R. Curtis, Francis J. Herron, and Frederick Steele—and saw many of its generals go on to state and national prominence following the war.[58] Agricultural expansion, 1865–1930

Iowa
Iowa
farm, 1875.

Following the Civil War, Iowa's population continued to grow dramatically, from 674,913 people in 1860 to 1,194,020 in 1880. The introduction of railroads in the 1859s and 1860s transformed Iowa
Iowa
into a major agricultural producer. In 1917, the United States
United States
entered World War I and farmers as well as all Iowans
Iowans
experienced a wartime economy. For farmers, the change was significant. Since the beginning of the war in 1914, Iowa
Iowa
farmers had experienced economic prosperity. In the economic sector, Iowa
Iowa
also has undergone considerable change. Beginning with the first farm-related industries developed in the 1870s, Iowa
Iowa
has experienced a gradual increase in the number of business and manufacturing operations. Depression, World War II, and the rise of manufacturing, 1930–1985 The transition from an agricultural economy to a mixed economy happened slowly. The Great Depression
Great Depression
and World War II
World War II
accelerated the shift away from smallholder farming to larger farms, and began a trend of urbanization. The period since World War II
World War II
has witnessed a particular increase in manufacturing operations. While agriculture continued to be the state's dominant industry, Iowans
Iowans
also produce a wide variety of products including refrigerators, washing machines, fountain pens, farm implements, and food products. The Farm Crisis of the 1980s caused a major recession in Iowa, causing poverty not seen since the Depression.[61] The crisis spurred a major, decade-long population decline.[62] Reemergence as a mixed economy, 1985–present After bottoming out in the 1980s, Iowa's economy began to become increasingly less dependent on agriculture, and by the early 21st century was characterized by a mix of manufacturing, biotechnology, finance and insurance services, and government services.[63] The population of Iowa
Iowa
has increased at a faster rate than the U.S. as a whole,[62] and Iowa
Iowa
now has a predominantly urban population.[64] The Iowa
Iowa
Economic Development Authority, created in 2011 has replaced the Iowa
Iowa
Department of Economic Development and its annual reports are a source of economic information.[65] Demographics Population

Historical population

Census Pop.

1840 43,112

1850 192,214

345.8%

1860 674,913

251.1%

1870 1,194,020

76.9%

1880 1,624,615

36.1%

1890 1,912,297

17.7%

1900 2,231,853

16.7%

1910 2,224,771

−0.3%

1920 2,404,021

8.1%

1930 2,470,939

2.8%

1940 2,538,268

2.7%

1950 2,621,073

3.3%

1960 2,757,537

5.2%

1970 2,824,376

2.4%

1980 2,913,808

3.2%

1990 2,776,755

−4.7%

2000 2,926,324

5.4%

2010 3,046,355

4.1%

Est. 2017 3,145,711

3.3%

Source: 1910–2010[66] 2015 estimate[67]

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates the population of Iowa
Iowa
was 3,123,899 on July 1, 2015, a 2.55% increase since the 2010 Census.[67] Of the residents of Iowa, 72.2% were born in Iowa, 23.2% were born in a different US state, 0.5% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 4.1% were foreign born.[68] Immigration from outside the United States
United States
resulted in a net increase of 29,386 people, while migration within the country produced a net loss of 41,140 people. 6.5% of Iowa's population were reported as under the age of five, 22.6% under 18, and 14.7% were 65 or older. Males made up approximately 49.6% of the population.[69] The population density of the state is 52.7 people per square mile.[70] The center of population of Iowa
Iowa
is in Marshall County, in the city of Marshalltown.[69] As of the 2010 Census, the population of Iowa
Iowa
was 3,046,355. The gender makeup of the state was 49.5% male and 50.5% female. 23.9% of the population were under the age of 18; 61.2% were between the ages of 18 and 64; and 14.9% were 65 years of age or older.[71] The racial makeup of Iowa
Iowa
as of the 2010 Census was:[71]

White: 91.3% (88.7% non-Hispanic) Black or African American: 2.9% American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native: 0.4% Asian: 1.7% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.1% Other race: 1.8% Two or more races: 1.8%

Iowa
Iowa
Racial Breakdown of Population

Racial composition 1990[72] 2000[73] 2010[74]

White 96.6% 93.9% 91.3%

Black or African American 1.7% 2.1% 2.9%

American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native 0.3% 0.3% 0.4%

Asian 0.9% 1.3% 1.7%

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander – – 0.1%

Other race 0.5% 1.3% 1.8%

Two or more races – 1.1% 1.8%

Iowa
Iowa
population density map

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.0% of the population in 2010: 3.8% were of Mexican, 0.2% Puerto Rican, about 0.0% Cuban, and 0.9% other Hispanic or Latino origin. According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the largest ancestry groups were German (35.9%), Irish (13.7%), English (8.5%), American (6.2%), and Norwegian (5.2%).[75] Settlement

Percent population changes by counties in Iowa, 2000–2009. Dark green counties have gains of more than 5%.[76]

Iowa's population is more urban than rural, with 61 percent living in urban areas in 2000, a trend that began in the early 20th century.[64] Urban counties in Iowa
Iowa
grew 8.5% from 2000 to 2008, while rural counties declined by 4.2%.[77] The shift from rural to urban has caused population increases in more urbanized counties such as Dallas, Johnson, Linn, Polk, and Scott, at the expense of more rural counties.[78] Iowa, in common with other Midwestern states (especially Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota), is feeling the brunt of rural flight, although Iowa
Iowa
has been gaining population since approximately 1990. Some smaller communities, such as Denison and Storm Lake, have mitigated this population loss through gains in immigrant laborers.[79] Another demographic problem for Iowa
Iowa
is the brain drain, in which educated young adults leave the state in search of better prospects in higher education or employment. During the 1990s, Iowa
Iowa
had the second highest exodus rate for single, educated young adults, second only to North Dakota.[80] Significant loss of educated young people contributes to economic stagnation and the loss of services for remaining citizens. See also: List of cities in Iowa
List of cities in Iowa
and List of largest Iowa
Iowa
cities by population

Iowa's largest cities and their surrounding areas Recorded by the United States
United States
Census Bureau

Rank City 2014 city population[81] 2010 city population[82] Change Metropolitan Statistical Area 2016 metro population 2010 metro population 2016 metro change

1 Des Moines 209,220 203,433 7000284467121853390♠+2.84% Des Moines–West Des Moines 634,725 569,633 7001114270065112099♠+11.43%

2 Cedar Rapids 129,195 126,326 7000227110808542980♠+2.27% Cedar Rapids 267,799 257,940 7000382220671473990♠+3.82%

3 Davenport 104,589 99,685 7000491949641370320♠+4.92% Quad Cities 386,630 379,090 7000198897359466090♠+1.99%

4 Sioux
Sioux
City 82,517 82,684 3000798026220308640♠−0.20% Sioux
Sioux
City 168,806 168,563 6999144159750360400♠+0.14%

5 Iowa
Iowa
City 73,415 67,862 7000818278270607999♠+8.18% Iowa
Iowa
City 168,828 152,586 7001106444890094770♠+10.64%

6 Waterloo 68,364 68,406 3001386018770283320♠−0.06% Waterloo–Cedar Falls 169,993 167,819 7000129544330498930♠+1.30%

7 Council Bluffs 62,245 62,230 6998241041298409070♠+0.02% Omaha–Council Bluffs 924,129 865,350 7000679251170046800♠+6.79%

8 West Des Moines 63,325 56,609 7001118638379056330♠+11.86% Des Moines–West Des Moines 611,549

9 Ames 63,266 58,965 7000729415755108960♠+7.29% Ames 97,090 89,542 7000842956378012550♠+8.43%

10 Dubuque 58,436 57,637 7000138626229678850♠+1.39% Dubuque 96,370 93,653 7000290113504105580♠+2.90%

11 Ankeny 53,801 45,582 7001180312404019130♠+18.03% Des Moines–West Des Moines 611,549

12 Urbandale 43,150 39,463 7000934292881940040♠+9.34% Des Moines–West Des Moines 611,549

13 Cedar Falls 40,859 39,260 7000407284768211919♠+4.07% Waterloo–Cedar Falls 169,993

14 Bettendorf 36,822 33,217 7001108528765391220♠+10.85% Quad Cities 386,630

15 Marion 36,774 34,768 7000576967326277040♠+5.77% Cedar Rapids 267,799

Birth data

Population age comparison between rural Pocahontas County and urban Polk County, illustrating the flight of young adults (red) to urban centers in Iowa.[83]

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother

Race 2013[84] 2014[85] 2015[86]

White: 35,240 (90.1%) 35,528 (89.5%) 35,279 (89.3%)

Non-Hispanic White 32,302 (82.6%) 32,423 (81.7%) 32,028 (81.1%)

Black 2,232 (5.7%) 2,467 (6.2%) 2,597 (6.6%)

Asian 1,353 (3.5%) 1,408 (3.5%) 1,364 (3.4%)

Native 269 (0.7%) 284 (0.7%) 242 (0.6%)

Hispanic (of any race) 3,175 (8.1%) 3,315 (8.3%) 3,418 (8.6%)

Total Iowa 39,094 (100%) 39,687 (100%) 39,482 (100%)

Religion

Amana Colonies
Amana Colonies
were founded by German Pietists.

Religion in Iowa
Iowa
(2014)[87]

religion

percent

Protestant

60%

No religion

21%

Catholic

18%

Muslim

1%

No answer

1%

A 2001 survey from the City University of New York
City University of New York
found 52% of Iowans are Protestant, while 23% are Catholic, and other religions made up 6%. 13% responded with non-religious, and 5% did not answer.[88] A survey from the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) in 2010 found that the largest Protestant denominations were the United Methodist Church with 235,190 adherents and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 229,557. The largest non Protestant religion was Catholicism with 503,080 adherents. The state has a great number of Reformed denominations. The Presbyterian Church (USA)
Presbyterian Church (USA)
had almost 290 congregations and 51,380 members followed by the Reformed Church in America with 80 churches and 40,000 members, and the United Church of Christ had 180 churches and 39,000 members.[89] The study Religious Congregations & Membership: 2000[90] found in the southernmost two tiers of Iowa
Iowa
counties and in other counties in the center of the state, the largest religious group was the United Methodist Church; in the northeast part of the state, including Dubuque and Linn counties (where Cedar Rapids
Cedar Rapids
is located), the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
was the largest; and in ten counties, including three in the northern tier, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
was the largest. The study also found rapid growth in Evangelical Christian denominations. Dubuque is home to the Archdiocese of Dubuque, which serves as the ecclesiastical province for all 3 other dioceses in the state and for all the Catholics in the entire state of Iowa. Historically, religious sects and orders who desired to live apart from the rest of society established themselves in Iowa, such as the Amish
Amish
and Mennonite
Mennonite
near Kalona and in other parts of eastern Iowa such as Davis County and Buchanan County.[91] Other religious sects and orders living apart include Quakers
Quakers
around West Branch and Le Grand, German Pietists
Pietists
who founded the Amana Colonies, followers of Transcendental Meditation
Transcendental Meditation
who founded Maharishi Vedic City, and Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance monks and nuns at the New Melleray and Our Lady of the Mississippi
Mississippi
Abbies near Dubuque. As of 2016[update] about 6,000 Jews live in Iowa, with about 3000 of them in Des Moines.[92] Language English is the most common language used in Iowa, used by 94% of the population.[93] William Labov and colleagues, in the monumental Atlas of North American English[94] found the English spoken in Iowa
Iowa
divides into multiple linguistic regions. Natives of northern Iowa
Iowa
– including Sioux
Sioux
City, Fort Dodge, and the Waterloo region – tend to speak the dialect linguists call North Central American English, which is also found in North and South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Natives of central and southern Iowa
Iowa
– including such cities as Council Bluffs, Davenport, Des Moines, and Iowa City
Iowa City
– tend to speak the North Midland dialect also found in eastern Nebraska, central Illinois, and central Indiana.[95] Natives of East-Central Iowa
Iowa
– including cities such as Cedar Rapids, Dubuque, and Clinton tend to speak with the Northern Cities Vowel Shift, a dialect that extends from this area and east across the Great Lakes Region.[96] After English, Spanish is the second-most-common language spoken in Iowa, with 120,000 people in Iowa
Iowa
of Hispanic or Latino origin[97] and 47,000 people born in Hispanic America.[98] The third-most-common language is German, spoken by 17,000 people in Iowa;[93] two notable German dialects used in Iowa
Iowa
include Amana German spoken around the Amana Colonies, and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German, spoken among the Amish
Amish
in Iowa. The Babel Proclamation of 1918 banned the speaking of German in public. Around Pella, residents of Dutch descent once spoke the Pella Dutch dialect. No other language is spoken by more than 0.5 percent of the Iowa population.[93] The only indigenous language used regularly in Iowa
Iowa
is Meskwaki, used around the Meskwaki
Meskwaki
Settlement.[99] Attractions Central Iowa

Skyline of Des Moines, Iowa's capital and largest city.

Des Moines
Des Moines
is the largest city in Iowa
Iowa
and the state's political and economic center. It is home to the Iowa
Iowa
State Capitol, the State Historical Society of Iowa
Iowa
Museum, Drake University, Des Moines
Des Moines
Art Center, Greater Des Moines
Des Moines
Botanical Garden, Principal Riverwalk, the Iowa
Iowa
State Fair, Terrace Hill, and the World Food Prize. Nearby attractions include Adventureland and Prairie Meadows Racetrack
Prairie Meadows Racetrack
Casino in Altoona, Living History Farms
Living History Farms
in Urbandale, Trainland USA in Colfax, and the Iowa Speedway
Iowa Speedway
and Valle Drive-In in Newton.

The Christina Reiman Butterfly Wing at Iowa
Iowa
State University, Ames.

Ames is the home of Iowa
Iowa
State University, the Iowa
Iowa
State Center, and Reiman Gardens. Boone hosts the biennial Farm Progress Show and is home to the Mamie Doud Eisenhower museum, the Boone & Scenic Valley Railroad, and Ledges State Park. The Meskwaki
Meskwaki
Settlement west of Tama is the only American Indian settlement in Iowa
Iowa
and is host to a large annual Pow-wow. The Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
movie The Bridges of Madison County, based on the popular novel of the same name, took place and was filmed in Madison County. Also in Madison County is the John Wayne
John Wayne
Birthplace Museum in Winterset. Other communities with vibrant historic downtown areas include Newton, Indianola, Pella, Knoxville, Marshalltown, Perry, and Story City. Eastern Iowa

Old Capitol, Iowa
Iowa
City.

Inside the Davenport Skybridge.

Iowa City
Iowa City
is home to the University of Iowa, which includes the Iowa Writers' Workshop, and the Old Capitol building. Because of the extraordinary history in the teaching and sponsoring of creative writing that emanated from the Iowa Writers' Workshop
Iowa Writers' Workshop
and related programs, Iowa City
Iowa City
was the first American city designated by the United Nations
United Nations
as a "City of Literature" in the UNESCO
UNESCO
Creative Cities Network. The Herbert Hoover National Historic Site
Herbert Hoover National Historic Site
and Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum are in West Branch. The Amana Colonies
Amana Colonies
are a group of settlements of German Pietists comprising seven villages listed as National Historic Landmarks. The Cedar Rapids
Cedar Rapids
Museum of Art has collections of paintings by Grant Wood and Marvin Cone. Cedar Rapids
Cedar Rapids
is also home to the National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library and Iowa's only National Trust for Historic Preservation Site, Brucemore
Brucemore
mansion.

Brucemore, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

Davenport boasts the Figge Art Museum, River Music Experience, Putnam Museum, Davenport Skybridge, Quad City Symphony Orchestra, Ballet Quad Cities, and plays host to the annual Bix Beiderbecke
Bix Beiderbecke
Memorial Jazz Festival, and the Quad City Air Show, which is the largest airshow in the state. Other communities with vibrant historic downtown areas include West Liberty, Fairfield, Burlington, Mount Pleasant, Fort Madison, LeClaire, Mount Vernon, Ottumwa, Washington, and Wilton. Along Interstate 80 near Walcott, Iowa
Walcott, Iowa
lies the world's largest truck stop, Iowa
Iowa
80. Western Iowa

View of Grotto of the Redemption's Lower Arcade: Small Stations of the Cross, West Bend.

Some of the most dramatic scenery in Iowa
Iowa
is found in the unique Loess Hills. The Iowa Great Lakes
Iowa Great Lakes
include several resort areas such as Spirit Lake, Arnolds Park, and the Okoboji
Okoboji
Lakes. The Sanford Museum and Planetarium in Cherokee, Grotto of the Redemption
Grotto of the Redemption
in West Bend, Arnolds Park Amusement Park (one of the oldest amusement parks in the country) in Arnolds Park, The Danish Immigrant Museum
The Danish Immigrant Museum
in Elk Horn, and the Fort Museum and Frontier Village in Fort Dodge
Fort Dodge
are regional destinations. Every year in early May, the city of Orange City holds the annual Tulip Festival, a celebration of the strong Dutch heritage in the region.[100]

Historic Fourth Street, Sioux
Sioux
City.

Sioux
Sioux
City boasts a revitalized downtown, attractions include the Sergeant Floyd
Sergeant Floyd
Monument, Sergeant Floyd
Sergeant Floyd
River Museum, and the Orpheum Theater.

Loess
Loess
Hills east of Mondamin.

Council Bluffs, the major city of southwest Iowa, sits at the base of the Loess
Loess
Hills National Scenic Byway. With three casino resorts, the city also includes such cultural attractions as the Western Hills Trails Center, Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad
Museum, the Grenville M. Dodge House, and the Lewis and Clark
Lewis and Clark
Monument. Northwest Iowa
Iowa
is home to some of the largest concentrations of wind turbine farms in the world. Other western communities with vibrant historic downtown areas include Storm Lake, Spencer, Le Mars, Glenwood, Carroll, Atlantic, Red Oak, Denison, Creston, Mount Ayr, Sac City, and Walnut. Northeast and Northern Iowa "Northern Iowa" redirects here. For the University of Northern Iowa, see University of Northern Iowa.

Ruins of historic Fort Atkinson.

The Driftless Area
Driftless Area
of northeast Iowa
Iowa
has many steep hills and deep valleys, checkered with forest and terraced fields. Effigy Mounds National Monument in Allamakee and Clayton Counties has the largest assemblage of animal-shaped prehistoric mounds in the world. Waterloo is home of the Grout Museum
Grout Museum
and is headquarters of the Silos & Smokestacks National Heritage Area. Cedar Falls is home of the University of Northern Iowa. Dubuque is a regional tourist destination with attractions such as the National Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Museum and Aquarium and the Port of Dubuque. Dyersville is home to the famed Field of Dreams baseball diamond. Maquoketa Caves State Park, near Maquoketa, contains more caves than any other state park. Fort Atkinson State Preserve
Fort Atkinson State Preserve
in Fort Atkinson has the remains of an original 1840s Dragoon
Dragoon
fortification. Fort Dodge
Fort Dodge
is home of The Fort historical museum and the Blanden Art Museum, and host Frontiers Days which celebrate the town history. Other communities with vibrant historic downtown areas include Decorah, McGregor, Mason City, Elkader, Guttenberg, Algona, Spillville, Charles City, and Independence. Statewide RAGBRAI
RAGBRAI
– the Register's Annual Great Bike Ride Across Iowa
Iowa
– attracts thousands of bicyclists and support personnel. It has crossed the state on various routes each year since 1973. Iowa
Iowa
is home to more than 70 wineries,[101] and hosts five regional wine tasting trails.[102] Many Iowa
Iowa
communities hold farmers' markets during warmer months; these are typically weekly events, but larger cities can host multiple markets.[103] Economy

Iowa
Iowa
state quarter with reverse image based on a painting by American artist Grant Wood.

See also: Iowa
Iowa
locations by per capita income CNBC's list of "Top States for Business in 2010" has recognized Iowa as the sixth best state in the nation. Scored in 10 individual categories, Iowa
Iowa
was ranked 1st when it came to the "Cost of Doing Business"; this includes all taxes, utility costs, and other costs associated with doing business. Iowa
Iowa
was also ranked 10th in "Economy", 12th in "Business Friendliness", 16th in "Education", 17th in both "Cost of Living" and "Quality of Life", 20th in "Workforce", 29th in "Technology and Innovation", 32nd in "Transportation" and the lowest ranking was 36th in "Access to Capital".[104]

Iowa
Iowa
gross state products by industry, 2006.[105]

While Iowa
Iowa
is often viewed as a farming state, in reality agriculture is a small portion of a diversified economy, with manufacturing, biotechnology, finance and insurance services, and government services contributing substantially to Iowa's economy.[63] This economic diversity has helped Iowa
Iowa
weather the late 2000s recession better than most states, with unemployment substantially lower than the rest of the nation.[106][107] If the economy is measured by gross domestic product, in 2005 Iowa's GDP was about US $124 billion.[108] If measured by gross state product, for 2005 it was US $113.5 billion.[109] Its per capita income for 2006 was US $23,340.[109] On July 2, 2009, Standard and Poor's
Standard and Poor's
rated the state of Iowa's credit as AAA (the highest of its credit ratings, held by only 11 U.S. state governments).[110] As of December 2015, the state's unemployment rate is 3.4%.[111] Manufacturing Manufacturing is the largest sector of Iowa's economy, with $20.8 billion (21%) of Iowa's 2003 gross state product. Major manufacturing sectors include food processing, heavy machinery, and agricultural chemicals. Sixteen percent of Iowa's workforce is dedicated to manufacturing.[63] Food processing is the largest component of manufacturing. Besides processed food, industrial outputs include machinery, electric equipment, chemical products, publishing, and primary metals. Companies with direct or indirect processing facilities in Iowa include ConAgra Foods, Wells Blue Bunny, Barilla, Heinz, Tone's Spices, General Mills, and Quaker Oats. Meatpacker Tyson Foods
Tyson Foods
has 11 locations, second only to its headquarter state Arkansas.[112] Major non-food manufacturing firms with production facilities in Iowa include 3M, ALCOA, Amana Corporation, Dexter Apache
Apache
Holdings, Inc., Electrolux/Frigidaire, Emerson Process Management, Fisher Controls International, Hagie Manufacturing Company, HON Industries, The HON Company, SSAB, John Deere, Lennox Manufacturing, Maytag Corporation, Pella Corporation, Procter & Gamble, Rockwell Collins, Terex, Vermeer Company, and Winnebago Industries.[citation needed] Agriculture

Harvesting corn in Linn County.

Farm in rural Northwest Iowa

Eastern Iowa
Iowa
cornfield in June.

Directly and indirectly, agriculture has been a major component of Iowa's economy. As of 2007 the direct production and sale of raw agricultural products contributed only about 3.5% of Iowa's gross state product.[113] In 2002 the impact of the indirect role of agriculture in Iowa's economy, including agriculture-affiliated business, was calculated at 16.4% in terms of value added and 24.3% in terms of total output. This was lower than the economic impact of non-farm manufacturing, which accounted for 22.4% of total value added and 26.5% of total output.[114] Iowa's main agricultural products are hogs, corn, soybeans, oats, cattle, eggs, and dairy products. Iowa
Iowa
is the nation's largest producer of ethanol and corn and some years is the largest grower of soybeans. In 2008, the 92,600 farms in Iowa produced 19% of the nation's corn, 17% of the soybeans, 30% of the hogs, and 14% of the eggs.[115]

Mural in Mt. Ayr Post Office, "The Corn Parade" by Orr C. Fischer, commissioned as part of the New Deal.[116]

As of 2009[update] major Iowa
Iowa
agricultural product processors include Archer Daniels Midland, Ajinomoto, Cargill, Inc., Diamond V Mills, Garst Seed Company, Heartland Pork Enterprises, Hy-Vee, Monsanto Company, Pioneer Hi-Bred
Pioneer Hi-Bred
International, and Quaker Oats.[117][citation needed] Health insurance As of 2014, there were 16 organizations offering health insurance products in Iowa, per the State of Iowa
Iowa
Insurance Division.[118] Iowa was the 4th out of 10 states with the biggest drop in competition levels of health insurance between 2010 and 2011, per the 2013 annual report on the level of competition in the health insurance industry by the American Medical Association[119] using 2011 data from HealthLeaders-Interstudy, the most comprehensive source of data on enrollment in health maintenance organization (HMO), preferred provider organization (PPO), point-of-service (POS) and consumer-driven health care plans.[120] According to the AMA annual report from 2007 Wellmark Blue Cross Blue Shield
Wellmark Blue Cross Blue Shield
had provided 71% of the state's health insurance.[121] The Iowa
Iowa
Insurance Division "Annual report to the Iowa
Iowa
Governor and the Iowa
Iowa
Legislature" from November 2014 looked at the 95% of health insurers by premium, which are 10 companies. It found Wellmark Inc. to dominate the 3 health insurance markets it examined (individual, small group and large group) at 52-67%.[122]:2 Wellmark HealthPlan of Iowa and Wellmark Inc had the highest risk-based capital percentages of all 10 providers at 1158% and 1132%, respectively.[122]:31 Rising RBC is an indication of profits.[122]:31 Other sectors Iowa
Iowa
has a strong financial and insurance sector, with approximately 6,100 firms,[63] including AEGON, Nationwide Group, Aviva
Aviva
USA, Farm Bureau Financial Services, Voya Financial, Marsh Affinity Group, MetLife, Principal Financial
Principal Financial
Group, Principal Capital Management, Wells Fargo, and Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo
Financial Services. Iowa
Iowa
is host to at least two business incubators, Iowa
Iowa
State University Research Park and the BioVentures Center at the University of Iowa.[123] The Research Park hosts about 50 companies, among them NewLink Genetics, which develops cancer immunotherapeutics, and the U.S. animal health division of Boehringer Ingelheim, Vetmedica.[123]

Ethanol
Ethanol
plant under construction in Butler County.

Ethanol
Ethanol
production consumes approximately one-third of Iowa's corn production, and renewable fuels account for 8% of the state's gross domestic product. A total of 39 ethanol plants produced 3.1 billion US gallons (12,000,000 m3) of fuel in 2009.[124]

Wind turbines near Williams.

Renewable energy has become a major economic force in northern and western Iowa, with wind turbine electrical generation increasing exponentally since 1990.[11] In 2010, wind power in Iowa
Iowa
accounted for 15.4% of electrical energy produced, and 3675 megawatts of generating capacity had been installed at the end of the year.[125] Iowa
Iowa
ranked first of U.S. states in percentage of total power generated by wind and second in wind generating capacity behind Texas.[125] Major producers of turbines and components in Iowa
Iowa
include Acciona Energy of West Branch, TPI Composites of Newton, and Siemens
Siemens
Energy of Fort Madison. In 2016, Iowa
Iowa
was the headquarters for three of the top 2,000 companies for revenue.[126] They include Principal Financial, Rockwell Collins, and American Equity Investment.[127][128][129] Iowa
Iowa
is also headquarters to other companies including Hy-Vee, Pella Corporation, Vermeer Company, Kum & Go gas stations, Von Maur, Pioneer Hi-Bred, and Fareway.[130][131][132][133][134][135][136] Taxation Iowa
Iowa
imposes taxes on net state income of individuals, estates, and trusts. There are nine income tax brackets, ranging from 0.36% to 8.98%, as well as four corporate income tax brackets ranging from 6-12%, giving Iowa
Iowa
the country's highest marginal corporate tax rate.[137] The state sales tax rate is 6%, with non-prepared food having no tax.[138] Iowa
Iowa
has one local option sales tax that may be imposed by counties after an election.[139] Property tax is levied on the taxable value of real property. Iowa
Iowa
has more than 2,000 taxing authorities. Most property is taxed by more than one taxing authority. The tax rate differs in each locality and is a composite of county, city or rural township, school district and special levies. Iowa allows its residents to deduct their federal income taxes from their state income taxes.[140] Transportation

The current state license plate design, introduced in 2018.

Interstate highways

Iowa's major interstates, larger cities, and counties.

Iowa
Iowa
has four primary interstate highways. Interstate 29 (I-29) travels along the state's western edge through Council Bluffs and Sioux
Sioux
City. I-35 travels from the Missouri
Missouri
state line to the Minnesota state line through the state's center, including Des Moines. I-74 begins at I-80 just northeast of Davenport. I-80 travels from the Nebraska
Nebraska
state line to the Illinois
Illinois
state line through the center of the state, including Council Bluffs, Des Moines, Iowa
Des Moines, Iowa
City, and the Quad Cities. I-380 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway, which travels from I-80 near Iowa City
Iowa City
through Cedar Rapids
Cedar Rapids
ending in Waterloo and is part of the Avenue of the Saints
Avenue of the Saints
highway. Iowa
Iowa
is among the few jurisdictions where municipalities install speed cameras on interstate highways providing a substantial revenue source from out of state drivers.[141] Airports with scheduled flights Iowa
Iowa
is served by several regional airports including the Des Moines International Airport, the Eastern Iowa
Iowa
Airport, in Cedar Rapids, Quad City International Airport, in Moline, Illinois, and Eppley Airfield, in Omaha, Nebraska. Smaller airports in the state include the Davenport Municipal Airport (Iowa), Dubuque Regional Airport, Fort Dodge Regional Airport, Mason City Municipal Airport, Sioux
Sioux
Gateway Airport, Southeast Iowa
Iowa
Regional Airport, and Waterloo Regional Airport.[citation needed] Railroads Amtrak's California Zephyr
California Zephyr
serves the south of Iowa
Iowa
with stops at Burlington, Mount Pleasant, Ottumwa, Osceola, and Creston on its daily route between Chicago
Chicago
and Emeryville, California
Emeryville, California
(across the bay from San Francisco). Fort Madison
Fort Madison
is served by Amtrak's Southwest Chief, running daily between Chicago
Chicago
and Los Angeles.[citation needed] Law and government

See: Governor of Iowa, Iowa
Iowa
General Assembly, and Iowa
Iowa
State Capitol

The Iowa
Iowa
State Capitol, completed in 1886, is the only state capitol to feature five domes, a central golden dome surrounded by four smaller domes.

The Supreme Court of Iowa, located on Court Avenue across from the state capitol in Des Moines, is the state's highest court.

State As of 2017[update] the Governor of Iowa
Governor of Iowa
is Kim Reynolds
Kim Reynolds
(R). Other statewide elected officials are:

Adam Gregg
Adam Gregg
(R) – Lieutenant Governor Paul Pate
Paul Pate
(R) – Secretary of State Mary Mosiman (R) – Auditor of State Michael Fitzgerald (D) – Treasurer of State Bill Northey
Bill Northey
(R) – Secretary of Agriculture Tom Miller (D) – Attorney General

The Code of Iowa
Code of Iowa
contains Iowa's statutory laws. It is periodically updated by the Iowa
Iowa
Legislative Service Bureau, with a new edition published in odd-numbered years and a supplement published in even-numbered years. Iowa
Iowa
is an alcohol monopoly or alcoholic beverage control state. National Further information: List of United States
United States
Senators from Iowa The two U.S. Senators:

Chuck Grassley
Chuck Grassley
(R), in office since 1981 Joni Ernst
Joni Ernst
(R), in office since 2015

The four U.S. Congressmen:

Rod Blum
Rod Blum
(R) – First district Dave Loebsack
Dave Loebsack
(D) – Second district David Young (R) – Third district Steve King
Steve King
(R) – Fourth district

After the 2010 census and the resulting redistricting, Iowa
Iowa
lost one seat, falling to 4 seats in the House of Representatives. Incumbent congressmen Leonard Boswell
Leonard Boswell
(D) and Tom Latham (R) ran against each other in the new Third district; Latham won. Steve King
Steve King
represented the old Fifth district. Political parties Main article: Political party strength in Iowa

Samuel J. Kirkwood, founder of the Iowa
Iowa
Republican Party, abolitionist, and Iowa's Civil War Governor

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election

In Iowa, the term "political party" refers to political organizations which have received two percent or more of the votes cast for president or governor in the "last preceding general election".[142] Iowa
Iowa
recognizes two political parties – the Republican Party and the Democratic Party. Third parties, officially termed "nonparty political organizations", can appear on the ballot as well. Five of these have had candidates on the ballot in Iowa
Iowa
since 2004 for various positions: the Constitution Party, the Green Party, the Libertarian Party, the Pirate Party, and the Socialist Workers Party.[143][144] Voter trends

Presidential elections results

Year Republican Democratic

2016 51.15% 800,983 41.74% 653,669

2012 46.18% 730,617 51.99% 822,544

2008 44.74% 677,508 54.04% 818,240

2004 49.92% 751,957 49.28% 741,898

2000 48.22% 634,373 48.60% 638,517

1996 39.92% 492,644 50.31% 620,258

1992 37.33% 504,890 43.35% 586,353

1988 44.8% 545,355 55.1% 670,557

1984 53.32% 703,088 45.97% 605,620

As a result of the 2010 elections, each party controls one house of the Iowa
Iowa
General Assembly: the House has a Republican majority, while the Senate has a Democratic majority. Since the defeat of incumbent Democrat Chet Culver
Chet Culver
in 2010, Iowa's governor has been Republican Terry Branstad, who served as governor from 1983 to 1999. On December 14, 2015, Branstad became the longest serving governor in US history, serving (at that time) 20 years, 11 months, and 3 days; eclipsing George Clinton, who served 21 years until 1804.[145] As of February 1, 2016, there were 2,095,639 registered voters.[146] Presidential caucus Main article: Iowa
Iowa
caucuses The state gets considerable attention every four years because the Iowa
Iowa
caucus, gatherings of voters to select delegates to the state conventions, is the first presidential caucus in the country. The caucuses, held in January or February of the election year, involve people gathering in homes or public places and choosing their candidates, rather than casting secret ballots as is done in a presidential primary election.[citation needed] Along with the New Hampshire primary the following week, Iowa's caucuses have become the starting points for choosing the two major-party candidates for president.[147] The national and international media give Iowa
Iowa
and New Hampshire extensive attention, which gives Iowa
Iowa
voters leverage.[148] Those who enter the caucus race often expend enormous effort to reach voters in each of Iowa's 99 counties.[citation needed] Civil rights

The Union Block building, Mount Pleasant, scene of early civil rights and women's rights activities

In the 19th century Iowa
Iowa
was among the earliest states to enact prohibitions against race discrimination, especially in education, but was slow to achieve full integration in the 20th century. In the very first decision of the Supreme Court of Iowa–In Re the Matter of Ralph,[149] decided July 1839–the Court rejected slavery in a decision that found a slave named Ralph became free when he stepped on Iowa
Iowa
soil, 26 years before the end of the Civil War.[150] The state did away with racial barriers to marriage in 1851, more than 100 years before the U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Supreme Court
would ban miscegenation statutes nationwide.[151] The Iowa
Iowa
Supreme Court decided Clark v. The Board of Directors[152] in 1868, ruling that racially segregated "separate but equal" schools had no place in Iowa, 85 years before Brown v. Board of Education.[150] By 1875, a number of additional court rulings effectively ended segregation in Iowa
Iowa
schools.[153] Social and housing discrimination continued against Blacks at state universities until the 1950s.[154] The Court heard Coger v. The North Western Union Packet Co.[155] in 1873, ruling against racial discrimination in public accommodations 91 years before the U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Supreme Court
reached the same decision.[150] In 1884, the Iowa
Iowa
Civil Rights Act apparently outlawed discrimination by businesses, reading: "All persons within this state shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, restaurants, chophouses, eating houses, lunch counters, and all other places where refreshments are served, public conveyances, barber shops, bathhouses, theaters, and all other places of amusement." However, the courts chose to narrowly apply this act, allowing de facto discrimination to continue.[156] Racial discrimination at public businesses was not deemed illegal until 1949, when the court ruled in State of Iowa
Iowa
v. Katz that businesses had to serve customers regardless of race; the case began when Edna Griffin was denied service at a Des Moines drugstore.[157] Full racial civil rights were codified under the Iowa Civil Rights Act of 1965.[158] As with racial equality, Iowa
Iowa
was a vanguard in women's rights in the mid-19th century, but was slow to give women the right to vote. In 1847, the University of Iowa
University of Iowa
became the first public university in the U.S. to admit men and women on an equal basis.[159] In 1869, Iowa became the first state in the union to admit women to the practice of law, with the Court ruling women may not be denied the right to practice law in Iowa
Iowa
and admitting Arabella A. Mansfield
Arabella A. Mansfield
to the practice of law.[150] Several attempts to grant full voting rights to Iowa
Iowa
women were defeated between 1870 and 1919. In 1894 women were given "partial suffrage", which allowed them to vote on issues, but not for candidates. It was not until the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States
United States
Constitution was ratified in 1920 that women had full suffrage in Iowa.[160] Although Iowa
Iowa
supported the Federal Equal Rights Amendment, in 1980 and 1992 Iowa
Iowa
voters rejected an Equal Rights Amendment to the state constitution.[161] Iowa
Iowa
did add the word "women" to the Iowa
Iowa
Constitution in 1998. After Amendment, it reads: "All men and women are, by nature, free and equal, and have certain inalienable rights – among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness." [162] In the aftermath of the Civil Rights Movement, court decisions in Iowa clarified and expanded citizens' rights. The landmark U.S. Supreme Court case Tinker v. Des Moines
Des Moines
Independent Community School District (1969) confirmed the right of students to express political views. The state's law criminalizing same-sex sexual activity was repealed in June 1976, 27 years before Lawrence v. Texas. On April 3, 2009, the Iowa
Iowa
Supreme Court decided Varnum v. Brien,[163] holding in a unanimous decision,[164] the state's law forbidding same-sex marriage was unconstitutional. This made Iowa
Iowa
the third state in the U.S. and first in the Midwest to permit same-sex marriage.[165] [166] (See LGBT rights in Iowa.) Sister jurisdictions Iowa
Iowa
has nine official partner jurisdictions:[167]

Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan
Japan
(1960) Yucatán, Mexico
Mexico
(1964) Hebei
Hebei
Province, People's Republic of China
China
(1983) Terengganu, Malaysia
Malaysia
(1987) Taiwan, Republic of China
China
(1989) Stavropol Krai, USSR/ Russia
Russia
(1989) Cherkasy Oblast, Ukraine
Ukraine
(1996) Veneto
Veneto
Region, Italy
Italy
(1997) Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
(2013)

Education Primary and secondary schools See also: List of school districts in Iowa Iowa
Iowa
is often credited with the start of the high school movement in the U.S. Around 1910, secondary schools as we know them today were established across the state, which was unprecedented at the time. As the high school movement gathered pace and went beyond Iowa, there was clear evidence of how more time spent in school led to greater income.[citation needed] The four-year graduation rate for high schoolers was 90% in 2015.[168] The state has the top graduation rate in the nation.[169] Iowa
Iowa
has 365 school districts,[170] and has the 12th lowest student-to-teacher ratio of 13.8.[171] Teacher pay is ranked 42nd, with the average salary being $39,284.[171] The Iowa
Iowa
State Board of Education works with the Iowa
Iowa
Department of Education to provide oversight, supervision, and support for the state's education system that includes all public elementary and secondary schools, nonpublic schools that receive state accreditation, area education agencies, community colleges, and teacher preparation programs. The State Board consists of ten members: nine voting members who are appointed by the governor for six-year terms and subject to Senate confirmation; and one nonvoting student member who serves a one-year term, also appointed by the governor. The Iowa
Iowa
Board of Educational Examiners is an autonomous board in control of teacher licensure standards and professional discipline; it has a majority of licensed teachers as members and is the oldest state educational board.[citation needed] Colleges and universities

Christ the King Chapel at Saint Ambrose University
Saint Ambrose University
in Davenport.

Palmer Chiropractic College
Palmer Chiropractic College
in Davenport is the first school of chiropractic in the world.

Alexander Dickman Hall, located at Upper Iowa University
Upper Iowa University
in Fayette.

See also: List of colleges and universities in Iowa The Iowa
Iowa
Board of Regents is composed of nine citizen volunteers appointed by the governor to provide policymaking, coordination, and oversight of the state's public universities, two special K-12 schools, and affiliated centers. Iowa's three public universities include:

Iowa
Iowa
State University, Ames University of Iowa, Iowa
Iowa
City University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls

The special K-12 schools include the Iowa School for the Deaf
Iowa School for the Deaf
in Council Bluffs and the Iowa Braille and Sight Saving School
Iowa Braille and Sight Saving School
in Vinton. Both Iowa State University
Iowa State University
and the University of Iowa
University of Iowa
are major research institutions and members of the prestigious Association of American Universities. In addition to the three state universities, Iowa
Iowa
has multiple private colleges and universities. Private colleges and universities include:

Buena Vista University, Storm Lake Clarke University, Dubuque Des Moines
Des Moines
University, Des Moines Divine Word College, Epworth Drake University, Des Moines Emmaus Bible College, Dubuque Faith Baptist Bible College and Theological Seminary, Ankeny Graceland University, Lamoni Iowa
Iowa
Wesleyan College, Mount Pleasant Kaplan University, Cedar Falls, Cedar Rapids, Council Bluffs, Davenport, Mason City, and Urbandale Loras College, Dubuque Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield Mount Mercy University, Cedar Rapids Palmer College of Chiropractic, Davenport Saint Ambrose University, Davenport University of Dubuque, Dubuque Upper Iowa
Iowa
University, Fayette Waldorf College, Forest City William Penn University, Oskaloosa

Private liberal arts colleges include:

Ashford University, Clinton Briar Cliff University, Sioux
Sioux
City Central College, Pella Coe College, Cedar Rapids Cornell College, Mount Vernon Dordt College, Sioux
Sioux
Center Grand View University, Des Moines Grinnell College, Grinnell Loras College, Dubuque Luther College, Decorah Morningside College, Sioux
Sioux
City Northwestern College, Orange City Simpson College, Indianola Wartburg College, Waverly

Culture Arts

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Sports See also: Sports teams from Iowa The state has four major college teams playing in Division I for all sports. In football, Iowa State University
Iowa State University
and the University of Iowa compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision
Football Bowl Subdivision
(FBS), whereas the University of Northern Iowa
Iowa
and Drake University
Drake University
compete in the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS). Although Iowa
Iowa
has no professional major league sports teams, Iowa
Iowa
has minor league sports teams in baseball, basketball, hockey, and other sports. The following table shows the Iowa
Iowa
sports teams with average attendance over 8,000. All of the following teams are NCAA Division I football, basketball, or wrestling teams:[172][173][174][175]

Iowa
Iowa
sports teams (attendance > 8,000)

Team Location Attendance

Iowa Hawkeyes
Iowa Hawkeyes
football Iowa
Iowa
City 67,512

Iowa State Cyclones
Iowa State Cyclones
football Ames 52,197

Iowa Hawkeyes
Iowa Hawkeyes
men's basketball Iowa
Iowa
City 14,976

Iowa State Cyclones
Iowa State Cyclones
men's basketball Ames 14,192

Northern Iowa Panthers
Northern Iowa Panthers
football Cedar Falls 12,490

Iowa State Cyclones
Iowa State Cyclones
women's basketball Ames 9,289

Iowa
Iowa
Hawkeye Wrestling Iowa
Iowa
City 8,358

College sports The state has four NCAA Division I college teams. In NCAA FBS, the University of Iowa
University of Iowa
Hawkeyes play in the Big Ten Conference
Big Ten Conference
and the Iowa State University
Iowa State University
Cyclones compete in the Big 12 Conference. The two intrastate rivals compete annually for the Cy-Hawk Trophy
Cy-Hawk Trophy
as part of the Iowa
Iowa
Corn Cy-Hawk Series. In NCAA FCS, the University of Northern Iowa
University of Northern Iowa
Panthers play at the Missouri
Missouri
Valley Conference and Missouri
Missouri
Valley Football Conference (despite the similar names, the conferences are administratively separate), whereas the Drake University
Drake University
Bulldogs play at the Missouri Valley Conference in most sports and Pioneer League for football.

Modern Woodmen Park
Modern Woodmen Park
is home to the Quad Cities
Quad Cities
baseball team

Baseball Des Moines
Des Moines
is home to the Iowa
Iowa
Cubs, a Class AAA team in the Pacific Coast League and affiliate of the Chicago
Chicago
Cubs. Iowa
Iowa
has four Class A minor league teams in the Midwest League: the Burlington Bees, Cedar Rapids Kernels, Clinton LumberKings, and the Quad Cities
Quad Cities
River Bandits. The Sioux
Sioux
City Explorers are part of the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball. Ice hockey Des Moines
Des Moines
is home to the Iowa
Iowa
Wild, who are affiliated with the Minnesota
Minnesota
Wild and are members of the American Hockey League. The Quad City Mallards games are played in Moline, Illinois
Illinois
as part of the ECHL. The United States
United States
Hockey League has five teams in Iowa: the Cedar Rapids RoughRiders, Sioux
Sioux
City Musketeers, Waterloo Black Hawks, Des Moines Buccaneers, and the Dubuque Fighting Saints. The North Iowa Bulls play in the North American 3 Hockey League
North American 3 Hockey League
in Mason City. Soccer The Des Moines
Des Moines
Menace of the USL Premier Development League
USL Premier Development League
play their home games at Valley Stadium in West Des Moines, Iowa. Starting in the 2015-16 season of the Major Arena Soccer League, the Cedar Rapids Rampage plays in the U.S. Cellular Center. As well as the Cedar Rapids Rampage United plays at Kingston Stadium. Other sports Iowa
Iowa
has two professional basketball teams. The Iowa
Iowa
Wolves, an NBA G League team that plays in Des Moines, is owned and affiliated with the Minnesota
Minnesota
Timberwolves of the NBA. The Sioux
Sioux
City Hornets play in the American Basketball Association. Iowa
Iowa
has three professional football teams. The Sioux
Sioux
City Bandits play in the Champions Indoor Football
Champions Indoor Football
league. The Iowa
Iowa
Barnstormers play in the Indoor Football League
Indoor Football League
at Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo
Arena in Des Moines. The Cedar Rapids
Cedar Rapids
Titans play in the Indoor Football League
Indoor Football League
at the U.S. Cellular Center. The Iowa Speedway
Iowa Speedway
oval track has hosted auto racing championships such as the IndyCar Series, NASCAR Nationwide Series
NASCAR Nationwide Series
and NASCAR Truck Series since 2006. Also, the Knoxville Raceway
Knoxville Raceway
dirt track hosts the Knoxville Nationals, one of the classic sprint car racing events. The John Deere
John Deere
Classic is a PGA Tour
PGA Tour
golf event held in the Quad Cities since 1971. The Principal Charity Classic
Principal Charity Classic
is a Champions Tour event since 2001. The Des Moines
Des Moines
Golf and Country Club hosted the 1999 U.S. Senior Open
U.S. Senior Open
and has scheduled the 2017 Solheim Cup. Notable Iowans

President Herbert Hoover

Vice President Henry Wallace

Main article: List of people from Iowa Iowa
Iowa
was the birthplace of U.S. President Herbert Hoover, Vice President Henry A. Wallace, and two first ladies, Lou Henry Hoover
Lou Henry Hoover
and Mamie Eisenhower. Other national leaders who lived in Iowa
Iowa
include President Ronald Reagan, President Richard Nixon, John L. Lewis, Harry Hopkins, Carrie Chapman Catt, Jefferson Davis, Chief Black Hawk, and John Brown. Five Nobel Prize winners hail from Iowa: Norman Borlaug, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize; Thomas Cech, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry; Alan J. Heeger, also a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry; John Mott, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize; and Stanley B. Prusiner, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Other notable scientists who worked or were born in Iowa
Iowa
include astronomer and space pioneer James A. Van Allen, ecologist Aldo Leopold, computer pioneer John Vincent Atanasoff, inventor and plant scientist George Washington Carver, geochemist Clair Cameron Patterson, and Intel
Intel
founder Robert Noyce. Notable writers, artists, and news personalities from Iowa
Iowa
include Bill Bryson, Corey Taylor, George Gallup, Susan Glaspell, Mauricio Lasansky, Tomas Lasansky, Harry Reasoner, Phil Stong, and Grant Wood. Musicians, actors, and entertainers from Iowa
Iowa
include Tom Arnold, Julia Michaels, Bix Beiderbecke, Johnny Carson, Tionne Watkins
Tionne Watkins
of TLC (group), Buffalo Bill Cody, Simon Estes, Nathan Jonas Jordison, Corey Taylor, Shawn Crahan, William Frawley, Charlie Haden, Ashton Kutcher, Cloris Leachman, Glenn Miller, Kate Mulgrew, Eric Christian Olsen, Donna Reed, George Reeves, Brandon Routh, Jean Seberg, John Wayne, Brooks Wheelan, Andy Williams, Meredith Willson, and Elijah Wood. Olympic gold medal winning athletes from Iowa
Iowa
include Tom Brands, Dan Gable, Shawn Johnson, and Cael Sanderson. Iowa
Iowa
athletes inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame include Cap Anson, Fred Clarke, and Bob Feller. In college football, Jay Berwanger was the first winner of the Downtown Athletic Club
Downtown Athletic Club
Trophy in 1935, later renamed the Heisman Trophy and won by Nile Kinnick
Nile Kinnick
in 1939. In professional football, Kurt Warner was the Super Bowl XXXIV
Super Bowl XXXIV
MVP winner and a two-time NFL MVP award winner. Frank Gotch
Frank Gotch
was a World Heavyweight Wrestling Champion, Zach Johnson
Zach Johnson
won the 2007 Masters Golf Tournament and the 2015 British Open, and Jeremy Hellickson
Jeremy Hellickson
won the 2011 American League Rookie of the Year award pitching for the Tampa Bay Rays. Former WWE Heavyweight Champion, Seth Rollins, is from Davenport, IA. The first UFC Welterweight Champion and a member of the UFC Hall of Fame, Pat Miletich, was born in Daventport. See also

Iowa
Iowa
portal United States
United States
portal

Outline of Iowa
Outline of Iowa
– organized list of topics about Iowa Index of Iowa-related articles

Notes

^ It should be noted that the Missouri
Missouri
and Mississippi
Mississippi
river boundaries are as they were mapped in the 19th century, which can vary from their modern courses.

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Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 9, 2007. Retrieved July 26, 2007.  ^ "Official Results Report – Statewide: 2006 General Election" (PDF). Iowa
Iowa
Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 15, 2007. Retrieved July 26, 2007.  ^ "Canvass Summary: 2004 General Election" (PDF). Chester J. Culver, Iowa
Iowa
Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 4, 2007. Retrieved July 26, 2007.  ^ " Terry Branstad
Terry Branstad
just became the longest serving governor in American history". Washington Post. Retrieved September 14, 2016.  ^ "State of Iowa
Iowa
Voter Registration Totals" (PDF). Iowa
Iowa
Secretary of State. February 1, 2016. Retrieved February 1, 2016.  ^ Donovan, Todd; Hunsaker, Rob (January 2009). "Beyond expectations: effects of early elections in U.S. presidential nomination contests". PS: Political Science & Politics. Cambridge University Press. 42 (1): 45–52. doi:10.1017/S1049096509090040. Retrieved January 30, 2016.  ^ Donovan, Todd; Redlawsk, David; Tolbert, Caroline (September 2014). "The 2012 Iowa
Iowa
Republican Caucus and Its Effects on the Presidential Nomination Contest". Presidential Studies Quarterly. Wiley. 44 (3): 447–466. doi:10.1111/psq.12132. Retrieved January 30, 2016.  ^ 1 Morris 1 ( Iowa
Iowa
1839) ^ a b c d "Early Civil Rights Cases". Judicial.state.ia.us. Archived from the original on May 5, 2006. Retrieved July 26, 2010.  ^ Gay marriage and Iowa: Why's everyone so surprised? Archived April 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., Chicago
Chicago
Tribune, April 10, 2009 ^ 24 Iowa
Iowa
266 (1868) ^ Brodnax, David (2004). "The Equality of Right: Alexander Clark and the Desegregation of Iowa's Public Schools, 1834–1875". Law and Society Association.  ^ Breaux, Richard M. (2004) "Maintaining a Home for Girls": The Iowa Federation of Colored Women's Clubs at the University of Iowa 1919–1950, Cultural Capital and Black Education ed. V.P. Franklin and C.J. Savage. Information Age, Greenwich ^ 37 Iowa
Iowa
145 (1873) ^ Iowa
Iowa
Civil Rights Commission, Iowa.org Archived June 3, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ African-Americans in Iowa, 1838–2005, IPTV.org Archived May 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Iowa
Iowa
Civil Rights Commission, State.ia.us ^ About Iowa, Uiowa.edu Archived November 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ The Fight for Women's Suffrage, IPTV.org Archived June 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ How Did Iowa
Iowa
Coalitions Campaign for the Equal Rights Amendment
Equal Rights Amendment
in 1980 and 1992?, alexanderstreet.com ^ 1857 CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA — CODIFIED. Search.legis.state.ia.us (July 4, 1973). Retrieved on July 12, 2013. ^ WL 874044 ( Iowa
Iowa
2009) (Publication to N.W.2d pending as of April 9, 2009.) ^ Martyn, Chase (August 25, 2008). " Iowa
Iowa
Supreme Court: Same-sex couples can marry " Iowa
Iowa
Independent". Iowaindependent.com. Archived from the original on April 11, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2010.  ^ "BREAKING: Iowa
Iowa
Supreme Court rules in favor of marriage equality! " Human Rights Campaign". HRC Back Story. April 3, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2010.  ^ "USA Today, Iowa
Iowa
Court Upholds Gay Marriage". USA Today. January 7, 2010. Archived from the original on April 6, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ " Iowa
Iowa
Sister States". Iowa
Iowa
Sister States. February 23, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ " Iowa
Iowa
Announces New NGA Graduation Rates". Iowa
Iowa
Department of Education. Retrieved September 13, 2010.  ^ "High School Graduation". United Health Foundation. Archived from the original on November 23, 2006. Retrieved January 23, 2008.  ^ "Quick Facts about Iowa
Iowa
Schools". Iowa
Iowa
Department of Education. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved January 23, 2008.  ^ a b "Education Stats". National Education Association. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2008.  ^ 2014 NATIONAL COLLEGE FOOTBALL ATTENDANCE; Retrieved December 23, 2015. ^ 2014 NCAA MEN'S BASKETBALL ATTENDANCE; Retrieved December 23, 2015. ^ 2015 NCAA Women's Basketball Attendance; Retrieved December 23, 2015. ^ " Iowa
Iowa
wrestling leads nation in attendance for ninth straight season". 

"Famous people from Iowa, famous natives sons". Worldatlas.com. Retrieved July 26, 2014. 

External links

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Official website

Constitution of the state of Iowa

State Data Center of Iowa
Iowa
population, housing, business and government statistics Iowa
Iowa
Travel and Tourism Division Iowa
Iowa
State Facts from USDA Energy Data & Statistics for Iowa- U.S. Department of Energy Iowa
Iowa
State Databases – Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Iowa
Iowa
state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association. U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
Quick Facts Iowa
Iowa
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Geographic data related to Iowa
Iowa
at OpenStreetMap African-Americans of Iowa

Preceded by Texas List of U.S. states by date of statehood Admitted on December 28, 1846 (29th) Succeeded by Wisconsin

Topics related to Iowa Hawkeye State

v t e

 State of Iowa

Des Moines
Des Moines
(capital)

Topics

Attorney General Archaeology Area codes Auditor of State Capitol Code Congressional districts Crime Delegations

Representatives Senators

Elections

Caucuses

Environment Flag Index Governor History

Historic Places

Legislature

House Senate

People

Native Americans

Political parties

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Seal Secretary of Agriculture Secretary of State State Parks Supreme Court

Regions

Coteau des Prairies Des Moines
Des Moines
metropolitan area Dissected Till Plains Driftless Area Great River Road Honey Lands Iowa
Iowa
Great Lakes Loess
Loess
Hills Omaha–Council Bluffs metropolitan area Quad Cities Siouxland

Largest cities

Ames Ankeny Bettendorf Burlington Cedar Falls Cedar Rapids Clinton Council Bluffs Davenport Des Moines Dubuque Fort Dodge Iowa
Iowa
City Marion Marshalltown Mason City Muscatine Ottumwa Sioux
Sioux
City Urbandale Waterloo West Des Moines

Counties

Adair Adams Allamakee Appanoose Audubon Benton Black Hawk Boone Bremer Buchanan Buena Vista Butler Calhoun Carroll Cass Cedar Cerro Gordo Cherokee Chickasaw Clarke Clay Clayton Clinton Crawford Dallas Davis Decatur Delaware Des Moines Dickinson Dubuque Emmet Fayette Floyd Franklin Fremont Greene Grundy Guthrie Hamilton Hancock Hardin Harrison Henry Howard Humboldt Ida Iowa Jackson Jasper Jefferson Johnson Jones Keokuk Kossuth Lee Linn Louisa Lucas Lyon Madison Mahaska Marion Marshall Mills Mitchell Monona Monroe Montgomery Muscatine O'Brien Osceola Page Palo Alto Plymouth Pocahontas Polk Pottawattamie Poweshiek Ringgold Sac Scott Shelby Sioux Story Tama Taylor Union Van Buren Wapello Warren Washington Wayne Webster Winnebago Winneshiek Woodbury Worth Wright

v t e

Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Iowa

Frank Cownie
Frank Cownie
(D) (Des Moines) Ron Corbett (R) (Cedar Rapids) Frank Klipsch (D) (Davenport)

v t e

Protected areas of Iowa

Federal

National Monument

Effigy Mounds

National Historic Site

Herbert Hoover

National Wildlife Refuges

DeSoto Driftless Area Neal Smith Northern Tallgrass Prairie Port Louisa Union Slough Upper Mississippi
Mississippi
River

State

State Parks

Ambrose A. Call Backbone Badger Creek Banner Lakes at Summerset Beeds Lake Bellevue Big Creek Black Hawk Brushy Creek Cedar Rock Clear Lake Dolliver Memorial Elk Rock Elinor Bedell Emerson Bay Fairport Fort Defiance Geode George Wyth Memorial Green Valley Gull Point Honey Creek Lacey-Keosauqua Lake Ahquabi Lake Anita Lake Darling Lake Keomah Lake MacBride Lake Manawa Lake of Three Fires Lake Wapello Ledges Lewis and Clark Maquoketa Caves Marble Beach McIntosh Woods Mines of Spain & E.B. Lyons Mini-Wakan Nine Eagles Okamanpedan Palisades-Kepler Pikes Peak Pikes Point Pilot Knob Pillsbury Point Pine Lake Pleasant Creek Prairie Rose Preparation Canyon Red Haw Rice Lake Rock Creek Springbrook Stone Templar Trapper's Bay Twin Lakes Union Grove Viking Lake Volga River Walnut Woods Wapsipinicon Waubonsie Wildcat Den Wilson Island

State Forests

Backbone Barkley Gifford Holst Loess
Loess
Hills Pilot Mound Shimek Stephens White Pine Hollow Yellow River

State Preserves

A.F. Miller Ames High Prairie Anderson Prairie Behrens Pond and Woodlands Berry Woods Bird Hill Bixby Bluffton Fir Stand Brush Creek Canyon Brushy Creek Cameron Woods Casey's Paha Catfish Creek Cayler Prairie Cedar Bluffs Cedar Hills Sand Prairie Cheever Lake Clay Prairie Claybanks Forest Cold Water Spring Crossman Prairie Decorah Ice Cave Dinesen Prairie Doolittle Prairie Fallen Rock Fish Farm Mounds Five Ridge Prairie Fleming Woods Fort Atkinson Freda Haffner Kettlehole Gitchie Manitou Hanging Bog Hardin City Woodland Hartley Fort Hayden Prairie Hoffman Prairie Indian Bluffs Primitive Area Indian Fish Trap Iowa's State Preserves System Kalsow Kish-Ke-Kosh Prairie Lamson Woods Liska-Stanek Prairie Little Maquoketa Malanaphy Springs Malchow Mounds Manikowski Prairie Mann Wilderness Area Marietta Sand Prairie Mericle Woods Merrill A. Stainbrook Merritt Forest Montauk Mossy Glen Mount Pisgah Cemetery Mount Talbot Nestor Stiles Prairie Ocheyedan Mound Old State Quarry Palisades-Downs Pecan Grove Pellett Woods Pilot Grove Pilot Knob Retz Woods Roberts Creek Rock Creek Island Rock Island Roggman Boreal Slopes Rolling Thunder Prairie Saint James Lutheran Church Savage Woods Searryl's Cave Sheeder Prairie Silver Lake Fen Silvers-Smith Woods Slinde Mounds Starr's Cave Steele Prairie Stinson Prairie Strasser Woods Sylvan Runkel Toolesboro Mounds Turin Loess
Loess
Hills Turkey River Mounds White Pine Hollow Williams Prairie Wittrock Indian Village Woodland Mounds Woodman Hollow Woodthrush

County

State Parks (Leased)

Bobwhite Cold Springs Crystal Lake Eagle Lake Echo Valley Frank A. Gotch Heery Woods Lake Cornelia Lake Icaria Kearny Margo Frankel Mill Creek Oak Grove Oakland Mills Pammel Sharon Bluffs Spring Lake Swan Lake Three Mile Lake

Iowa
Iowa
Department of Natural Resources

v t e

Midwestern United States

Topics

Culture Geography Economy Government and Politics History Sports

States

Ohio Kentucky Indiana Michigan Illinois Missouri Iowa Wisconsin Minnesota North Dakota South Dakota Nebraska Kansas

Major cities

Chicago Detroit Minneapolis St. Paul St. Louis Cleveland Columbus Dayton Cincinnati Louisville Grand Rapids Fort Wayne Indianapolis Milwaukee Green Bay Madison Des Moines Kansas
Kansas
City Wichita Omaha Sioux
Sioux
Falls Rapid City Fargo

State capitals

Columbus Frankfort Indianapolis Lansing Springfield Jefferson City Des Moines Madison St. Paul Bismarck Pierre Lincoln Topeka

v t e

  New France
New France
(1534–1763)

Subdivisions

Acadia
Acadia
(1604–1713) Canada (1608–1763) Pays d'en Haut Domaine du roy Louisiana
Louisiana
(1682–1762, 1802–1803) Illinois
Illinois
Country Ohio
Ohio
Country Newfoundland (1662–1713) Île Royale (1713–1763)

Towns

Acadia
Acadia
(Port Royal) Canada

Quebec Trois-Rivières Montreal Détroit

Île Royale

Louisbourg

Louisiana

Mobile Biloxi New Orleans

Newfoundland

Plaisance

List of towns

Forts

Fort Rouillé Fort Michilimackinac Fort de Buade Fort de Chartres Fort Detroit Fort Carillon Fort Condé Fort Duquesne Fortress of Louisbourg Castle Hill Fort St. Louis
St. Louis
(Illinois) Fort St. Louis
St. Louis
(Texas) List of Forts

Government

Canada

Governor General Intendant Sovereign Council Bishop of Quebec Governor of Trois-Rivières Governor of Montreal

Acadia

Governor Lieutenant-General

Newfoundland

Governor Lieutenant-General

Louisiana

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Île Royale

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Law

Intendancy Superior Council Admiralty court Provostship Officiality Seigneurial court Bailiff Maréchaussée Code Noir

Economy

Seigneurial system Fur trade Company of 100 Associates Crozat's Company Mississippi
Mississippi
Company Compagnie de l'Occident Chemin du Roy Coureur des bois Voyageurs

Society

Population

1666 census

Habitants King's Daughters Casquette girls Métis Amerindians Slavery Plaçage Gens de couleur libres

Religion

Jesuit missions Récollets Grey Nuns Ursulines Sulpicians

War and peace

Military of New France Intercolonial Wars French and Iroquois Wars Great Upheaval Great Peace of Montreal Schenectady massacre Deerfield massacre

Related

French colonization of the Americas French colonial empire History of Quebec History of the Acadians History of the French-Americans French West Indies Carib Expulsion Atlantic slave trade

Category Portal Commons

v t e

New Spain
New Spain
(1521–1821)

Conflicts

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Caribbean
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
→ Seven Years' War → Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War

Conflicts with indigenous peoples during colonial rule

Mixtón War
Mixtón War
Yaqui Wars
Yaqui Wars
Chichimeca War
Chichimeca War
Philippine revolts against Spain
Philippine revolts against Spain
Acaxee Rebellion
Acaxee Rebellion
Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
Acoma Massacre
Acoma Massacre
Tepehuán Revolt
Tepehuán Revolt
→ Tzeltal Rebellion → Pueblo Revolt
Pueblo Revolt
Pima Revolt
Pima Revolt
→ Spanish American wars of independence

Government and administration

Central government

Habsburg Spain

Charles I Joanna of Castile Philip II Philp III Philip IV Charles II

Bourbon Spain

Philip V (also reigned after Louis I) Louis I Ferdinand VI Charles III Charles IV Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII of Spain
(also reigned after Joseph I)

Viceroys of New Spain

List of viceroys of New Spain

Audiencias

Guadalajara Captaincy General of Guatemala Manila Mexico Santo Domingo

Captancies General

Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Yucatán Provincias Internas

Intendancy

Havana New Orleans State of Mexico Chiapas Comayagua Nicaragua Camagüey Santiago de Cuba Guanajuato Valladolid Guadalajara Zacatecas San Luis Potosí Veracruz Puebla Oaxaca Durango Sonora Mérida, Yucatán

Politics

Viceroy Gobernaciones Adelantado Captain general Corregidor (position) Cabildo Encomienda

Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza Peace of Westphalia Treaty of Ryswick Treaty of Utrecht Congress of Breda Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty of Córdoba Adams–Onís Treaty

Notable cities, provinces, & territories

Cities

Mexico
Mexico
City Veracruz Xalapa Puebla Toluca Cuernavaca Oaxaca Morelia Acapulco Campeche Mérida Guadalajara Durango Monterrey León Guanajuato Zacatecas Pachuca Querétaro Saltillo San Luis Potosí Los Ángeles Yerba Buena (San Francisco) San José San Diego Santa Fe Albuquerque El Paso Los Adaes San Antonio Tucson Pensacola St. Augustine Havana Santo Domingo San Juan Antigua Guatemala Cebu Manila

Provinces & territories

La Florida Las Californias Santa Fe de Nuevo México Alta California Baja California Tejas Nueva Galicia Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Extremadura New Kingdom of León Cebu Bulacan Pampanga

Other areas

Spanish Formosa

Explorers, adventurers & conquistadors

Pre-New Spain explorers

Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Vasco Núñez de Balboa Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar

Explorers & conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Juan Ponce de León Nuño de Guzmán Bernal Díaz del Castillo Pedro de Alvarado Pánfilo de Narváez Hernando de Soto Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Miguel López de Legazpi Ángel de Villafañe Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Luis de Carabajal y Cueva Juan de Oñate Juan José Pérez Hernández Gaspar de Portolà Manuel Quimper Cristóbal de Oñate Andrés de Urdaneta Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador) Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua) Gil González Dávila Francisco de Ulloa Juan José Pérez Hernández Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Bruno de Heceta Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra Alonso de León Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán José de Bustamante y Guerra José María Narváez Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Antonio Gil Y'Barbo Alexander von Humboldt Thomas Gage

Catholic Church in New Spain

Spanish missions in the Americas

Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in Baja California Spanish missions in California Spanish missions in the Carolinas Spanish missions in Florida Spanish missions in Georgia Spanish missions in Louisiana Spanish missions in Mexico Spanish missions in New Mexico Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Spanish missions in Texas Spanish missions in Virginia Spanish missions in Trinidad

Friars, fathers, priests, & bishops

Pedro de Gante Gerónimo de Aguilar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia Bernardino de Sahagún Juan de Zumárraga Alonso de Montúfar Vasco de Quiroga Bartolomé de las Casas Alonso de Molina Diego Durán Diego de Landa Gerónimo de Mendieta Juan de Torquemada Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Eusebio Kino Francisco Javier Clavijero Junípero Serra Francisco Palóu Fermín Lasuén Esteban Tápis José Francisco de Paula Señan Mariano Payeras Sebastián Montero Marcos de Niza Francisco de Ayeta Antonio Margil Francisco Marroquín Manuel Abad y Queipo Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla José María Morelos

Other events

Suppression of the Jesuits California
California
mission clash of cultures Cargo system Indian Reductions

Society and culture

Indigenous peoples

Mesoamerican

Aztec Maya Huastec Mixtec P'urhépecha Totonac Pipil Kowoj K'iche' Kaqchikel Zapotec Poqomam Mam

Caribbean

Arawak Ciboney Guanajatabey

California

Mission Indians Cahuilla Chumash Cupeño Juaneño Kumeyaay Luiseño Miwok Mohave Ohlone Serrano Tongva

Southwestern

Apache Coahuiltecan Cocopa Comanche Hopi Hualapai La Junta Navajo Pima Puebloan Quechan Solano Yaqui Zuni

North-Northwest Mexico

Acaxee Chichimeca Cochimi Kiliwa Ópata Tepehuán

Florida
Florida
& other Southeastern tribes

Indigenous people during De Soto's travels Apalachee Calusa Creek Jororo Pensacola Seminole Timucua Yustaga

Filipino people

Negrito Igorot Mangyan Peoples of Palawan Ati Panay Lumad Bajau Tagalog Cebuano

Others

Taiwanese aborigines Chamorro people

Architecture

Spanish Colonial style by country Colonial Baroque style Forts Missions

Trade & economy

Real Columbian Exchange Manila galleon Triangular trade

People & classes

Casta

Peninsulars

Criollo Indios Mestizo Castizo Coyotes Pardos Zambo Negros

People

Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Francis Drake Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Eusebio Kino La Malinche Fermín Lasuén Limahong Moctezuma II Junípero Serra Hasekura Tsunenaga

New Spain
New Spain
Portal

v t e

Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 42°N 93°W / 42°N 93°W / 42; -93

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 153594323 LCCN: n79081387 ISNI: 0000 0004 0396 2037 GND: 4109226-0 SUDOC: 17656456X BNF:

.