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The Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
(ɪnˈuviˌaluət) (sing. Inuvialuk; the real people[1]) or Western Canadian Inuit
Inuit
are Inuit
Inuit
people who live in the western Canadian Arctic region. They, like all other Inuit, are descendants of the Thule who migrated eastward from Alaska.[2] Their homeland - the Inuvialuit Settlement Region
Inuvialuit Settlement Region
- covers the Arctic Ocean coastline area from the Alaskan border, east through the Beaufort Sea and beyond the Amundsen Gulf
Amundsen Gulf
which includes some of the western Canadian Arctic Islands, as well as the inland community of Aklavik and part of the Yukon.[3][4] The land was demarked in 1984 by the Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
Final Agreement.

Contents

1 History and migration 2 Language 3 Culture 4 Communities 5 References 6 External links

History and migration[edit] Before the 20th century. the Inuvialuit Settlement Region
Inuvialuit Settlement Region
was primarily inhabited by Siglit Inuit, but in the second half of the 19th century, their numbers were decimated by the introduction of new diseases. Nunatamiut, Alaskan Inuit, moved into traditional Siglit areas in the 1910s and 20s, enticed in part by renewed demand for furs from the Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company
and European markets. The Nunatamiut
Nunatamiut
who settled in the Siglit area became known as Uummarmiut. Originally, there was an intense dislike between the Siglit and the Uummarmiut, but these differences faded over the years, and the two aboriginal peoples intermarried. With improved healthcare and Nunatamiut intermarriage, the Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
now number approximately 3,100.[5][6] The Inuvialuit Settlement Region
Inuvialuit Settlement Region
Traditional Knowledge Report of 2006 identified additional naming characteristics. Those Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
who live in the west are called Ualinirmiut (Ualiniq) by the people of the east. The Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
who occupy the east are known as Kivaninmiut (Kivaliniq) by the people of the west.[7] The Inuit
Inuit
of Ulukhaktok
Ulukhaktok
are neither Siglit nor Uummarmiut but are Copper Inuit
Inuit
and refer to themselves as Ulukhaktokmuit after Ulukhaktok, the native name for what used to be called Holman. The proposed Mackenzie Valley Pipeline would pass through both Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
and Gwich'in territory. Language[edit] The traditional language is known as Inuvialuktun
Inuvialuktun
and it is made up of three or four dialects. Uummarmiutun, spoken by the Uummarmiut of Aklavik
Aklavik
and Inuvik, is an Inupiatun
Inupiatun
dialect but is usually associated with Inuvialuktun. Siglitun
Siglitun
is spoken by the Siglit of Sachs Harbour, Paulatuk, Tuktoyaktuk
Tuktoyaktuk
and Inuvik. Kangiryuarmiutun is used by the Kangiryuarmiut of Ulukhaktok. Kangiryuarmiutun is essentially the same as Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
which is also used in the Nunavut
Nunavut
communities of Kugluktuk, Bathurst Inlet and Cambridge Bay. Natsilingmiutut
Natsilingmiutut
used by the Netsilingmiut
Netsilingmiut
of Gjoa Haven, Taloyoak, Kugaaruk
Kugaaruk
and Repulse Bay in Nunavut. Uummarmiutun, Siglitun
Siglitun
and Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
(Kangiryuarmiutun) are all written using Latin script
Latin script
while Natsilingmiutut
Natsilingmiutut
is written in Inuktitut syllabics.[8][9] Culture[edit] Year-round, Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
hunt caribou from the Cape Bathurst and Bluenose herds, and have also shared the Porcupine herd with the Gwich’in. There has been some tension between the Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
and the Gwich’in
Gwich’in
over caribou hunting.[10] Other activities are seasonal:[11]

Spring: fishing, geese hunting, grizzly hunting Summer: whaling, fishing, gathering berries, roots and medicinal plants Autumn: fishing, sealing, geese hunting, and plant gathering Winter: fishing, sealing, polar bear hunting

Traditional games include:[12]

akimuq: high kick game ayahaaq: string game iglukisaaq: juggling rocks mak: played by trying to make a person laugh napataak: darts; played with a wooden handle and sharp nail

Communities[edit]

Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
communities[4][5]

Community English translation 2006 population Inuvialuit First Nations Métis Other Aboriginal non-Aboriginal

Aklavik "barren-ground grizzly place" 594 350 185 10 0 40

Inuvik "place of man" 3,484 1,335 630 160 0 1,260

Paulatuk "place of coal" 294 260 0 0 0 30

Sachs Harbour traditionally called Ikahuak, meaning "where you go across to" 122 105 n/a n/a n/a 15

Tuktoyaktuk "resembling a caribou"; formerly known as Port Brabant 870 705 20 10 0 145

Ulukhaktok "a large bluff where we used to collect raw material to make ulus", formerly known as Holman 398 360 10 0 0 30

The area of the land covered by the Inuvialuit Settlement Region
Inuvialuit Settlement Region
is 521,707.68 km2 (201,432.46 sq mi). Aklavik
Aklavik
(Aklavik Indian Band, Ehdiitat Gwich’in
Gwich’in
Council) and Inuvik
Inuvik
(Nihtat Gwich’in
Gwich’in
Council) are shared with the Gwich’in
Gwich’in
people who are represented by the Gwich’in
Gwich’in
Tribal Council.[13] References[edit]

^ Modern Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
Culture ^ The Thule ^ Map of the Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
Settlement Region ^ a b Map of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region
Inuvialuit Settlement Region
including communities ^ a b All figures from the Canada 2006 Census, Aklavik, Inuvik, Paulatuk, Sachs Harbour
Sachs Harbour
(Inuvaluit figure is for all Aboriginal peoples), Tuktoyaktuk
Tuktoyaktuk
and Ulukhaktok. ^ "The People of the Boreal Forest". albertasource.ca. Retrieved 2007-09-30.  ^ " Inuvialuit Settlement Region
Inuvialuit Settlement Region
Traditional Knowledge Report" (PDF). ngps.nt.ca. August 2006. p. 45. Retrieved 2009-03-16.  ^ Iñuvialuktun/Inuvialuktun/ Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
/ ᐃᓄᐃᓐᓇᖅᑐᓐ ^ IRC - Language ^ "Gwich'in step up measures to protect Porcupine herd". CBC.ca. 2006-09-13. Retrieved 2007-07-23.  ^ Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
Settlement Report (2006), p. 62 ^ Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
Settlement Report (2006), p. 60 ^ Gwich’in
Gwich’in
Tribal Council

External links[edit]

The Inuvialuit Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
Development Corporation Morrison, David. "Retracing an Archaeological Expedition. The Inuvialuit". Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. 

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Indigenous peoples in the Northwest Territories

Cultural areas: *Arctic *Subarctic

Ethnolinguistic groups

Gwichʼin Dene

Chipewyan Sahtu Slavey Tli Cho

Métis Inuvialuit Woodland Cree

Band governments

Acho Dene Koe Aklavik Behdzi Ahda Dechi Laot'i Deline Deninu K'ue Dog Rib Rae Fort Good Hope Gameti Gwichya Gwich'in Jean Marie River K'atlodeeche Ka'a'gee Tu Liidlii Kue Lutsel K'e Dene Pehdzeh Ki Salt River Sambaa K'e Dene Tetlit Gwich'in Tulita Dene West Point Wha Ti Yellowknives Dene

Regional / tribal councils

Akaitcho Territory Government Dehcho First Nations Gwich'in Tribal Council Kaska Nation Sahtu
Sahtu
Secretariat Tłįchǫ Government

Treaties and Land Claims Agreements

Treaty 8
Treaty 8
(South of Great Slave Lake, 1899) Treaty 11 (rest of the territory except the Arctic islands, 1921) Inuvialuit Final Agreement
Inuvialuit Final Agreement
(1984) Gwich'in Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement (1992) Sahtu
Sahtu
Dene and Metis Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement (1993) Tlicho Agreement (2003)

See also: Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
Regional Corporation *Northwest Terri

.