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The Inuit
Inuit
languages are a closely related group of indigenous American languages traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador. The related Yupik languages are spoken in western and southern Alaska
Alaska
and in the far east of Russia, but are severely endangered in Russia today and spoken only in a few villages on the Chukchi Peninsula. The Inuit
Inuit
live primarily in three countries: Greenland, Canada
Canada
(specifically in the Nunatsiavut region of Labrador, the Nunavik
Nunavik
region of Quebec, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), and the United States
United States
(specifically the coast of Alaska). The total population of Inuit
Inuit
speaking their traditional languages is difficult to assess with precision, since most counts rely on self-reported census data that may not accurately reflect usage or competence. Greenland
Greenland
census estimates place the number of speakers of varieties of Inuit
Inuit
there at roughly 50,000, while Canadian estimates are at roughly 35,000. These two countries count the bulk of speakers of Inuit
Inuit
language variants, although about 7,500 Alaskans[2] speak varieties of Inuit
Inuit
out of a population of over 13,000 Inuit. The Inuit
Inuit
languages have a few hundred speakers in Russia. In addition, an estimated 7,000 Greenlandic Inuit
Inuit
live in European Denmark, the largest group outside Greenland, Canada
Canada
and Alaska. Thus, the global population of speakers of varieties of Inuit
Inuit
is on the order of nearly 100,000 people.

Contents

1 Nomenclature 2 Classification and history 3 Geographic distribution and variants

3.1 Alaska 3.2 Canada 3.3 Greenland

4 Phonology and phonetics 5 Morphology and syntax 6 Vocabulary

6.1 Toponymy and names 6.2 Disc numbers and Project Surname 6.3 Words for snow 6.4 Numbers

7 Writing

7.1 Canadian syllabics

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

10.1 Dictionaries and lexica 10.2 Webpages 10.3 Unicode
Unicode
support

Nomenclature[edit] The traditional language of the Inuit
Inuit
is a system of closely interrelated dialects that are not readily comprehensible from one end of the Inuit
Inuit
world to the other, and some people do not think of it as a single language but rather as a group of languages. However, there are no clear criteria for breaking the Inuit
Inuit
language into specific member languages since it forms a dialect continuum. Each band of Inuit
Inuit
understands its neighbours, and most likely its neighbours' neighbours; but at some remove, comprehensibility drops to a very low level. As a result, Inuit
Inuit
in different places use different words for its own variants and for the entire group of languages, and this ambiguity has been carried into other languages, creating a great deal of confusion over what labels should be applied to it. In Greenland
Greenland
the official form of Inuit
Inuit
language, and the official language of the state, is called Kalaallisut. In other languages, it is often called Greenlandic or some cognate term. The Eskimo
Eskimo
languages of Alaska
Alaska
are called Inupiatun, but the variants of the Seward Peninsula are distinguished from the other Alaskan variants by calling them Qawiaraq, or for some dialects, Bering Strait
Bering Strait
Inupiatun. In Canada, the word Inuktitut
Inuktitut
is routinely used to refer to all Canadian variants of the Inuit
Inuit
traditional language, and it is under that name that it is recognised as one of the official languages of Nunavut
Nunavut
and the Northwest Territories. However, one of the variants of western Nunavut
Nunavut
is called Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
to distinguish itself from the dialects of eastern Canada, while the variants of the Northwest Territories are sometimes called Inuvialuktun
Inuvialuktun
and have in the past sometimes been called Inuktun. In those dialects, the name is sometimes rendered as Inuktitun to reflect dialectal differences in pronunciation. The Inuit
Inuit
language of Quebec
Quebec
is called Inuttitut
Inuttitut
by its speakers, and often by other people, but this is a minor variation in pronunciation. In Labrador, the language is called Inuttut
Inuttut
or, often in official documents, by the more descriptive name Labradorimiutut. Furthermore, Canadians – both Inuit
Inuit
and non- Inuit
Inuit
– sometimes use the word Inuktitut
Inuktitut
to refer to all Inuit
Inuit
language variants, including those of Alaska
Alaska
and Greenland. The phrase " Inuit
Inuit
language" is largely limited to professional discourse, since in each area, there is one or more conventional terms that cover all the local variants; or it is used as a descriptive term in publications where readers can't necessarily be expected to know the locally used words. Although many people refer to the Inuit
Inuit
language as Eskimo
Eskimo
language, this is a broad term that also includes the Yupik languages, and is in addition strongly discouraged in Canada
Canada
and diminishing in usage elsewhere. See the article on Eskimo
Eskimo
for more information on this word. Classification and history[edit] The language of the Inuit
Inuit
is an Eskimo–Aleut language. It is fairly closely related to the Yupik languages and more remotely to the Aleut language. These cousin languages are all spoken in Western Alaska
Alaska
and Eastern Chukotka, Russia. It is not discernibly related to other indigenous languages of the Americas or northeast Asia, although some have proposed that it is related to the Uralic languages
Uralic languages
such as Finnish and the Sami languages
Sami languages
in the proposed "Uralo-Siberian" grouping, or even Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
as part of the hypothetical "Nostratic" superphylum. Some consider it a Paleosiberian language, although that is more a geographic than a linguistic grouping. Early forms of the Inuit
Inuit
language were spoken by the Thule people, who overran the Dorset culture
Dorset culture
that had previously occupied Arctic America at the beginning of the 2nd millennium. By 1300, the Inuit
Inuit
and their language had reached western Greenland, and finally east Greenland roughly at the same time the Viking colonies in southern Greenland disappeared. It is generally believed that it was during this centuries-long eastward migration that the Inuit
Inuit
language became distinct from the Yupik languages spoken in Western Alaska
Alaska
and Chukotka. Until 1902, a possible enclave of the Dorset, the Sadlermiut
Sadlermiut
(in modern Inuktitut
Inuktitut
spelling Sallirmiut), existed on Southampton Island. Almost nothing is known about their language, but the few eyewitness accounts tell of them speaking a "strange dialect". This suggests that they also spoke an Eskimo–Aleut language, but one quite distinct from the forms spoken in Canada
Canada
today. The Yupik and Inuit
Inuit
languages are very similar syntactically and morphologically. Their common origin can be seen in a number of cognates:

English Central Yupik Iñupiatun North Baffin Inuktitut Kalaallisut

person yuk iñuk [iɲuk] inuk inuk

frost kaneq kaniq kaniq kaneq

river kuik kuuk kuuk kuuk

outside ellami siḷami [siʎami] silami silami

The western Alaskan variants retain a large number of features present in proto- Inuit
Inuit
language and in Yup'ik, enough so that they might be classed as Yup'ik languages if they were viewed in isolation from the larger Inuit
Inuit
world. Geographic distribution and variants[edit]

Distribution of Inuit
Inuit
language variants across the Arctic.

The Inuit
Inuit
languages are a fairly closely linked set of languages which can be broken up using a number of different criteria. Traditionally, Inuit
Inuit
describe dialect differences by means of place names to describe local idiosyncrasies in language: The dialect of Igloolik
Igloolik
versus the dialect of Iqaluit, for example. However, political and sociological divisions are increasingly the principal criteria for describing different variants of the Inuit
Inuit
languages because of their links to different writing systems, literary traditions, schools, media sources and borrowed vocabulary. This makes any partition of the Inuit language somewhat problematic. This article will use labels that try to synthesise linguistic, sociolinguistic and political considerations in splitting up the Inuit
Inuit
dialect spectrum. This scheme is not the only one used or necessarily one used by Inuit
Inuit
themselves, but its labels do try to reflect the usages most seen in popular and technical literature. In addition to the territories listed below, some 7,000 Greenlandic speakers are reported to live in mainland Denmark,[3] and according to the 2001 census roughly 200 self-reported Inuktitut
Inuktitut
native speakers regularly live in parts of Canada
Canada
which are outside traditional Inuit lands. Alaska[edit] Further information: Inupiat language Of the roughly 13,000 Alaskan Iñupiat, as few as 3000 may still be able to speak the Iñupiat
Iñupiat
language, with most of them over the age of 40.[4] Alaskan Inupiat speak four distinct dialects:

Qawiaraq is spoken on the southern side of the Seward Peninsula
Seward Peninsula
and the Norton Sound
Norton Sound
area. In the past it was spoken in Chukotka, particularly Big Diomede island, but appears to have vanished in Russian areas through assimilation into Yupik, Chukchi and Russian-speaking communities. It is radically different in phonology from other Inuit
Inuit
language variants. The Bering Strait
Bering Strait
dialect of Qawiaraq, which is considered to be separate by some.[who?] Inupiatun (North Slope Iñupiaq) is spoken on the Alaska
Alaska
North Slope and in the Kotzebue Sound
Kotzebue Sound
area. The variants of the Kotzebue Sound
Kotzebue Sound
area and the northwest of Alaska, called Malimiutun or Malimiut Inupiatun.[4]

Canada[edit] Further information: Inuktitut The Inuit
Inuit
languages are an official language in the Northwest Territories, and the official and dominant language of Nunavut; it enjoys a high level of official support in Nunavik, a semi-autonomous portion of Quebec; and is still spoken in some parts of Labrador. Generally, Canadians refer to all dialects spoken in Canada
Canada
as Inuktitut, but the terms Inuvialuktun, Inuinnaqtun, and Inuttut
Inuttut
(also called Nunatsiavummiutut or Labradorimiutut) have some currency in referring to the variants of specific areas. Greenland[edit] Further information: Greenlandic language Greenland
Greenland
counts approximately 50,000 speakers of the Inuit
Inuit
languages, of whom over 90% speak west Greenlandic dialects at home.

Kalaallisut, or in English Greenlandic, is the name given to the standard dialect and official language of Greenland. This standard national language has been taught to all Greenlanders since schools were established, regardless of their native dialect. It reflects almost exclusively the language of western Greenland
Greenland
and has borrowed a great deal of vocabulary from Danish, while Canadian and Alaskan Inuit
Inuit
languages have tended to take vocabulary from English or sometimes French and Russian. It is written using the Latin script. The dialect of the Upernavik
Upernavik
area in northwest Greenland
Greenland
is somewhat different in phonology from the standard dialect.

Tunumiit oraasiat, the Tunumiit language, (or Tunumiisut in Greenlandic, often East Greenlandic in other languages), is the dialect of eastern Greenland. It differs sharply from other Inuit language variants and has roughly 3000 speakers according to Ethnologue.[5] Inuktun
Inuktun
(Or Avanersuarmiutut in Greenlandic) is the dialect of the area around Qaanaaq
Qaanaaq
in northern Greenland. It is sometimes called the Thule dialect or North Greenlandic. This area is the northernmost settlement area of the Inuit
Inuit
and has a relatively small number of speakers. It is reputed to be fairly close to the North Baffin dialect, since a group of migratory Inuit
Inuit
from Baffin Island
Baffin Island
settled in the area during the 19th and early 20th centuries. It counts under 1000 speakers according to Ethnologue.[5]

Greenlandic was strongly supported by the Danish Christian mission (conducted by the Danish state church) in Greenland. Several major dictionaries were created, beginning with Poul Egedes's Dictionarium Grönlandico-danico-latinum (1750) and culminating with Samuel Kleinschmidt's (1871) "Den grønlandske ordbog" (Transl. "The Greenlandic Dictionary") that contained a Greenlandic grammatical system that has formed the basis of modern Greenlandic grammar. Together with the fact that until 1925 Danish was not taught in the public schools, these policies had the consequence that Greenlandic has always and continues to enjoy a very strong position in Greenland, both as a spoken as well as written language. Phonology and phonetics[edit] Main article: Inuit
Inuit
phonology Eastern Canadian Inuit
Inuit
language variants have fifteen consonants and three vowels (which can be long or short). Consonants are arranged with five places of articulation: bilabial, alveolar, palatal, velar and uvular; and three manners of articulation: voiceless plosives, voiced continuants, and nasals, as well as two additional sounds—voiceless fricatives. The Alaskan dialects have an additional manner of articulation, the retroflex, which was present in proto- Inuit
Inuit
language. Retroflexes have disappeared in all the Canadian and Greenlandic dialects. In Natsilingmiutut, the voiced palatal plosive /ɟ/ derives from a former retroflex. Almost all Inuit
Inuit
language variants have only three basic vowels and make a phonological distinction between short and long forms of all vowels. The only exceptions are at the extreme edges of the Inuit world: parts of Greenland, and in western Alaska. Morphology and syntax[edit] For a more detailed description specific to Nunavut
Nunavut
Inuktitut, see Inuit
Inuit
grammar. The Inuit
Inuit
language, like other Eskimo–Aleut languages, has a very rich morphological system, in which a succession of different morphemes are added to root words (like verb endings in European languages) to indicate things that, in languages like English, would require several words to express. (See also: Agglutinative language and Polysynthetic language) All Inuit
Inuit
language words begin with a root morpheme to which other morphemes are suffixed. The language has hundreds of distinct suffixes, in some dialects as many as 700. Fortunately for learners, the language has a highly regular morphology. Although the rules are sometimes very complicated, they do not have exceptions in the sense that English and other Indo-European languages do. This system makes words very long, and potentially unique. For example, in central Nunavut
Nunavut
Inuktitut:

Tusaatsiarunnanngittualuujunga. I cannot hear very well.

This long word is composed of a root word tusaa- "to hear" followed by five suffixes:

-tsiaq- "well"

-junnaq- "be able to"

-nngit- "not"

-tualuu- "very much"

-junga 1st pers. singular present indicative non-specific

This sort of word construction is pervasive in the Inuit
Inuit
languages and makes it very unlike English. In one large Canadian corpus – the Nunavut
Nunavut
Hansard
Hansard
– 92% of all words appear only once, in contrast to a small percentage in most English corpora of similar size. This makes the application of Zipf's law
Zipf's law
quite difficult in the Inuit
Inuit
language. Furthermore, the notion of a part of speech can be somewhat complicated in the Inuit
Inuit
languages. Fully inflected verbs can be interpreted as nouns. The word ilisaijuq can be interpreted as a fully inflected verb: "he studies", but can also be interpreted as a noun: "student". That said, the meaning is probably obvious to a fluent speaker, when put in context. The morphology and syntax of the Inuit
Inuit
languages vary to some degree between dialects, and the article Inuit
Inuit
language morphology and syntax describes primarily central Nunavut
Nunavut
dialects, but the basic principles will generally apply to all of them and to some degree to Yupik as well. Vocabulary[edit] Toponymy and names[edit] Both the names of places and people tend to be highly prosaic when translated. Iqaluit, for example, is simply the plural of the noun iqaluk "fish" ("Arctic char", "salmon" or "trout" depending on dialect[6]). Igloolik
Igloolik
(Iglulik) means place with houses, a word that could be interpreted as simply town; Inuvik
Inuvik
is place of people; Baffin Island, Qikiqtaaluk in Inuit, translates approximately to "big island". Although practically all Inuit
Inuit
have legal names based on southern naming traditions, at home and among themselves they still use native naming traditions. There too, names tend to consist of highly prosaic words. The Inuit
Inuit
traditionally believed that by adopting the name of a dead person or a class of things, they could take some of their characteristics or powers, and enjoy a part of their identity. (This is why they were always very willing to accept European names: they believed that this made them equal to the Europeans.) Common native names in Canada
Canada
include "Ujarak" (rock), "Nuvuk" (headland), "Nasak" (hat, or hood), "Tupiq" or "Tupeq" in Kalaallisut (tent), and "Qajaq" (kayak). Inuit
Inuit
also use animal names, traditionally believing that by using those names, they took on some of the characteristics of that animal: "Nanuq" or "Nanoq" in Kalaallisut
Kalaallisut
(polar-bear), "Uqalik" or "Ukaleq" in Kalaallisut
Kalaallisut
(Arctic hare), and "Tiriaq" or "Teriaq" in Kalaallisut
Kalaallisut
(ermine) are favourites. In other cases, Inuit
Inuit
are named after dead people or people in traditional tales, by naming them after anatomical traits those people are believed to have had. Examples include "Itigaituk" (has no feet), "Anana" or "Anaana" (mother), "Piujuq" (beautiful) and "Tulimak" (rib). Inuit
Inuit
may have any number of names, given by parents and other community members. Disc numbers and Project Surname[edit] In the 1920s, changes in lifestyle and serious epidemics like tuberculosis made the government of Canada
Canada
interested in tracking the Inuit
Inuit
of Canada's Arctic. Traditionally Inuit
Inuit
names reflect what is important in Inuit
Inuit
culture: environment, landscape, seascape, family, animals, birds, spirits. However these traditional names were difficult for non- Inuit
Inuit
to parse. Also, the agglutinative nature of Inuit
Inuit
language meant that names seemed long and were difficult for southern bureaucrats and missionaries to pronounce. Thus, in the 1940s, the Inuit
Inuit
were given disc numbers, recorded on a special leather ID tag, like a dog tag. They were required to keep the tag with them always. (Some tags are now so old and worn that the number is polished out.) The numbers were assigned with a letter prefix that indicated location (E = east), community, and then the order in which the census-taker saw the individual. In some ways this state renaming was abetted by the churches and missionaries, who viewed the traditional names and their calls to power as related to shamanism and paganism. They encouraged people to take Christian names. So a young woman who was known to her relatives as "Lutaaq, Pilitaq, Palluq, or Inusiq" and had been baptised as "Annie" was under this system to become Annie E7-121.[7] People adopted the number-names, their family members' numbers, etc., and learned all the region codes (like knowing a telephone area code). Until Inuit
Inuit
began studying in the south, many did not know that numbers were not normal parts of Christian and English naming systems. Then in 1969, the government started Project Surname,[8] headed by Abe Okpik, to replace number-names with patrilineal "family surnames". But contemporary Inuit
Inuit
carvers and graphic artists still use their disk number[9] as their signature on their works of art. Words for snow[edit] Further information: Eskimo
Eskimo
words for snow A popular belief exists that the Inuit
Inuit
have an unusually large number of words for snow. This is not accurate, and results from a misunderstanding of the nature of polysynthetic languages. In fact, the Inuit
Inuit
have only a few base roots for snow: 'qanniq-' ('qanik-' in some dialects), which is used most often like the verb to snow, and 'aput', which means snow as a substance. Parts of speech work very differently in the Inuit
Inuit
language than in English, so these definitions are somewhat misleading. The Inuit
Inuit
languages can form very long words by adding more and more descriptive affixes to words. Those affixes may modify the syntactic and semantic properties of the base word, or may add qualifiers to it in much the same way that English uses adjectives or prepositional phrases to qualify nouns (e.g. "falling snow", "blowing snow", "snow on the ground", "snow drift", etc.) The "fact" that there are many Inuit
Inuit
words for snow has been put forward so often that it has become a journalistic cliché.[10] Numbers[edit] Main article: Inuit
Inuit
numerals

A stop sign in Inuit
Inuit
writing and English

The Inuit
Inuit
use a base-20 counting system. Writing[edit] Because the Inuit
Inuit
languages are spread over such a large area, divided between different nations and political units and originally reached by Europeans of different origins at different times, there is no uniform way of writing the Inuit
Inuit
language. Currently there are six "standard" ways to write the languages:

ICI Standard Syllabics (Canada) ICI Standard Roman script (Canada) Nunatsiavut
Nunatsiavut
Roman script (Canada) Kotzebue dialect (Alaska) (dialect of the Inupiat language) North Slope dialect (dialect of the Inupiat language) Greenlandic

Though all except the syllabics use the Latin alphabet, all of them are a bit different from each other.

The syllabics used to write Inuktitut
Inuktitut
(titirausiq nutaaq). The characters with the dots represent long vowels: in the Latin transcription, the vowel would be doubled.

Most Inuktitut
Inuktitut
in Nunavut
Nunavut
and Nunavik
Nunavik
is written using a script called Inuktitut
Inuktitut
syllabics, based on Canadian Aboriginal syllabics. The western part of Nunavut
Nunavut
and the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
use Latin alphabet usually identified as Inuinnaqtun. In Alaska, two other Latin alphabets are used. Nunatsiavut
Nunatsiavut
uses an alphabet devised by German-speaking Moravian missionaries, which included the letter kra. Greenland's Latin alphabet was originally much like the one used in Nunatsiavut, but underwent a spelling reform in 1973 to bring the orthography in line with changes in pronunciation and better reflect the phonemic inventory of the language. Canadian syllabics[edit] Further information: Inuktitut
Inuktitut
syllabics Inuktitut
Inuktitut
syllabics, used in Canada, is based on Cree syllabics, which was devised by the missionary James Evans based on Devanagari
Devanagari
a Brahmi script. The present form of Canadian Inuktitut
Inuktitut
syllabics was adopted by the Inuit
Inuit
Cultural Institute in Canada
Canada
in the 1970s. The Inuit
Inuit
in Alaska, the Inuvialuit, Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
speakers, and Inuit
Inuit
in Greenland and Labrador
Labrador
use Latin alphabets. Though presented in syllabic form, syllabics is not a true syllabary, but an alpha-syllabary (abugida), since syllables starting with the same consonant are written with graphically similar letters. All of the characters needed for Inuktitut
Inuktitut
syllabics are available in the Unicode
Unicode
character repertoire, in the blocks Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics. See also[edit]

Duncan Pryde Inuit
Inuit
Sign Language Yupik language Inupiaq language

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Inuit". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "Indigenous Languages Spoken in the United States
United States
(by Language)". yourdictionary.com. Retrieved 2012-02-20.  ^ "Inuktitut, Greenlandic: A language of Greenland". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 2012-02-20.  ^ a b " Alaska
Alaska
Native Languages: Inupiaq". University of Alaska Fairbanks. Archived from the original on 2006-04-24. Retrieved 2012-02-20.  ^ a b "Greenlandic". Ethnologue.  ^ "iqaluk". Asuilaak Living Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-07-19.  ^ Ann Meekitjuk Hanson. "What's in a name?". nunavut.com. Retrieved 2012-02-20.  ^ "Project Surname: Listening to Our Past". Francophone Association of Nunavut. Retrieved 2012-02-20.  ^ "Glossary". katilvik.com. August 20, 2004. Archived from the original on 2008-07-26. Retrieved 2012-02-20.  ^ Geoffrey K. Pullum (1991). The Great Eskimo
Eskimo
Vocabulary Hoax and Other Irreverent Essays on the Study of Language. University Of Chicago Press. p. 236. ISBN 0-226-68534-9. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 

Alia, Valerie (1994) Names, Numbers and Northern policy: Inuit, Project Surname and the Politics of Identity. Halifax NS: Fernwood Publishing. Collis, Dirmid R. F., ed. Arctic Languages: An Awakening ISBN 92-3-102661-5 "Available in PDF via the UNESCO website" (PDF).  (2.68 MB). Dorais, Louis-Jacques (2010) The Language
Language
of the Inuit. Syntax, Semantics, and Society in the Arctic. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. Greenhorn, Beth Project Naming: Always On Our Minds, Library and Archives Canada, Canada. Mallon, Mick Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Linguistics for Technocrats. Mallon, Mick (1991) Introductory Inuktitut
Inuktitut
and Introductory Inuktitut Reference Grammar. ISBN 0-7717-0230-2 and ISBN 0-7717-0235-3. Okpik, Abe. Disk Numbers. (Okpik received the Order of Canada
Canada
for his work on Project Surname) [1] Project Naming Website. Spalding, Alex (1998) Inuktitut: A Multi-dialectal Outline Dictionary (with an Aivilingmiutaq base). ISBN 1-896204-29-5. Spalding, Alex (1992) Inuktitut: a Grammar of North Baffin Dialects. ISBN 0-920063-43-8.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Inuit
Inuit
language.

Dictionaries and lexica[edit]

Nunavut
Nunavut
Living Dictionary Interactive IñupiaQ Dictionary Oqaasileriffik Language
Language
database " Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Morphology List" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-09-30.  (133 KiB) Textbook

Webpages[edit]

A Brief History of Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Writing Culture Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Syllabarium Our Language, Our Selves Alt.folkore.urban on Eskimo
Eskimo
words for snow. Report of the third Danish Chukotka expedition with information on the Chukotka Yupik

Unicode
Unicode
support[edit]

Code Charts

v t e

Eskimo–Aleut languages
Eskimo–Aleut languages
and dialects

Aleut

Aleut

Inuit1

Greenlandic

Kalaallisut Tunumiit Inuktun

Inuinnaqtun

Kangiryuarmiutun

Inuktitut

North Baffin Inuttitut

Inupiaq (Iñupiaq Braille)

Qawiaraq Uummarmiutun

Inuvialuktun

Aivilik Kangiryuarmiutun Kivalliq Netsilik Siglitun Utkuhiksalik

Yupik

Alutiiq Central Alaskan

Yugtun Nunivak Cup'ig Chevak Cup’ik

Central Siberian Naukan Sirenik2

See also

Proto-Eskimo Proto-Eskimo-Aleut Inuktitut
Inuktitut
syllabics (writing system) Inuit
Inuit
phonology Inuit
Inuit
grammar Kaktovik Inupiaq numerals Yugtun script

Italics indicate extinct languages

1: The Inuit
Inuit
language 'family' is a continuum of dialects 2: Some linguists classify Sirenik as under a separate branch

v t e

Greenlandic language

Alphabet

Æ Ø Å Greenlandic Braille

Grammar History Phonology

Varieties

Kalaallisut Inuktun Tunumiisut

Related topics

West Greenlandic Pidgin† Inuit
Inuit
languages Greenlandic Norse† Danish

v t e

Languages of the Kingdom of Denmark

Official national language

Danish

Official regional languages

Faroese Greenlandic

Minority languages

German

Non-official regional languages/dialects

Danish

Bornholmsk Insular Jutlandic

Faroese

Gøtudanskt

Greenlandic

Tunumiit Inuktun

Sign languages

Danish Sign Greenlandic Sign

See Also: Languages of the Faroe Islands

v t e

Languages of the United States

Languages in italics are extinct.

English

Dialects of American English

African-American English Appalachian English Baltimore English Boston English Cajun English California English Chicano English Eastern New England English General American
General American
English High Tider English Inland Northern American English Miami English Mid-Atlantic American / Delaware Valley English Maine English Midland American English New England Englishes New Mexican Englishes New Orleans English New York City English New York Latino English Northern American English North-Central American English Ozark English Pacific Northwest English Pennsylvania Dutch English Philadelphia English Puerto Rican English Southern American English Texan English Tidewater English Transatlantic English Upper Michigan English Western American English Western New England English Western Pennsylvania English Yeshiva English

Oral Indigenous Languages

Families

Algic

Abenaki Anishinnabemowin Arapaho Blackfoot Cheyenne Cree Fox Gros Ventre Mahican Massachusett Menominee Mi'kmaq Mohegan-Pequot Munsee Myaamia Nanticoke Narragansett Pamlico Potawatomi Powhatan Quiripi Shawnee Unami

Etchemin Loup Nawathinehena

Austronesian

Chamorro Hawaiian Refaluwasch Samoan Tokelauan

Caddoan

Arikara Caddo Wichita

Kitsai

Chinookan

Kathlamet Tsinúk Upper Chinook

Chumashan

Barbareño Cruzeño Obispeño Purisimeño Ventureño

Dené– Yeniseian

Ahtna Deg Xinag Dena'ina Gwich’in Hän Hupa Jicarilla Koyukon Lower Tanana Mescalero-Chiricahua Navajo Tanacross Tolowa Upper Kuskokwim Upper Tanana Western Apache

Cahto Eyak Holikachuk Kwalhioqua-Clatskanie Lipan Mattole Plains Apache Tsetsaut Tututni Upper Umpqua Wailaki

Eskaleut

Inuit Inupiat Aleut Alutiiq Central Alaskan Yup'ik Central Siberian Yupik Chevak Cup’ik

Iroquoian

Cayuga Cherokee Mohawk Oneida Onondaga Osage Seneca Tuscarora Wyandot

Erie Neutral Huron Nottoway Susquehannock Wenrohronon

Kalapuyan

Central Kalapuya Northern Kalapuya Yoncalla

Keresan

Cochiti Pueblo San Felipe–Santo Domingo Zia–Santa Ana Pueblos Western Keres Acoma Pueblo Laguna Pueblo

Maiduan

Konkow Maidu Nisenan

Chico

Muskogean

Alabama Chickasaw Choctaw Koasati Mikasuki Muscogee

Apalachee

Palaihnihan

Achumawi

Atsugewi

Plateau Penutian

Nez Perce Sahaptin

Klamath Molala

Pomoan

Central Pomo Eastern Pomo Kashaya Southeastern Pomo Southern Pomo

Northeastern Pomo Northern Pomo

Salishan

Coeur d'Alene Columbia-Moses Halkomelem Klallam Lushootseed Nooksack North Straits Salish Okanagan Salish Thompson Twana

Cowlitz Lower Chehalis Quinault Tillamook Upper Chehalis

Siouan

Assiniboine Crow Dakota Hidatsa Kansa Lakota Mandan Omaha–Ponca Quapaw Stoney Winnebago

Biloxi Catawba Chiwere Mitchigamea Moneton Ofo Tutelo-Saponi Woccon

Tanoan

Jemez Kiowa Picuris Southern Tiwa Taos Tewa

Piro Pueblo

Tsimshianic

Coast Tsimshian

Uto-Aztecan

Comanche Hopi Ivilyuat Kawaiisu Kitanemuk Luiseño Mono Northern Paiute O'odham Serrano Shoshoni Timbisha Tübatulabal Ute-Chemehuevi Yaqui

Cupeño Tongva

Wakashan

Makah

Wintuan

Nomlaki Patwin Wintu

Yuk-Utian

Central Sierra Miwok Southern Sierra Miwok Tule-Kaweah Yokuts Valley Yokuts

Bay Miwok Buena Vista Yokuts Coast Miwok Gashowu Yokuts Kings River Yokuts Lake Miwok Northern Sierra Miwok Palewyami Plains Miwok

Yuman– Cochimí

Cocopah Havasupai–Hualapai Ipai Kumeyaay Maricopa Mojave Quechan Tiipai Yavapai

Others

Isolates

Haida Karuk Kutenai Siuslaw Washo Yuchi Zuni

Chitimacha Tonkawa

Mixed or Trade Languages

Chinook Jargon Michif

Mohawk Dutch

Manual Indigenous languages

Hand Talk

Anishinaabe Sign Language Blackfoot Sign Language Cheyenne Sign Language Cree Sign Language Navajo Sign Language

Plateau Sign Language

Isolates

Hawai'i Sign Language Inuk Sign Language Keresan Pueblo Navajo Family Sign Language

Oral settler languages

French

Louisiana

Cajun Colonial

Métis Missouri Muskrat New England

German

Pennsylvania Dutch Hutterite Plautdietsch Bernese Alsatian Texas

Spanish

Caló (Chicano) New Mexican Puerto Rican Isleño

Manual settler languages

Francosign

American Sign Language Black American Sign Language Pro-Tactile American Sign Language Puerto Rican Sign Language

BANZSL

Samoan Sign Language

Kentish

Martha's Vineyard Sign Language

Isolates

Sandy River Valley Sign Language Henniker Sign Language

Immigrant languages (number of speakers in 2010 in millions)

Spanish (37) Varieties of Chinese (3) French (2) Tagalog (1.6) Vietnamese (1.4) German (1.1) Korean (1.1) Arabic (0.9) Russian (0.9) Italian (0.7) Portuguese (0.7) Polish (0.6) Hindi (0.6) Persian (0.4) Urdu (0.4) Gujarati (0.4) Japanese (0.4) Greek (0.3) Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian language in the United States
United States
(0.3) Armenian (0.2) Khmer (0.2) Hmong (0.2) Hebrew (0.2) Laotian (0.2) Yiddish (0.2)

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Languages of Alaska

Indigenous

Aleut Alutiiq Central Yup'ik Siberian Yupik Inupiaq Tlingit Eyak Ahtna Dena’ina Deg Xinag Holikachuk Upper Kuskokwim Koyukon Lower Tanana Tanacross Upper Tanana Tsetsaut Hän Gwich'in Haida Tsimshian

Sign languages

American Sign Language Inuk Sign Language

Non-Indigenous

English Spanish Ninilchik Tagalog Russian

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Languages of Canada

Official languages

English French

Indigenous languages

Algonquian

Abenaki Algonquin Blackfoot Cree Innu Malecite-Passamaquoddy Mi'kmaq Munsee Naskapi Ojibwe Ottawa Potawatomi

Athabaskan

Babine-Witsuwit'en Carrier Chilcotin Chipewyan Dogrib Gwich’in Hän Kaska Nicola Sarcee Sekani Slavey Tagish Tahltan Tutchone

Inuit

Inuinnaqtun Inuktitut Inupiaq Inuvialuktun

Iroquoian

Cayuga Mohawk Oneida Onondaga Seneca Tuscarora Wyandot

Salishan

Bella Coola Comox Halkomelem Lillooet Okanagan Saanich Sechelt Shuswap Squamish Thompson

Wakashan

Ditidaht Haisla Heiltsuk-Oowekyala Kwak'wala Nuu-chah-nulth

other

Beothuk Haida Kutenai Tlingit Coast Tsimshian

Pidgins, creoles and mixed

Broken Slavey Bungee Chiac Chinook Jargon Labrador
Labrador
Inuit
Inuit
Pidgin French Michif

Immigrant languages

Gaelic Irish Ukrainian

Sign languages

American Sign Language Quebec
Quebec
Sign Language Inuk Sign Language Plains Indian Sign Language Maritime Sign Language

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Languages of Yukon

Official languages

English French

Oral Indigenous languages

Dené–Yeniseian

Dän kʼè Dän kʼí Dene Zágéʼ Gwich'in Häł gołan Neeʼaandeegnʼ Tā̀gish Tlingit

Inuit

Iñupiaq

Manual Languages

Francosign

American Sign Language Quebec
Quebec
Sign Language

Isolate

Inuk Sign Language

Trade Languages

Broken Slavey Chinook Jargon

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Languages of Nunavut

Official languages

English French Inuit
Inuit
Language

Inuinnaqtun Inuktitut

Oral Indigenous languages

Dené–Yeniseian

Dënesųłiné (ᑌᓀᓱᒼᕄᓀ)

Inuit

Inuvialuktun

Iglulingmiut / Qikiqtaaluk uannangani Inuinnaqtun Kangiqłniq / Aivilingmiutut / Aivilimmiutut / Aivillirmiut Kangiryuarmiutun Kivallirmiutut Nattiliŋmiutut (ᓇᑦᓯᓕᖕᒥᐅᑦᑐᑦ)

Utkuhiksalingmiutitut (ᐅᑦᑯhᐃᒃᓴᓕᖕᒥᐅᑎᑐᑦ)

Inuktitut (ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ)

Iglulingmiut / Qikiqtaaluk uannangani Kangiqłniq / Aivilingmiutut / Aivilimmiutut / Aivillirmiut Kivallirmiutut Nunatsiavummiutut / NunatuKavummiutut

Manual Languages

Francosign

American Sign Language

Inuit

Inuit
Inuit
Uukturausingit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐆᒃᑐᕋᐅᓯᖏᑦ)

Settler-Colonial Languages

English French

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Languages of Quebec

Official language

French

Brayon

Oral Indigenous languages

Algonquian

Malecite-Passamaquoddy Míkmaq

Anishinaabemowin (ᐊᓂᔑᓈᐯᒧᐎᓐ)

Wôbanakiôdwawôgan Anicinâbemowin

Cree

Atikamekw Īyiyū Ayimūn / Īnū Ayimūn iyuw iyimuun (ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ) Innu-aimun

Inuit

Nunavimmiutitut (ᓄᓇᕕᒻᒥᐅᑎᑐᑦ)

Iroquoian

Mohawk Wyandot

Manual languages

Francosign

American Sign Language
Language
(ASL) Pro-Tactile American Sign Language Quebec
Quebec
Sign Language

Plains Sign Talk

Anishinaabe Sign Language Cree Sign Language

Isolate

Inuk Sign Language

Immigrant languages

English

Authority control

LCCN: sh90002797 SUDOC: 034223975 BNF:

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