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INTERSCOPE RECORDS is an American major record label . An imprint of Interscope Geffen A&M Records
Interscope Geffen A&M Records
, its parent company is Universal Music Group , a subsidiary of Vivendi
Vivendi
S.A.

Interscope was founded in 1990 by Jimmy Iovine
Jimmy Iovine
and Ted Field as a $20 million joint venture with Warner Music Group
Warner Music Group
's Atlantic Records
Atlantic Records
. At the time, it differed from most record companies by giving decision-making authority to its A&R staff , and allowing artists and producers complete creative control. It had its first hit records less than a year after it was founded and achieved profitability in 1993. Iovine served as chairman and CEO until May 2014, when he was succeeded by John Janick .

In 1992, Interscope acquired the exclusive rights to market and distribute the hardcore rap label Death Row Records
Death Row Records
, whose artists included hip hop stars Tupac Shakur
Tupac Shakur
, Dr. Dre
Dr. Dre
, and Snoop Dogg
Snoop Dogg
, at the center of the mid-'90s gangsta rap controversy . As a result, Time Warner , the former owner of WMG, severed ties with Interscope by selling its 50 percent stake back to Field and Iovine for $115 million in 1995. In 1996, 50% of the label was acquired by the MCA Music Entertainment Group for a reported $200 million.

Interscope is headquartered in Santa Monica, California . The label's best-selling artists include Eminem
Eminem
, U2 , and Lady Gaga
Lady Gaga
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 1989–1995: Origins, early success, and joint ventures * 1.2 1995-2000: Gangsta rap controversy, acquisition by MCA, Aftermath and Shady * 1.3 2000–2010: Departure of Field, DreamWorks, Cherrytree Records and Beats * 1.4 2010–Present: Lady Gaga, Madonna, departure of Iovine and appointment of John Janick

* 2 Criticism and controversies

* 2.1 Album delays * 2.2 Nine Inch Nails
Nine Inch Nails
* 2.3 Elton John
Elton John
* 2.4 Kendrick Lamar
Kendrick Lamar
and Top Dawg Entertainment * 2.5 Die Antwoord

* 3 Legal issues

* 3.1 Rockit Cargo * 3.2 Trauma and JCOR

* 4 Associated labels and imprints * 5 Formerly associated labels and imprints * 6 Artists * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

HISTORY

1989–1995: ORIGINS, EARLY SUCCESS, AND JOINT VENTURES

In 1989, Ted Field began to build Interscope Records as a division of his film company, Interscope Communications . To run it, he hired John McClain, who had played a central role in Janet Jackson
Janet Jackson
's success at A&M Records
A&M Records
, and Tom Whalley, who had been the head of A the single reached number two on the Billboard Hot 100
Billboard Hot 100
charts in April 1991. Primus ' Interscope debut," Frizzle Fry ," was released in May, followed by Marky Mark and the Funky Bunch 's Music for the People in July. It included the number-one single "Good Vibrations ". Two days after first hearing his demo, Whalley signed Tupac Shakur
Tupac Shakur
, and in November 1991, Interscope released 2Pacalypse Now
2Pacalypse Now
, Shakur's studio debut.

Interscope began to develop a significant presence in the alternative genre in 1992. In addition to a second Primus album, the label released No Doubt
No Doubt
's self-titled debut, Helmet 's Meantime , 4 Non Blondes ' Bigger, Better, Faster, More!
Bigger, Better, Faster, More!
, acquired and re-released Rocket from the Crypt
Rocket from the Crypt
's Circa: Now! , and, through a joint venture with TVT / Nothing Records , the Nine Inch Nails
Nine Inch Nails
EP Broken . However, Interscope's success with alternative and rock music was eclipsed by controversy which began in September 1992, when Vice President Dan Quayle called on Interscope to withdraw 2Pacalypse Now, stating that it was responsible for the death of a Texas state trooper, who was shot to death in April by a suspect who allegedly was listening to the album on the tape deck of a stolen truck when he was stopped by the officer. The trooper's family filed a civil suit against Shakur and Interscope, claiming the record's violence-laden lyrics incite "imminent lawless action."

Earlier in 1992, Interscope negotiated a $10-million deal with Dr. Dre and Marion "Suge" Knight to finance and distribute their label, Death Row Records
Death Row Records
. It was initiated by McClain, who met Dre when he was recording his solo debut, The Chronic
The Chronic
. Original plans had called for the album to be released through Sony, but Sony passed on The Chronic due to "the crazy things going on around Death Row" and the contractual status of Dr. Dre. After hearing the album Iovine agreed to put it out, although doing so required a complicated distribution agreement with Priority Records, Dre's label as a member of N.W.A
N.W.A
. The Chronic
The Chronic
was released in December 1992.

By the end of the following year, The Chronic
The Chronic
had sold almost 3 million copies. Snoop Dogg
Snoop Dogg
's debut Doggystyle had sold more than 800,000 copies in its first week alone, and Primus and 4 Non-Blondes had released records which hit the US Top 20. In 1993, with an estimated gross of $90 million, Interscope became profitable ahead of projections.

Interscope further established its strength in the alternative and rock genres in 1994. A $2.5 million investment to establish a joint venture with Trauma Records yielded three number-one Modern Rock tracks and a platinum-certified album with Bush 's Sixteen Stone . The Nine Inch Nails
Nine Inch Nails
album The Downward Spiral went to number two on the US charts and was widely acclaimed. Marilyn Manson
Marilyn Manson
's Portrait of an American Family , The Toadies album Rubberneck and Helmet's Betty were commercially successful and critically embraced.

1995-2000: GANGSTA RAP CONTROVERSY, ACQUISITION BY MCA, AFTERMATH AND SHADY

In May 1995, the controversy related to gangsta rap and explicit lyrics intensified as U.S. Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole
Bob Dole
accused Interscope of releasing music that glorified violence and degraded women. Among others, the label was criticized by William J. Bennett , a former Education Secretary, and C. DeLores Tucker , the chairwoman of the National Political Congress of Black Women. In September, Time Warner announced it would disassociate itself from Interscope by selling its half-interest in the company to Field and Iovine for $115 million. Ownership in Interscope was aggressively pursued by EMI , BMG , Polygram
Polygram
and MCA. On December 1, 1995, the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times noted that with five albums on that week's pop charts and sales of $350 million over the previous three years, "what may have been a smart move politically for Time Warner
Time Warner
is now looking like a financial fiasco." In February, 1996, MCA Records
MCA Records
—then owned by Seagram —bought 50% of Interscope for a reported $200 million. Under the agreement, Interscope retained complete creative control over the label's recordings. MCA was not required to distribute material that it deemed offensive.

Dre left Death Row in mid-1996 due to what was then reported as tension over the creative direction of the label, and founded Aftermath Entertainment
Aftermath Entertainment
, a new joint venture with Interscope. In November that same year, Aftermath debuted with the album Dr. Dre Presents the Aftermath . The Death Row deal remained in place until 1998, when Knight was imprisoned for parole violations.

In November 1996, with records by Bush, Snoop Dogg, No Doubt, and Tupac Shakur, Interscope became the first label in 20 years to hold the top 4 positions on the Billboard charts. Six additional Interscope releases were in the Top 100. The label was frequently criticized for overspending on artist acquisitions and joint ventures, however, with revenue for 1996 estimated at $250 million, it operated at a profit.

In 1996, MCA Music Entertainment was renamed Universal Music Group
Universal Music Group
. In 1998, the Universal Music Group
Universal Music Group
parent company Seagram
Seagram
acquired Polygram
Polygram
Records . MCA's Geffen Records and PolyGram's A&M Records were merged into Interscope, and in early 1999, Interscope Records began operating under the umbrella of Interscope Geffen A Iovine, in turn, passed it on to Dre. In February 1999, Interscope and Aftermath released The Slim Shady LP . The album entered the charts at number two, and won two Grammy Awards. Later in 1999 Eminem
Eminem
and his manager, Paul Rosenberg , founded Shady Records .

By the close of the decade, Interscope sales accounted for nearly one-third of Seagram's 27% share of the U.S. music market. Records by Eminem, Dre, Eve , Nine Inch Nails
Nine Inch Nails
, Enrique Iglesias
Enrique Iglesias
, Limp Bizkit
Limp Bizkit
, Blackstreet , Smash Mouth
Smash Mouth
and others generated an estimated $40 million in profit during the final six months of 1999.

2000–2010: DEPARTURE OF FIELD, DREAMWORKS, CHERRYTREE RECORDS AND BEATS

Interscope/Shady released Eminem's The Marshall Mathers LP on May 23, 2000. The fastest-selling rap album in history, it sold 1.76 million copies in its first week. In October, Interscope began its relationship with U2 after it acquired the US rights to market and distribute the album All That You Can\'t Leave Behind . Iovine had been trying to sign U2 since 1990.

In 2001, Field resigned as co-chairman of Interscope to start a new label. Described as an amicable parting, Field said he was "anxious to become an entrepreneur again." An agreement with Universal allowed Field to resign a year before his contract was set to expire. Conversely, Whalley, Interscope's president since 1998, accepted the position of chairman of Warner Bros. Records
Warner Bros. Records
in May 2000 and was not released from his Interscope contract until it expired in August 2001.

Interscope/Shady released The Eminem
Eminem
Show , in May 2002 and the soundtrack for Eminem's semi-autobiographical film 8 Mile in October; the two titles combined sold more than 11,000,000 records before the end of the year. In February 2003, Shady/Aftermath/Interscope had another record-breaking hit with Get Rich or Die Tryin\' , the debut album by 50 Cent
50 Cent
. It sold 872,000 units in five days. In April, it was announced that 50 Cent
50 Cent
would sign and develop artists for release on G-Unit Records
G-Unit Records
, which would be marketed and distributed through Interscope.

In November 2003 Universal Music Group
Universal Music Group
acquired DreamWorks Records and in 2004 it was merged into Interscope Geffen A&M. The DreamWorks A&R staff was retained, and the label's artists were divided between Geffen and Interscope. Among others, Interscope inherited Blink-182
Blink-182
, The All-American Rejects , and Nelly Furtado
Nelly Furtado
.

In March 2005, Interscope launched Cherrytree Records with Martin Kierszenbaum , its head of international operations. Kierszenbaum, also a producer and A it was re-released with eight new songs as The Fame Monster in November 2009. Interscope held the top four positions on the 2009 year-end Hot 100 charts with The Black Eyed Peas' "Boom Boom Pow " (number one) and " I Gotta Feeling
I Gotta Feeling
" (number four); Lady Gaga's "Poker Face " charted at number two and "Just Dance " was at number three.

2010–PRESENT: LADY GAGA, MADONNA, DEPARTURE OF IOVINE AND APPOINTMENT OF JOHN JANICK

In June 2010 Eminem's Recovery entered the Billboard 200 at number one, his sixth album to do so. Born This Way by Lady Gaga
Lady Gaga
was released in May 2011, and debuted at number one in 23 countries. In the US, with more than one million copies sold in its first week, it had the highest first-week album sales in five years. Four of the album's singles—"Born This Way", "Judas", "The Edge of Glory", and "You and I"—charted in the top ten of the Billboard Hot 100.

Interscope signed Madonna and Van Halen
Van Halen
in 2011. Both artists were previously signed to Warner Bros. Records
Warner Bros. Records
; both released their first records for Interscope in 2012.

In October 2012, John Janick was named president and COO of Interscope Geffen A&M. The founder of Fueled By Ramen
Fueled By Ramen
, Janick had previous success with artists including Jimmy Eat World
Jimmy Eat World
, Fall Out Boy , Panic! at the Disco and Paramore
Paramore
. At the time of his appointment, it was reported that Iovine had chosen Janick as his eventual successor—Iovine's attention had increasingly turned to Beats, which dominated the headphone market with 2012 revenues of $512 million. In May 2014, following Apple's acquisition of Beats, Iovine resigned. As anticipated, Janick was named chairman and CEO of Interscope Geffen A&M.

Six Interscope releases appeared in the Billboard year end album charts in 2014: The Marshall Mathers LP 2 by Eminem
Eminem
, Ultraviolence by Lana Del Rey
Lana Del Rey
, V by Maroon 5
Maroon 5
, Native from OneRepublic
OneRepublic
, Lady Gaga's ARTPOP , and Oxymoron by Schoolboy Q
Schoolboy Q
. In December 2014 it was announced that Selena Gomez
Selena Gomez
, previously signed to Hollywood Records
Hollywood Records
, had signed with Interscope.

Imagine Dragons
Imagine Dragons
' Smoke and Mirrors debuted on the Billboard album charts at number one in March 2015. A week after, Madonna's 13th studio album "Rebel Heart " was released and debuted at number two. A week later, Kendrick Lamar
Kendrick Lamar
's album To Pimp a Butterfly appeared at number one, a position it held for two consecutive weeks. Lamar won five Grammys in 2016. In August 2017, JoJo announced she had re-signed to Interscope, in a joint venture deal to launch her own music imprint, Clover Music.

CRITICISM AND CONTROVERSIES

ALBUM DELAYS

Several artists have criticized Interscope for delaying albums. In 2013, M.I.A. said her album Matangi was held because the label felt the record she turned in was "too positive" for her fans. In 2010, rapper Eve left Interscope after a three-year delay of her album Lip Lock . Blink-182, All Time Low
All Time Low
, and 50 Cent
50 Cent
have similarly criticized Interscope.

NINE INCH NAILS

In 2007, Nine Inch Nails
Nine Inch Nails
frontman Trent Reznor
Trent Reznor
criticized Universal Music Group for the inflated price of Year Zero in Australia. In an interview with the Herald Sun in Melbourne, he said that an employee of UMG stated that NIN had "a core audience that's gonna buy whatever we put out, so we can charge more...True fans will pay whatever." Nine Inch Nails
Nine Inch Nails
signed with Columbia Records
Columbia Records
in 2013.

ELTON JOHN

In discussing his 2006 album The Captain & The Kid with Cameron Crowe in Rolling Stone, Elton John
Elton John
said: "I was so furious with Interscope Records because they put it out and they dropped it. I had meetings in the South of France, and I said, "I know this isn't a commercial album, I just want you to do your best," and they dropped it like a fucking turd. It's probably why I didn't make another solo record. It was pure heartbreak."

KENDRICK LAMAR AND TOP DAWG ENTERTAINMENT

On March 15, 2015, Kendrick Lamar
Kendrick Lamar
's album, To Pimp a Butterfly , was released on iTunes , Spotify
Spotify
and Google Play
Google Play
eight days ahead of its scheduled release date (March 23). The CEO of Top Dawg Entertainment , Anthony Tiffith , blamed Interscope for the album's unintentional release, and tweeted: "I would personally like to thank Interscope for fucking up our release. Somebody has got to pay for this mistake. #TOP!" The Tweet was later deleted. On the following day, the option to purchase the album was removed from iTunes. The album debuted at number one when it was officially released.

DIE ANTWOORD

On November 7, 2011, it was reported that the South African Rap/Rave group Die Antwoord were leaving Interscope Records over a dispute with the label wanting their second studio album "Tension " (stylized: Ten$ion) to be re-worked for "mainstream appeal." Problems with Interscope first arose when the group decided the lead single for their second album would be "Fok julle naairs" (loosely translated to "Fuck you snitches"). Ten$ion was ultimately released through Zef Recordz in early 2012.

LEGAL ISSUES

ROCKIT CARGO

In September 2011, it was reported by federal prosecutors that the Interscope Geffen A&M Records
Interscope Geffen A&M Records
building was used by a drug-trafficking ring as a transport center. The Drug Enforcement Administration inspected the year-long case and stated that the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
offices of Interscope Records were used for pickups and deliveries of hundreds of kilograms of cocaine in 2010 and 2011. Rock-It Cargo, a shipping company which has an immense list of musical clients, shipped music cases that allegedly contained drugs to New York City
New York City
studios. Interscope Geffen A No Doubt
No Doubt
remained with Interscope.

In 2002, JCOR founder Jay Faires filed a $30 million breach-of-contract suit which alleged that Interscope had withheld millions of dollars in an effort to drive it out of business. Interscope responded that JCOR had hid its true financial position at the time it signed its distribution contract and had attempted to use Interscope's money to finance its business.

ASSOCIATED LABELS AND IMPRINTS

* 19 Recordings (2011–present) * 222 Records (2014–present) * 4hunnid Records (2016–present) * Aftermath Entertainment
Aftermath Entertainment
(1996–present) * Bad Boy Records (2009–present) * Clover Music (2017–present) * Darkroom Records (2016–present) * Division1 (2013–present) * Creative Arts Recordings (2016–present) * Play The Beat Entertainment (2015–present) * DGC Records
DGC Records
(2007–present) * Dreamville Records (2014–present) * Geffen Records (2013–present) * Hits Since \'87 (2013—present) * Insomniac Records (2014–present) * Konichiwa Records (2007–present) * EarDrummers Entertainment (2013–present) * Mad Love Records (2014–present) * N.E.E.T. Recordings (2008–present) * Panda Funk (2015–Present) * Qwest Records
Qwest Records
* Shady Records (1999–present) * Kidinakorner Records (2011–present) * Streamline Records (2007–present) * Tennman Records (2007–present) * Will.i.am
Will.i.am
Music Group (2009–present) * Zone 4 (2007–present) (distribution deal with Island Records )

FORMERLY ASSOCIATED LABELS AND IMPRINTS

* A 2017–present Distribution was ceased when MCA Inc.
MCA Inc.
acquired the label's stake) * eastwest Records (1989–1996; a subsidiary of Atlantic, distributed Interscope until MCA acquired the label) * Cherrytree Records (2005–2016) * SKG Music (1999–2004; merged into Geffen and Interscope) * Death Row Records
Death Row Records
(1992–1997) * El Cartel Records * Star Trak Entertainment (2005–2015) * Rockland Records (1998–2004) * G-Unit Records
G-Unit Records
(2003–2010) * Mosley Music Group (2006–2014) * Nothing Records (1992–2007) * Ruff Ryders Entertainment (1999–2010) * Trauma Records (1993–2004) * DreamWorks Records
DreamWorks Records

ARTISTS

* Current Interscope Records artists * Former Interscope Records artists

SEE ALSO

* List of record labels * Interscope Records discography * A -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

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Jimmy Iovine
and Ted Field have broken all the rules at Interscope Records". Los Angeles
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Eminem
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Eminem
Ends Year On Top, But Album Sales Tumble". Billboard. January 3, 2003. Retrieved 21 September 2015. * ^ Kreps, Daniel (December 9, 2009). " Eminem
Eminem
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Jimmy Iovine
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Van Halen
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Jimmy Iovine
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Selena Gomez
Officially Signs with Interscope". Billboard. Retrieved 26 September 2015. * ^ Caulfield, Keith (April 1, 2015). " Kendrick Lamar
Kendrick Lamar
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Kendrick Lamar
Steals the Show". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 12 September 2016. * ^ A B Jefferson, J'na (August 18, 2017). "JoJo Announces Music Imprint "Clover Music" With Interscope". Vibe . United States: Eldridge Industries . Retrieved August 19, 2017. * ^ Makarechi, Kia (January 7, 2013). "M.I.A. Album Delayed Because Label Thinks It\'s Too Positive, Says Singer". Huffington Post. Retrieved 26 September 2015. * ^ Cline, Georgette (July 5, 2012). "Eve Reveals Frustrations With Interscope Records Over \'Lip Lock\' Album Delay". The Boombox. Retrieved 26 September 2015. * ^ Carroll, Grace (October 24, 2012). "BLINK-182 SPLIT FROM MAJOR LABEL INTERSCOPE, NOW UNSIGNED". Gigwise. Retrieved 26 September 2015.

* ^ "Q&A with Trent Reznor
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\'To Pimp A Butterfly\' Album Leaked By iTunes". Rapdose.com. Retrieved March 17, 2015. * ^ "Update: Kendrick Lamar\'s \'To Pimp a Butterfly\' Gets Surprise Digital Release". Billboard. Retrieved March 17, 2015. * ^ " Die Antwoord leave Interscope, will release "TEN" on their own new indie label". 7 November 2011. * ^ "Die Antwoord\'s Totally Insane Words of Wisdom - SPIN". 7 February 2012. * ^ "Did Die Antwoord Dump Interscope Records?". * ^ "Cocaine Ring Used Music Label To Ship Drugs Feds: "Pickups and deliveries" made from Interscope". The Smoking Gun . 15 September 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2015. * ^ Perpetua, Matthew (16 September 2011). "Feds: Drug Ring Used Major Record Label\'s Offices". Rolling Stone
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* ^ "Interscope Offices Used by Cocaine Ring, Federal Documents Say". Billboard . Billboard . Billboard Staff. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2015. * ^ "Interscope responds to drugs network claims". Complete Music Update . Complete Music Update . CMU Editorial. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2015. * ^ Phillips, Chuck (August 20, 1997). "Interscope, Trauma Settle Legal Disputes". Los Angeles