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Internment
Internment
is the imprisonment or confinement[1] of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in wartime or of terrorism suspects".[2] Thus, while it can simply mean imprisonment, it tends to refer to preventive confinement, rather than confinement after having been convicted of some crime. Use of these terms is subject to debate and political sensitivities.[3] Interned persons may be held in prisons or in facilities known as internment camps. In certain contexts, these may also be known either officially or pejoratively, as concentration camps. Internment
Internment
also refers to a neutral country's practice of detaining belligerent armed forces and equipment on its territory during times of war under the Hague Convention of 1907.[4] The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
restricts the use of internment. Article 9 states that "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile."[5]

Contents

1 History and the term "concentration camp" 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

History and the term "concentration camp"[edit] Main article: List of concentration and internment camps

Ten thousand inmates were kept in El Agheila, one of the Italian concentration camps in Libya during the Italian colonization of Libya

Jewish slave laborers in the Buchenwald concentration camp
Buchenwald concentration camp
near Weimar, 16 April 1945 (second row from bottom, seventh from left is Elie Wiesel)

The American Heritage Dictionary defines the term concentration camp as: "A camp where persons are confined, usually without hearings and typically under harsh conditions, often as a result of their membership in a group the government has identified as a suspect."[6] The United States
United States
set up concentration camps for Cherokee and other Native Americans in the 1830s.[7] In 1864, the U.S. government forced 8,000 Navajos
Navajos
to walk more than 300 miles at gunpoint from their ancestral homelands in northeastern Arizona and northwestern New Mexico to an internment camp in Bosque Redondo, a desolate tract on the Pecos River in eastern New Mexico.[8] From 1863 to 1868, the U.S. Military persecuted and imprisoned 9,500 Navajo
Navajo
and 500 Mescalero Apache. Living under armed guards, more than 3,500 Navajo
Navajo
and Mescalero Apache
Mescalero Apache
men, women, and children died from starvation and disease.[8] The English term concentration camp was first used in order to refer to the reconcentrados (reconcentration camps) set up by the Spanish military in Cuba
Cuba
during the Ten Years' War
War
(1868–78) and the Cuban War
War
for Independence (1895–98), and similar camps set up by the United States
United States
during the Philippine–American War
War
(1899–1902).[9] The term concentration camp saw wider use during the Second Boer
Boer
War (1899–1902), when the British operated such camps in South Africa for interning Boers.[10][11] They built 45 tented camps for Boer internees and 64 for black Africans. Conditions were terrible for the health of the internees, mainly due to neglect, poor hygiene, and bad sanitation. Of the 28,000 Boer
Boer
men captured as prisoners of war, the British sent 25,630 overseas. The vast majority of Boers remaining in the local camps were women and children,[12] over 26,000 of whom died there.[12][13] More than 14,000 Black Africans died in the camps.[14] Welfare campaigner Emily Hobhouse
Emily Hobhouse
brought to the attention of the British public the appalling conditions inside the camps. The British government set up the Fawcett Commission to investigate her claims, under Millicent Fawcett, which corroborated her account, and resulted in improved conditions.[15] Between 1904 and 1908, the Imperial German Army operated concentration camps like the Shark Island Concentration Camp
Shark Island Concentration Camp
in German South-West Africa (now Namibia) as part of its genocide of the Herero and Namaqua peoples. In the late 1930s, over 100,000 defeated or interned personnel of the Spanish Republican armed forces, along with civilians, were held in concentration camps by the government of France, and they included Meheri Zabbens,[1] and the Camp de concentration d'Argelès-sur-Mer
Camp de concentration d'Argelès-sur-Mer
in southern France. Some of them managed to go into exile or went off to join the armies of the Allies in order to fight against the Axis powers,[16] while others ended up in Nazi concentration camps.[17] During the 20th century, the arbitrary internment of civilians by the state reached its most extreme form with the establishment of the Nazi concentration camps (1933–45). The Nazi concentration camp system was extensive, with as many as 15,000 camps[18] and at least 715,000 simultaneous internees.[19] The total number of casualties in these camps is difficult to determine, but the conscious policy of extermination through labor in at least some of the camps ensured that the inmates would die of starvation, untreated disease and summary executions.[20] Moreover, Nazi Germany established six extermination camps, specifically designed to kill millions, primarily by gassing.[21][22] As a result, some say that today the term "concentration camp" may be conflated with the concept of "extermination camp" and historians debate whether the term "concentration camp" or "internment camp" should be used in order to describe other examples of civilian internment, such as the United States
United States
government's internment of Japanese Americans during World War
War
II,[3] and the Australian government's immigrant detention facilities.[23] See also[edit]

Civilian internee Extermination through labor Extrajudicial detention House arrest Immigration detention Labor camp New Village "Polish death camp" controversy Prison
Prison
overcrowding Prisoner-of-war camp Quasi-criminal Remand

References[edit]

^ a b Almirante Valdés (VS o AV) ^ internment. (n.d.). Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved November 03, 2014, from Dictionary.com, ^ a b Euphemisms, Concentration Camps And The Japanese Internment ^ "The Second Hague Convention, 1907". Yale.edu. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2013.  ^ Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 9, United Nations ^ "Concentration camp". American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved 22 July 2014.  ^ James L. Dickerson (2010). Inside America's Concentration Camps: Two Centuries of Internment
Internment
and Torture. p. 29. Chicago Review Press ^ a b M. Annette Jaimes (1992). The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance. p. 34. South End Press ^ "Concentration Camp". The Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth ed.). Columbia University Press. 2008.  ^ Cite error: The named reference Columbia was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "Documents re camps in Boer
Boer
War". sul.stanford.edu. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b Meredith, Martin (2007). Diamonds, Gold, and War: The British, the Boers, and the Making of South Africa Conditions were reputedly even worse in the camps where black Africans were held, but unlike in the Boer
Boer
camps, death rates were not recorded in the camps where black Africans were held (First ed.). New York: PublicAffairs. pp. 452–56. ISBN 978-1586484736.  ^ Knight, Ian (2000). Boer
Boer
Wars (2): 1898–1902. Men-at-Arms. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 40. ISBN 978-1855326132.  ^ Thomas Pakenham (1991), The Scramble for Africa, 1876-1912, Random House, New York. Pages 580-581. ^ Porch, Douglas (2013). “Counterinsurgency: Exposing the Myths of the New Way of War”. p. 73. Cambridge University Press. ^ 24 au 26 août 1944 Libération de Paris par les chars... espagnols de la nueve[dead link] ^ “Republicans deportats als camps de concentració nazis” ^ Concentration Camp Listing Sourced from Van Eck, Ludo Le livre des Camps. Belgium: Editions Kritak; and Gilbert, Martin Atlas of the Holocaust. New York: William Morrow 1993 ISBN 0-688-12364-3. In this online site are the names of 149 camps and 814 subcamps, organized by country. ^ Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3.  ^ Marek Przybyszewski, IBH Opracowania – Działdowo jako centrum administracyjne ziemi sasińskiej (Działdowo as the centre of local administration). Internet Archive, 22 October 2010. ^ Robert Gellately; Nathan Stoltzfus (2001). Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany. Princeton University Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-691-08684-2.  ^ Anne Applebaum, A History of Horror, Review of "Le Siècle des camps" by Joël Kotek and Pierre Rigoulot, The New York Review of Books, 18 October 2001 ^ Charles, Stephen (4 May 2016). "Our detention centres are concentration camps and must be closed" – via The Sydney Morning Herald. 

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Internment
at Wikimedia Commons

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