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INTERNET TELEVISION (or ONLINE TELEVISION) is the digital distribution of television content, such as TV shows , via the public Internet
Internet
(which also carries other types of data), as opposed to dedicated terrestrial television via an over-the-air aerial system, cable television , and/or satellite television systems. It is sometimes called WEB TELEVISION, though this phrase is also used to describe the genre of TV shows broadcast only online .

CONTENTS

* 1 Elements

* 1.1 Content provider * 1.2 Internet
Internet
* 1.3 Receiver * 1.4 Display device

* 2 Comparison with IPTV
IPTV

* 2.1 Comparison tables

* 3 Technologies used * 4 Stream quality * 5 Usage * 6 Market competitors * 7 Control * 8 Archives * 9 Broadcasting
Broadcasting
rights * 10 Profits and costs * 11 Overview of platforms and availability * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 External links

ELEMENTS

Internet
Internet
television is a type of over-the-top content . "Over-the-top" (OTT) is the delivery of audio, video, and other media over the Internet
Internet
without the involvement of a multiple-system operator (such as a cable television provider) in the control or distribution of the content. It has several elements:

CONTENT PROVIDER

Examples include:

* An independent service, such as Netflix
Netflix
or Amazon Video
Amazon Video
, Hotstar , Google Play Movies , myTV (Arabic) , Sony LIV , Viewster , or Qello (which specializes in concerts). * A service owned by a traditional cable, or satellite TV provider, such as DittoTV , Sling TV
Sling TV
(owned by Dish Network
Dish Network
) or DirecTV
DirecTV
(owned by AT&T
AT&T
) * An international movies brand, such as Eros International or Eros Now * A service owned by a traditional film or television network , television channel , or content conglomerate, such as BBC
BBC
Three since 17 Jan 2016, CBSN
CBSN
, CNNGo , HBO Now
HBO Now
, Now TV (UK) (owned by Sky), PlayStation Vue
PlayStation Vue
(owned by Sony), or Hulu
Hulu
(a joint venture) * A peer-to-peer video hosting service such as YouTube
YouTube
, Vimeo
Vimeo
, or Crunchyroll
Crunchyroll
* Combination services like TV UOL which combines a Brazilian Internet-only TV station with user-uploaded content, or Crackle , which combines content owned by Sony Pictures with user uploaded content * Audio-only services like Spotify
Spotify
, though not "Internet television" per se, are sometimes accessible through video-capable devices in the same way

For a more complete list, see List of Internet
Internet
television providers and List of video hosting services .

INTERNET

The public Internet
Internet
is used for transmission from the streaming servers to the consumer end-user.

RECEIVER

The receiver must have an Internet
Internet
connection, typically by Wi-fi
Wi-fi
or Ethernet
Ethernet
, and could be:

* A web browser running on a personal computer (typically controlled by mouse and keyboard ) or mobile device, such as Firefox
Firefox
, Google Chrome , or Internet
Internet
Explorer * A mobile app running on a smartphone or tablet computer * A dedicated digital media player , typically with remote control . These can take the form of a small box, or even a stick that plugs directly into an HDMI
HDMI
port. Examples include Roku
Roku
, Amazon Fire , Apple TV
Apple TV
, Google TV
Google TV
, Boxee
Boxee
, and WD TV . Sometimes these boxes allow streaming of content from the local network or storage drive, typically providing an indirect connection between a television and computer or USB stick * A SmartTV which has Internet
Internet
capability and built-in software accessed with the remote control * A Video Game Console connected to the internet such as the Xbox One and PS4
PS4
. * A DVD player or Blu-ray
Blu-ray
disc player with Internet
Internet
capabilities in addition to its primary function of playing content from physical discs * A set-top box or digital video recorder (DVR) provided by the cable or satellite company or an independent party like TiVo
TiVo
, which has Internet
Internet
capabilities in addition to its primary function of receiving and recording programming from the non- Internet
Internet
cable or satellite connection

Not all receiver devices can access all content providers. Most have websites that allow viewing of content in a web browser, but sometimes this is not done due to digital rights management concerns or restrictions. While a web browser has access to any website, some consumers find it inconvenient to control and interact with content with a mouse and keyboard, inconvenient to connect a computer to their television, or confusing. Manufacturers of SmartTVs, boxes, sticks, and players must decide which providers to support, typically based either on popularity, common corporate ownership, or receiving payment from the provider.

DISPLAY DEVICE

A display device, which could be:

* A television set or video projector linked to the receiver with a video connector (typically HDMI
HDMI
) * A smart TV screen * A computer monitor * The built-in display of a smartphone or tablet computer

COMPARISON WITH IPTV

Main article: IPTV
IPTV

IPTV
IPTV
delivers television content using signals based on the Internet protocol (IP), through the open, unmanaged Internet
Internet
with the "last-mile" telecom company acting only as the Internet
Internet
service provider (ISP). As described above, " Internet
Internet
television" is "over-the-top technology" (OTT). Both IPTV
IPTV
and OTT use the Internet protocol over a packet-switched network to transmit data, but IPTV operates in a closed system—a dedicated, managed network controlled by the local cable, satellite, telephone, or fiber-optic company. In its simplest form, IPTV
IPTV
simply replaces traditional circuit switched analog or digital television channels with digital channels which happen to use packet-switched transmission. In both the old and new systems, subscribers have set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment that communicates directly over company-owned or dedicated leased lines with central-office servers. Packets never travel over the public Internet, so the television provider can guarantee enough local bandwidth for each customer's needs.

The Internet
Internet
protocol is a cheap, standardized way to enable two-way communication and simultaneously provide different data (e.g., TV-show files, email, Web browsing) to different customers. This supports DVR-like features for time shifting television: for example, to catch up on a TV show that was broadcast hours or days ago, or to replay the current TV show from its beginning. It also supports video on demand —browsing a catalog of videos (such as movies or television shows) which might be unrelated to the company's scheduled broadcasts.

IPTV
IPTV
has an ongoing standardization process (for example, at the European Telecommunications Standards Institute
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
).

COMPARISON TABLES

IPTV OVER-THE-TOP TECHNOLOGY

CONTENT PROVIDER Local telecom Studio, channel, or independent service

TRANSMISSION NETWORK Local telecom - dedicated owned or leased network Public Internet
Internet
+ local telecom

RECEIVER Local telecom provides (set-top box) Purchased by consumer (box, stick, TV, computer, or mobile)

DISPLAY DEVICE Screen provided by consumer Screen provided by consumer

OTT (OVER THE TOP TECHNOLOGY) IPTV
IPTV
(INTERNET PROTOCOL TELEVISION)

Examples Video on demand
Video on demand
services like PlayStation Vue
PlayStation Vue
, Sky Go , YouTube
YouTube
, Netflix
Netflix
, Amazon , YuppTV , Lovefilm , BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
, Hulu
Hulu
, myTV , Now TV , Emagine , SlingTV Service Example includes U-verse (AT"> Delivered using HTTP (TCP), a connected transport protocol. Emerging trends using adaptive streaming technologies like HLS (Apple), Smooth Streaming ( Microsoft
Microsoft
) and HDS (Adobe). Delivered content over UDP in combination with FEC Traditional IPTV
IPTV
uses TS (transport stream) transmission technology. Delivers content over UDP in combination with FEC, connectionless protocol

Content Catalog Widely used for freemium and economical VOD delivery models Used primarily for premium content and real time content delivery like broadcasting TV

Routing Topology Unicast (Based on HTTP) or Simulated Multicast
Multicast
(UDP/TCP) Multicast, Unicast burst during channel change leading multicast join

Major Players Huawei OTT solutions, Accenture, Piksel, OVP (Kaltura, Brightcove, Ooyala, Mobibase), CDN Players (Akamai, Level 3, Limelight, Octoshape, Tata Communications) and Content Aggregators TSP and IPTV
IPTV
Platform vendors - Huawei, Accenture, Piksel, Microsoft
Microsoft
Mediaroom (Ericsson), Alu, Cisco,ZTE

Key Challenges Low quality, Non Premium Content No Live Broadcast, Unicast model Expensive, Competition from Cable/ DTH industry, Bandwidth and Infrastructure

Key Benefits Low cost, Flexibility of content consumption across devices Interactive Service, Quality of Service and Quality of Experience

TECHNOLOGIES USED

The Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV
Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV
(HbbTV) consortium of industry companies (such as SES , Humax , Philips
Philips
, and ANT Software) is currently promoting and establishing an open European standard (called HbbTV) for hybrid set-top boxes for the reception of broadcast and broadband digital television and multimedia applications with a single-user interface.

As of the 2010s, providers of Internet
Internet
television use various technologies to provide a service such as peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies, VoD systems, and live streaming. BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
makes use of the Adobe Flash Player to provide streaming-video clips and other software provided by Adobe for its download service. CNBC
CNBC
, Bloomberg Television
Television
and Showtime use live-streaming services from BitGravity to stream live television to paid subscribers using the HTTP protocol. DRM (digital rights management ) software is also incorporated into many Internet
Internet
television services. Sky Go has software that is provided by Microsoft
Microsoft
to prevent content being copied. Internet television is also cross platform, the Sky Player service has been expanded to the Xbox 360
Xbox 360
on October 27 and to Windows Media Center and then to Windows
Windows
7 PCs on November 19. The BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
is also available through Virgin Media's on-demand service and other platforms such as FetchTV and games consoles including the Wii
Wii
and the PlayStation 3
PlayStation 3
. Other Internet-television platforms include mobile platforms such as the iPhone and iPod Touch , Nokia N96 , Sony Ericsson C905 and many other mobile devices.

Samsung TV has also announced their plans to provide streaming options including 3D Video on Demand through their Explore 3D service.

This article needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2017)

STREAM QUALITY

Stream quality refers to the quality of the image and audio transferred from the servers of the distributor to the user's home screen. Higher-quality video such as video in high definition (720p+) requires higher bandwidth and faster connection speeds. The generally accepted kbit/s download rate needed to stream high-definition video that has been encoded with H.264
H.264
is 3500 kbit/s, whereas standard-definition television can range from 500 to 1500 kbit/s depending on the resolution on screen. In the UK, the BBC
BBC
iPlayer deals with the largest amount of traffic yet it offers HD content along with SD content. As more people have gotten broadband connections which can deal with streaming HD video over the Internet, the BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
has tried to keep up with demand and pace. However, as streaming HD video takes around 1.5 GB of data per hour of video the BBC
BBC
has had to invest a lot of money collected from License Fee payers to implement this on a large scale.

For users who do not have the bandwidth to stream HD video or even high-SD video, which requires 1500 kbit/s, the BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
offers lower bitrate streams which in turn lead to lower video quality. This makes use of an adaptive bitrate stream so that if the user's bandwidth suddenly drops, iPlayer will lower its streaming rate to compensate. A diagnostic tool offered on the BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
site measures a user's streaming capabilities and bandwidth.

In the last few years, Channel 4
Channel 4
has started providing HD content on its On Demand platforms such as iOS App, Android App and Channel4.com website. Although competitors in the UK such as Demand Five have not yet offered HD streaming, the technology to support it is fairly new and widespread HD streaming is not an impossibility. The availability of Channel 4
Channel 4
and Five content on YouTube
YouTube
is predicted to prove incredibly popular as series such as Skins , Green Wing , The X Factor and others become available in a simple, straightforward format on a website which already attracts millions of people every day.

USAGE

Internet
Internet
television is common in most US households as of the mid 2010s. About one in four new televisions being sold is now a smart TV.

This article needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2017)

Considering the vast popularity of smart TVs and devices such as the Roku
Roku
and Chromecast, much of the US public can watch television via the internet. Internet-only channels are now established enough to feature some Emmy-nominated shows, such as Netflix
Netflix
's House of Cards . Many networks also distribute their shows the next day to streaming providers such as Hulu
Hulu
Some networks may use a proprietary system, such as the BBC
BBC
utilizes their iPlayer format. This has resulted in bandwidth demands increasing to the point of causing issues for some networks. It was reported in February 2014 that Verizon is having issues coping with the demand placed on their network infrastructure. Until long-term bandwidth issues are worked out and regulation such at net neutrality Internet
Internet
Televisions push to HDTV may start to hinder growth.

Before 2006, most services used peer-to-peer (P2P) networking, in which users downloaded an application and data would be shared between the users rather than the service provider giving the now more commonly used streaming method. Now most service providers have moved away from the P2P systems and are now using the streaming media . The old P2P service was selected because the existing infrastructure could not handle the bandwidth necessary for centralized streaming distribution. Some consumers didn't like their upload bandwidth being consumed by their video player, which partially motivated the roll-out of centralized streaming distribution.

Aereo was launched in March 2012 in New York City (and subsequently stopped from broadcasting in June 2014). It streamed network TV only to New York customers over the Internet. Broadcasters filed lawsuits against Aereo, because Aereo captured broadcast signals and streamed the content to Aereo's customers without paying broadcasters. In mid-July 2012, a federal judge sided with the Aereo start-up. Aereo planned to expand to every major metropolitan area by the end of 2013. The Supreme Court ruled against Aero June 24, 2014.

MARKET COMPETITORS

Many providers of Internet
Internet
television services exist—including conventional television stations that have taken advantage of the Internet
Internet
as a way to continue showing television shows after they have been broadcast, often advertised as "on-demand" and "catch-up" services. Today, almost every major broadcaster around the world is operating an Internet
Internet
television platform. Examples include the BBC, which introduced the BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
on 25 June 2008 as an extension to its "RadioPlayer" and already existing streamed video-clip content, and Channel 4
Channel 4
that launched 4oD ("4 on Demand") (now All 4) in November 2006 allowing users to watch recently shown content. Most Internet
Internet
television services allow users to view content free of charge; however, some content is for a fee.

CONTROL

Controlling content on the Internet
Internet
presents a challenge for most providers; to try to ensure that a user is allowed to view content such as content with age certificates, providers use methods such as parental controls that allows restrictions to be placed upon the use and access of certificated material. The BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
makes use of a parental control system giving parents the option to "lock" content, meaning that a password would have to be used to access it. Flagging systems can be used to warn a user that content may be certified or that it is intended for viewing post-watershed . Honour systems are also used where users are asked for their dates of birth or age to verify if they are able to view certain content.

ARCHIVES

An archive is a collection of information and media much like a library or interactive-storage facility. It is a necessity for an on-demand media service to maintain archives so that users can watch content that has already been aired on standard-broadcast television. However, these archives can vary from a few weeks to months to years, depending on the curator and the type of content. For example, the BBC iPlayer's shows are in general available for up to seven days after their original broadcast. This so-called "seven-day catch-up" model seems to become an industry standard for Internet
Internet
television services in many countries around the world. However, some shows may only be available for shorter periods. Others, such as the BBC's Panorama, may be available for an extended period because of the show's documentary nature or its popularity.

In contrast, All 4, Channel 4's on-demand service offers many of its television shows that were originally aired years ago. An example of this is the comedy The IT Crowd where users can view the full series on the Internet
Internet
player. The same is true for other hit Channel 4 comedies such as The Inbetweeners and Black Books. The benefit of large archives is that they bring in far more users who, in turn, watch more media, leading to a wider audience base and more advertising revenue. Large archives will also mean the user will spend more time on that website rather than a competitors, leading to "starvation" of demand for the competitors. Having an extensive archive, however, can bring problems along with benefits. Large archives are expensive to maintain and large server farms and mass storage is needed, along with ample bandwidth to transmit it all. Vast archives can be hard to catalogue and sort so that they are accessible to users.

BROADCASTING RIGHTS

Broadcasting
Broadcasting
rights vary from country to country and even within provinces of countries. These rights govern the distribution of copyrighted content and media and allow the sole distribution of that content at any one time. An example of content only being aired in certain countries is BBC
BBC
iPlayer. The BBC
BBC
checks a user's IP address to make sure that only users located in the UK can stream content from the BBC. The BBC
BBC
only allows free use of their product for users within the UK as those users have paid for a television license that funds part of the BBC. This IP address check is not foolproof as the user may be accessing the BBC
BBC
website through a VPN or proxy server . Broadcasting
Broadcasting
rights can also be restricted to allowing a broadcaster rights to distribute that content for a limited time. Channel 4's online service All 4 can only stream shows created in the US by companies such as HBO
HBO
for thirty days after they are aired on one of the Channel 4
Channel 4
group channels. This is to boost DVD sales for the companies who produce that media.

Some companies pay very large amounts for broadcasting rights with sports and US sitcoms usually fetching the highest price from UK-based broadcasters. A trend among major content producers in North America is the use of the " TV Everywhere
TV Everywhere
" system. Especially for live content, the TV Everywhere
TV Everywhere
system restricts viewership of a video feed to select Internet
Internet
service providers , usually cable television companies that pay a retransmission consent or subscription fee to the content producer. This often has the negative effect of making the availability of content dependent upon the provider, with the consumer having little or no choice on whether they receive the product.

PROFITS AND COSTS

With the advent of broadband internet Connections multiple streaming providers have come onto the market in the last couple of years. The main providers are Netflix, Hulu
Hulu
and Amazon. Some of these providers such as Hulu
Hulu
advertise and charge a monthly fee. Other such as Netflix and Amazon charge users a monthly fee and have no commercials. Netflix is the largest provider; it has over 43 million members and its membership numbers are growing. The rise of internet TV has resulted in cable companies losing customers to a new kind of customer called "cord cutters". Cord cutters are consumers who are cancelling their cable TV or satellite TV subscriptions and choosing instead to stream TV shows, movies and other content via the Internet
Internet
. Cord cutters are forming communities. With the increasing availability of video sharing websites (e.g., YouTube
YouTube
) and streaming services, there is an alternative to cable and satellite television subscriptions. Cord cutters tend to be younger people.

OVERVIEW OF PLATFORMS AND AVAILABILITY

SERVICE SUPPORTING COMPANY/COMPANIES REGIONAL AVAILABILITY WEBSITE-BASED WINDOWS APPLICATION MAC APPLICATION LINUX APPLICATION IOS
IOS
APPLICATION ANDROID APPLICATION CONSOLE APPLICATION TV SET APPLICATION SET TOP BOX APPLICATION Free

*

BBC
BBC
IPLAYER BBC
BBC
UK Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Wii, PS3, Xbox 360 Samsung, Sony, Panasonic, Philips Virgin Media On Demand, Freesat, Roku Yes

NBC
NBC
NBC

Yes No No No Yes Yes PS3, Xbox 360

Yes

TIVIBU Argela
Argela
TR Yes Yes Yes

Yes Argela
Argela
Android Player Pending None Ttnet on Demand No

SKY GO Sky UK & Ireland Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Xbox 360

No

ITV HUB ITV UK Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PS3

Virgin Media On Demand Yes

ABC IVIEW Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Australia Yes

iPad

PS3, Xbox 360 Samsung, Sony

Yes

ALL 4 Channel 4 UK & Ireland Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes PS3, Xbox 360

Virgin Media On Demand Yes

SEESAW Arqiva UK Yes Yes Yes

No

HULU FOX, NBC
NBC
Universal, ABC, Time Warner US -webkit-column-count: 3; column-count: 3;">

* Comparison of streaming media systems * Comparison of video hosting services * Content delivery network * Digital television
Digital television
* Interactive television
Interactive television
* Internet
Internet
radio * Home theatre PC * List of free television software * List of Internet
Internet
television providers * List of streaming media systems * Multicast
Multicast
* P2PTV * Protection of Broadcasts and Broadcasting Organizations Treaty * Push technology * Smart TV
Smart TV
* Software as a service * Television
Television
network * Video advertising * Web-to-TV * Media Psychology * Webcast
Webcast
* WPIX, Inc. v. ivi, Inc.

REFERENCES

* ^ Mobile software application ("apps") * ^ Narang, Nitin. "Concept Series : What is the Difference between OTT and IPTV". Researcher on TV technology. Media Entertainment Info. Retrieved 4 September 2013. * ^ "New European Initiative Merges Television
Television
with the Power of the Internet" (PDF) (Press release). HbbTV Consortium. August 27, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 7, 2009. * ^ "Info page detailing all platforms iPlayer works with". Bbc.co.uk. 2010-05-15. Retrieved 2011-01-02. * ^ Samsung To Do 3D VOD Streaming, May 24, 2011 * ^ BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
goes HD, adds higher quality streams, releases iPlayer Desktop out of Labs, BBC
BBC
Internet
Internet
Blog, 20/04/2009 * ^ " BBC
BBC
web page which runs a diagnostic of Internet
Internet
download speeds for streaming remotely". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-01-02. * ^ "Connected TVs Reach One in Four Homes". January 3, 2013. * ^ Dominguez, Robert (February 18, 2014). "\'House of Cards\' season 2 sees surge of Netflix
Netflix
viewers over first season". NY Daily News. Retrieved July 2, 2016. * ^ "Watch TV and movies on Xbox, PS3, Apple TV, and more - Hulu". Hulu. * ^ "Why Netflix
Netflix
streaming is getting slower, and probably won’t get better any time soon". ExtremeTech. * ^ "iPlayer uncovered: What powers the BBC\'s epic creation?". November 18, 2009. CNet interview with iPlayer boss Anthony Rose, mostly on iPlayer 3.0 * ^ " Aereo Threatens Broadcasters By Streaming Network TV Online". July 20, 2012. * ^ Stelter, Brian (June 25, 2014). "Supreme Court rules against Aereo". CNNMoney. * ^ Internet
Internet
television platforms around the world International TV Explorer * ^ BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
Help BBC
BBC
iPlayer * ^ International TV Explorer International Television
Television
Expert Group * ^ "Channel 4\'s home page for Channel 4
Channel 4
content on demand". Channel4.com. Retrieved 2016-02-16. * ^ " BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
– Apps op Android Market". Market.android.com. Retrieved 2012-01-14. * ^ " NBC
NBC
Apps - NBC.com". NBC. * ^ " NBC
NBC
TV Network - Shows, Episodes, Schedule". NBC. * ^ "Watch TV and movies via Xbox, PS3, Wii
Wii
and more - Hulu". Hulu.

EXTERNAL

.