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An Internet
Internet
service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet
Internet
service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise privately owned. Internet
Internet
services typically provided by ISPs include Internet
Internet
access, Internet
Internet
transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, and colocation.

Local ISP in Manhattan installing fiber for provisioning Internet access

Contents

1 History 2 Classifications

2.1 Access providers 2.2 Mailbox providers 2.3 Hosting ISPs 2.4 Transit ISPs 2.5 Virtual ISPs 2.6 Free ISPs 2.7 Wireless ISP

3 Peering 4 Law enforcement
Law enforcement
and intelligence assistance 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] The Internet
Internet
was developed as a network between government research laboratories and participating departments of universities. By the late 1980s, a process was set in place towards public, commercial use of the Internet. The remaining restrictions were removed by 1995, 4 years after the introduction of the World Wide Web.[1] In 1989, the first ISPs were established in Australia[2] and the United States. In Brookline, Massachusetts, The World became the first commercial ISP in the US. Its first customer was served in November 1989.[3] On 23 April 2014, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) was reported to be considering a new rule that will permit ISPs to offer content providers a faster track to send content, thus reversing their earlier net neutrality position.[4][5][6] A possible solution to net neutrality concerns may be municipal broadband, according to Professor Susan Crawford, a legal and technology expert at Harvard Law School.[7] On 15 May 2014, the FCC decided to consider two options regarding Internet
Internet
services: first, permit fast and slow broadband lanes, thereby compromising net neutrality; and second, reclassify broadband as a telecommunication service, thereby preserving net neutrality.[8][9] On 10 November 2014, President Barack Obama recommended that the FCC reclassify broadband Internet
Internet
service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality.[10][11][12] On 16 January 2015, Republicans presented legislation, in the form of a U.S. Congress
U.S. Congress
H.R. discussion draft bill, that makes concessions to net neutrality but prohibits the FCC from accomplishing the goal or enacting any further regulation affecting Internet
Internet
service providers.[13][14] On 31 January 2015, AP News reported that the FCC will present the notion of applying ("with some caveats") Title II (common carrier) of the Communications Act of 1934 to the internet in a vote expected on 26 February 2015.[15][16][17][18][19] Adoption of this notion would reclassify internet service from one of information to one of the telecommunications[20] and, according to Tom Wheeler, chairman of the FCC, ensure net neutrality.[21][22] The FCC is expected to enforce net neutrality in its vote, according to the New York Times.[23][24] On 26 February 2015, the FCC ruled in favor of net neutrality by adopting Title II (common carrier) of the Communications Act of 1934 and Section 706 in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 to the Internet.[25][26][27] The FCC Chairman, Tom Wheeler, commented, "This is no more a plan to regulate the Internet
Internet
than the First Amendment is a plan to regulate free speech. They both stand for the same concept."[28] On 12 March 2015, the FCC released the specific details of the net neutrality rules.[29][30][31] On 13 April 2015, the FCC published the final rule on its new "Net Neutrality" regulations.[32][33] These rules went into effect on 12 June 2015.[34] Upon becoming FCC chairman in April 2017, Ajit Pai
Ajit Pai
proposed an end to net neutrality, awaiting votes from the commission.[35][36] On 21 November 2017, Pai announced that a vote will be held by FCC members on 14 December on whether to repeal the policy.[37] Classifications[edit] Access providers[edit] Access provider ISPs provide Internet
Internet
access, employing a range of technologies to connect users to their network.[38] Available technologies have ranged from computer modems with acoustic couplers to telephone lines, to television cable (CATV), Wi-Fi, and fiber optics. For users and small businesses, traditional options include copper wires to provide dial-up, DSL, typically asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), cable modem or Integrated Services Digital Network
Integrated Services Digital Network
(ISDN) (typically basic rate interface). Using fiber-optics to end users is called Fiber To The Home or similar names.[39] For customers with more demanding requirements (such as medium-to-large businesses, or other ISPs) can use higher-speed DSL (such as single-pair high-speed digital subscriber line), Ethernet, metropolitan Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN Primary Rate Interface, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) and synchronous optical networking (SONET).[40] Wireless access is another option, including cellular and satellite Internet
Internet
access. Mailbox providers[edit] A mailbox provider is an organization that provides services for hosting electronic mail domains with access to storage for mail boxes. It provides email servers to send, receive, accept, and store email for end users or other organizations. Many mailbox providers are also access providers,[41] while others are not (e.g., Gmail, Yahoo! Mail, Outlook.com, AOL Mail, Po box). The definition given in RFC 6650 covers email hosting services, as well as the relevant department of companies, universities, organizations, groups, and individuals that manage their mail servers themselves. The task is typically accomplished by implementing Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and possibly providing access to messages through Internet
Internet
Message Access Protocol (IMAP), the Post Office Protocol, Webmail, or a proprietary protocol.[42] Hosting ISPs[edit] Internet
Internet
hosting services provide email, web-hosting, or online storage services. Other services include virtual server, cloud services, or physical server operation. Transit ISPs[edit]

Tiers 1 and 2 ISP interconnections

Just as their customers pay them for Internet
Internet
access, ISPs themselves pay upstream ISPs for Internet
Internet
access. An upstream ISP usually has a larger network than the contracting ISP or is able to provide the contracting ISP with access to parts of the Internet
Internet
the contracting ISP by itself has no access to.[43] In the simplest case, a single connection is established to an upstream ISP and is used to transmit data to or from areas of the Internet
Internet
beyond the home network; this mode of interconnection is often cascaded multiple times until reaching a tier 1 carrier. In reality, the situation is often more complex. ISPs with more than one point of presence (PoP) may have separate connections to an upstream ISP at multiple PoPs, or they may be customers of multiple upstream ISPs and may have connections to each one of them at one or more point of presence.[43] Transit ISPs provide large amounts of bandwidth for connecting hosting ISPs and access ISPs.[44] Virtual ISPs[edit] A virtual ISP (VISP) is an operation that purchases services from another ISP, sometimes called a wholesale ISP in this context,[45] which allow the VISP's customers to access the Internet
Internet
using services and infrastructure owned and operated by the wholesale ISP. VISPs resemble mobile virtual network operators and competitive local exchange carriers for voice communications. Free ISPs[edit] Free ISPs are Internet
Internet
service providers that provide service free of charge. Many free ISPs display advertisements while the user is connected; like commercial television, in a sense they are selling the user's attention to the advertiser. Other free ISPs, sometimes called freenets, are run on a nonprofit basis, usually with volunteer staff.[citation needed] Wireless ISP[edit] A wireless Internet
Internet
service provider (WISP) is an Internet
Internet
service provider with a network based on wireless networking. Technology may include commonplace Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
wireless mesh networking, or proprietary equipment designed to operate over open 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 4.9, 5.2, 5.4, 5.7, and 5.8 GHz bands or licensed frequencies such as 2.5 GHz (EBS/BRS), 3.65 GHz (NN) and in the UHF band (including the MMDS frequency band) and LMDS.[citation needed] Peering[edit] ISPs may engage in peering, where multiple ISPs interconnect at peering points or Internet
Internet
exchange points (IXs), allowing routing of data between each network, without charging one another for the data transmitted—data that would otherwise have passed through a third upstream ISP, incurring charges from the upstream ISP.[43] ISPs requiring no upstream and having only customers (end customers or peer ISPs) are called Tier 1 ISPs. Network hardware, software and specifications, as well as the expertise of network management personnel are important in ensuring that data follows the most efficient route, and upstream connections work reliably. A tradeoff between cost and efficiency is possible.[citation needed] Law enforcement
Law enforcement
and intelligence assistance[edit] Internet
Internet
service providers in many countries are legally required (e.g., via Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) in the U.S.) to allow law enforcement agencies to monitor some or all of the information transmitted by the ISP, or even store the browsing history of users to allow government access if needed (e.g. via the Investigatory Powers Act 2016
Investigatory Powers Act 2016
in the United Kingdom). Furthermore, in some countries ISPs are subject to monitoring by intelligence agencies. In the U.S., a controversial National Security Agency program known as PRISM provides for broad monitoring of Internet
Internet
users traffic and has raised concerns about potential violation of the privacy protections in the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution.[46][47] Modern ISPs integrate a wide array of surveillance and packet sniffing equipment into their networks, which then feeds the data to law-enforcement/intelligence networks (such as DCSNet
DCSNet
in the United States, or SORM[48] in Russia) allowing monitoring of Internet
Internet
traffic in real time. See also[edit]

Computer networking portal Computer science portal

Content delivery network Geo-blocking Index of Internet-related articles Internet
Internet
hosting service Network service provider Outline of the Internet

References[edit]

^ "Web history timeline". Retrieved 21 September 2015.  ^ Clarke, Roger. "Origins and Nature of the Internet
Internet
in Australia". Retrieved 21 January 2014.  ^ Robert H'obbes' Zakon. "Hobbes' Internet
Internet
Timeline v10.1". Retrieved 14 November 2011.  Also published as Robert H. Zakon ^ Wyatt, Edward (23 April 2014). "F.C.C., in 'Net Neutrality' Turnaround, Plans to Allow Fast Lane". New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2014.  ^ Staff (24 April 2014). "Creating a Two-Speed Internet". New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2014.  ^ Carr, David (11 May 2014). "Warnings Along F.C.C.'s Fast Lane". New York Times. Retrieved 11 May 2014.  ^ Crawford, Susan (28 April 2014). "The Wire Next Time". New York Times. Retrieved 28 April 2014.  ^ Staff (15 May 2014). "Searching for Fairness on the Internet". New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2014.  ^ Wyatt, Edward (15 May 2014). "F.C.C. Backs Opening Net Rules for Debate". New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2014.  ^ Wyatt, Edward (10 November 2014). "Obama Asks F.C.C. to Adopt Tough Net Neutrality Rules". New York Times. Retrieved 15 November 2014.  ^ NYT Editorial Board (14 November 2014). "Why the F.C.C. Should Heed President Obama on Internet
Internet
Regulation". New York Times. Retrieved 15 November 2014.  ^ Sepulveda, Ambassador Daniel A. (21 January 2015). "The World Is Watching Our Net Neutrality Debate, So Let's Get It Right". Wired (website). Retrieved 20 January 2015.  ^ Weisman, Jonathan (19 January 2015). "Shifting Politics of Net Neutrality Debate Ahead of F.C.C.Vote". New York Times. Retrieved 20 January 2015.  ^ Staff (16 January 2015). "H. R. _ 114th Congress, 1st Session [Discussion Draft] - To amend the Communications Act of 1934
Communications Act of 1934
to ensure Internet
Internet
openness..." (PDF). U.S. Congress. Retrieved 20 January 2015.  ^ Lohr, Steve (2 February 2015). "In Net Neutrality Push, F.C.C. Is Expected to Propose Regulating Internet
Internet
Service as a Utility". New York Times. Retrieved 2 February 2015.  ^ Lohr, Steve (2 February 2015). "F.C.C. Chief Wants to Override State Laws Curbing Community Net Services". New York Times. Retrieved 2 February 2015.  ^ Flaherty, Anne (31 January 2015). "Just whose Internet
Internet
is it? New federal rules may answer that". AP News. Retrieved 31 January 2015.  ^ Fung, Brian (2 January 2015). "Get ready: The FCC says it will vote on net neutrality in February". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ Staff (2 January 2015). "FCC to vote next month on net neutrality rules". AP News. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ Lohr, Steve (4 February 2015). "F.C.C. Plans Strong Hand to Regulate the Internet". New York Times. Retrieved 5 February 2015.  ^ Wheeler, Tom (4 February 2015). "FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler: This Is How We Will Ensure Net Neutrality". Wired. Retrieved 5 February 2015.  ^ The Editorial Board (6 February 2015). "Courage and Good Sense at the F.C.C. - Net Neutrality's Wise New Rules". New York Times. Retrieved 6 February 2015.  ^ Weisman, Jonathan (24 February 2015). "As Republicans Concede, F.C.C. Is Expected to Enforce Net Neutrality". New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2015.  ^ Lohr, Steve (25 February 2015). "The Push for Net Neutrality Arose From Lack of Choice". New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2015.  ^ Staff (26 February 2015). "FCC Adopts Strong, Sustainable Rules To Protect The Open Internet" (PDF). Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved 26 February 2015.  ^ Ruiz, Rebecca R.; Lohr, Steve (26 February 2015). "In Net Neutrality Victory, F.C.C. Classifies Broadband Internet
Internet
Service as a Public Utility". New York Times. Retrieved 26 February 2015.  ^ Flaherty, Anne (25 February 2015). "FACT CHECK: Talking heads skew 'net neutrality' debate". AP News. Retrieved 26 February 2015.  ^ Liebelson, Dana (26 February 2015). "Net Neutrality Prevails In Historic FCC Vote". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 27 February 2015.  ^ Ruiz, Rebecca R. (12 March 2015). "F.C.C. Sets Net Neutrality Rules". New York Times. Retrieved 13 March 2015.  ^ Sommer, Jeff (12 March 2015). "What the Net Neutrality Rules Say". New York Times. Retrieved 13 March 2015.  ^ FCC Staff (12 March 2015). " Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
- FCC 15-24 - In the Matter of Protecting and Promoting the Open Internet
Internet
- GN Docket No. 14-28 - Report and Order on Remand, Declaratory Ruling, and Order" (PDF). Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved 13 March 2015.  ^ Reisinger, Don (13 April 2015). " Net neutrality
Net neutrality
rules get published -- let the lawsuits begin". CNET. Retrieved 13 April 2015.  ^ Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
(13 April 2015). "Protecting and Promoting the Open Internet
Internet
- A Rule by the Federal Communications Commission on 04/13/2015". Federal Register. Retrieved 13 April 2015.  ^ "Open Internet
Internet
- FCC.gov". fcc.gov. Federal Communications Commission.  ^ The Editorial Board (29 April 2017). "F.C.C. Invokes Internet Freedom While Trying to Kill It". New York Times. Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ Reardon, Marguerite (2 May 2017). " Net neutrality
Net neutrality
redux: The battle for an open net continues – The Republican-led FCC is starting to roll back net neutrality rules. Here's what you need to know". CNET. Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ Fung, Brian (21 November 2017). "FCC plan would give Internet providers power to choose the sites customers see and use". Retrieved 21 November 2017 – via www.WashingtonPost.com.  ^ "What are the different Internet
Internet
connection methods?". Archived from the original on October 13, 2009.  ^ "FTTx: Fiber To The Home/Premises/Curb". The Fiber Optic Association. Retrieved June 1, 2013.  ^ "CCNA". ciscoccna24.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2 February 2015.  ^ J.D. Falk, ed. (November 2011). Complaint Feedback Loop Operational Recommendations. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC6449. RFC 6449. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6449. Retrieved 28 June 2012.  ^ Murray Kucherawy, ed. (June 2012). Creation and Use of Email Feedback Reports: An Applicability Statement for the Abuse Reporting Format (ARF). IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC6650. RFC 6650. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6650. Retrieved 28 June 2012. ""Mailbox Provider" refers to an organization that accepts, stores, and offers access to RFC 5322 messages ("email messages") for end users. Such an organization has typically implemented SMTP RFC 5321 and might provide access to messages through IMAP RFC 3501, the Post Office Protocol (POP) RFC 1939, a proprietary interface designed for HTTP RFC 7230, or a proprietary protocol."  ^ a b c Gerson & Ryan A Primer on Internet
Internet
Exchange Points for Policymakers and Non-Engineers Working Paper, August 11, 2012 ^ cisco.com Sample Configuration for BGP with Two Different Service Providers (Multihoming) BGP article ^ Amazing.com "Hooking up to the Internet" ^ NSA PRISM Creates Stir, But Appears Legal. InformationWeek. Retrieved on 2014-03-12. ^ "Obama's Speech on N.S.A. Phone Surveillance". New York Times. 17 January 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2014.  ^ "New KGB Takes Internet
Internet
by SORM". Mother Jones. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 

External links[edit]

OECD ISP penetration data

v t e

Internet
Internet
service providers of the United States

Cable ISP

Adams Cable Allegiance Communications Altice USA

Optimum Suddenlink Communications

Armstrong Atlantic Broadband Blue Ridge Communications Blue Stream Broadstripe Buckeye Broadband Cable One Charter Spectrum Comcast Xfinity Consolidated Communications

FairPoint Communications

Cox Communications Docomo Pacific Emery Telcom Full Channel GCI Hargray Mediacom Midco Northland Communications OneLink Communications Satview Broadband Service Electric Shentel SRT Communications TDS Telecom TPG

Grande Communications RCN Corporation Wave Broadband

TruVista Communications WOW!

Satellite ISP

Dish (HughesNet) Exede

Fiber ISP

AT&T Fiber CenturyLink Cincinnati Bell
Cincinnati Bell
FiOptics Claro Consolidated Communications

FairPoint Communications

Digital West EPB Frontier FiOS Google Fiber GTA Teleguam Hawaiian Telcom Midco NEP Telephone Sonic.net TDS Telecom Verizon FiOS Windstream

Copper / DSL
DSL
ISP

AT&T Internet
Internet
(U-Verse) CenturyLink Consolidated Communications

FairPoint Communications

Digital West Frontier Communications TDS Telecom Verizon Windstream

Defunct ISP

AGIS ANS Atala T Boston CitiNet ATMNet Excite@Home Prodigy Pure TalkUSA Texas.net WorldWide Access

v t e

Telecommunications

History

Beacon Broadcasting Cable protection system Cable TV Communications satellite Computer network Drums Electrical telegraph Fax Heliographs Hydraulic telegraph Internet Mass media Mobile phone Optical telecommunication Optical telegraphy Pager Photophone Prepay mobile phone Radio Radiotelephone Satellite communications Semaphore Smartphone Smoke signals Telecommunications history Telautograph Telegraphy Teleprinter
Teleprinter
(teletype) Telephone The Telephone Cases Television Timeline of communication technology Undersea telegraph line Videoconferencing Videophone Videotelephony Whistled language

Pioneers

Edwin Howard Armstrong John Logie Baird Paul Baran Alexander Graham Bell Tim Berners-Lee Jagadish Chandra Bose Vint Cerf Claude Chappe Donald Davies Lee de Forest Philo Farnsworth Reginald Fessenden Elisha Gray Erna Schneider Hoover Charles K. Kao Hedy Lamarr Innocenzo Manzetti Guglielmo Marconi Antonio Meucci Radia Perlman Alexander Stepanovich Popov Johann Philipp Reis Nikola Tesla Camille Tissot Alfred Vail Charles Wheatstone Vladimir K. Zworykin

Transmission media

Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication

Optical fiber

Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line

Network topology and switching

Links Nodes Terminal node Network switching (circuit packet) Telephone exchange

Multiplexing

Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division

Networks

ARPANET BITNET Cellular network Computer CYCLADES Ethernet FidoNet Internet ISDN LAN Mobile NGN NPL network Public Switched Telephone Radio Telecommunications equipment Television Telex WAN Wireless World Wide Web

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