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Internet
Internet
radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, online radio) is a digital audio service transmitted via the Internet. Broadcasting
Broadcasting
on the Internet
Internet
is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means. It can either be used as a stand alone device running through the internet, or as a software running through a single computer system. [1] Internet
Internet
radio is generally used to communicate and easily spread messages through the form of talk. It is distributed through a wireless communication network connected to a switch packet network (the internet) via a disclosed source.' [2] Internet
Internet
radio involves streaming media, presenting listeners with a continuous stream of audio that typically cannot be paused or replayed, much like traditional broadcast media; in this respect, it is distinct from on-demand file serving. Internet
Internet
radio is also distinct from podcasting, which involves downloading rather than streaming. Internet
Internet
radio services offer news, sports, talk, and various genres of music—every format that is available on traditional broadcast radio stations.[3] Many Internet
Internet
radio services are associated with a corresponding traditional (terrestrial) radio station or radio network, although low start-up and ongoing costs have allowed a substantial proliferation of independent Internet-only radio stations.[citation needed] The first Internet
Internet
radio service was launched in 1993. As of 2017, the most popular internet radio platforms and applications in the world include (but are not limited to) TuneIn Radio, iHeartRadio, and Sirius XM.

Contents

1 Internet
Internet
radio technology

1.1 Listening 1.2 Streaming 1.3 Simulation

2 Popularity 3 Broadcasting
Broadcasting
freedoms 4 History

4.1 US royalty controversy

5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading

Internet
Internet
radio technology[edit] Internet
Internet
radio services are usually accessible from anywhere in the world with a suitable internet connection available; one could, for example, listen to an Australian station from Europe
Europe
and America. This has made internet radio particularly suited to and popular among expatriate listeners.[citation needed] Nevertheless, some major networks like TuneIn Radio, CBS Radio, Pandora Radio, iHeart Radio
Radio
and Citadel Broadcasting
Citadel Broadcasting
(except for news/talk and sports stations) in the United States, and Chrysalis in the United Kingdom, restrict listening to in-country due to music licensing and advertising issues.[citation needed] Internet
Internet
radio is also suited to listeners with special interests, allowing users to pick from a multitude of different stations and genres less commonly represented on traditional radio.[4] Listening[edit]

An early Kerbango
Kerbango
Internet
Internet
radio receiver

Internet
Internet
radio is typically listened to on a standard home PC or similar device, through an embedded player program located on the respective station's website. In recent years, dedicated devices that resemble and offer the listener a similar experience to a traditional radio receiver have arrived on the market.[citation needed] Streaming[edit] Streaming technology is used to distribute Internet
Internet
radio, typically using a lossy audio codec. Streaming audio formats include MP3, Ogg Vorbis, Windows
Windows
Media Audio, RealAudio, and HE-AAC
HE-AAC
(or aacPlus).[5] Audio data is continuously transmitted serially (streamed) over the local network or internet in TCP or UDP packets, then reassembled at the receiver and played a second or two later. The delay is called lag, and is introduced at several stages of digital audio broadcasting.[6] Simulation[edit] A local tuner simulation program includes all the online radios that can also be heard in the air in the city.[citation needed] Popularity[edit] In 2003, revenue from online streaming music radio was US$49 million. By 2006, that figure rose to US$500 million.[7] A February 21, 2007 "survey of 3,000 Americans released by consultancy Bridge Ratings & Research" found that "[a]s much as 19% of U.S. consumers 12 and older listen to Web-based radio stations." In other words, there were "some 57 million weekly listeners of Internet
Internet
radio programs. More people listen to online radio than to satellite radio, high-definition radio, podcasts, or cell-phone-based radio combined."[7][8] An April 2008 Arbitron survey[9] showed that, in the US, more than one in seven persons aged 25–54 years old listen to online radio each week.[10] In 2008, 13 percent of the American population listened to the radio online, compared to 11 percent in 2007. Internet
Internet
radio functionality is also built into many dedicated Internet
Internet
radio devices, which give an FM like receiver user experience. In the fourth quarter (Q4) of 2012, Pandora, TuneIn Radio, iHeart Radio, and other subscription-based and free Internet
Internet
radio services accounted for nearly one quarter (23 percent) of the average weekly music listening time among consumers between the ages of 13 and 35, an increase from a share of 17 percent the previous year.[11] As Internet-radio listening rose among the 13-to-35 age group, listening to AM/FM radio, which now accounts for 24 percent of music-listening time, declined 2 percentage points. In the 36-and-older age group, by contrast, Internet
Internet
radio accounted for just 13 percent of music listening, while AM/FM radio dominated listening methods with a 41 percent share.[11] Currently, 47% of all Americans ages 12 and older -- an estimated 124 million people -- said they have listened to online radio in the last month, while 36% (94 million people) have listened in the last week. These figures are up from 45% and 33%, respectively, in 2013. The average amount of time spent listening increased from 11 hours, 56 minutes per week in 2013 to 13 hours 19 minutes in 2014. As might be expected, usage numbers are much higher for teens and younger adults, with 75% of Americans ages 12-24 listening to online radio in the last month, compared to 50% of Americans ages 25-54 and 21% of Americans 55+. The weekly figures for the same age groups were 64%, 37% and 13%, respectively.[12] In 2015, it was recorded that 53% of Americans, or 143 million people, ages 12 and up are currently listen to internet radio. [13] Broadcasting
Broadcasting
freedoms[edit] Some stations, such as Primordial Radio, use Internet
Internet
radio as a platform as opposed to other means such as FM or DAB, as it gives greater freedom to broadcast as they see fit, without being subject to regulatory bodies such as Ofcom
Ofcom
in the UK. For example, Ofcom
Ofcom
has very strict rules about presenters endorsing products and product placement;[14] being an Internet
Internet
radio station they are free of this constraint. History[edit] Internet
Internet
radio was pioneered by Carl Malamud. In 1993, Malamud launched " Internet
Internet
Talk
Talk
Radio", which was the "first computer-radio talk show, each week interviewing a computer expert".[15][16] The first Internet
Internet
concert was broadcast on June 24, 1993, by the band Severe Tire Damage.[17][18] In November 1994, a Rolling Stones concert was the "first major cyberspace multicast concert." Mick Jagger opened the concert by saying, "I want to say a special welcome to everyone that's, uh, climbed into the Internet
Internet
tonight and, uh, has got into the M-bone. And I hope it doesn't all collapse."[19] On November 7, 1994, WXYC
WXYC
(89.3 FM Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA) became the first traditional radio station to announce broadcasting on the Internet. WXYC
WXYC
used an FM radio connected to a system at SunSite, later known as Ibiblio, running Cornell's CU-SeeMe
CU-SeeMe
software. WXYC
WXYC
had begun test broadcasts and bandwidth testing as early as August 1994.[20] WREK
WREK
(91.1 FM, Atlanta, GA USA) started streaming on the same day using their own custom software called CyberRadio1. However, unlike WXYC, this was WREK's beta launch and the stream was not advertised until a later date.[21] On December 3, 1994, KJHK
KJHK
90.7 FM, a campus radio station located in Lawrence, Kansas, at the University of Kansas, became one of the first radio stations in the world to broadcast a live and continuous stream over Internet
Internet
radio.[22] Time magazine said that RealAudio took "advantage of the latest advances in digital compression" and delivered "AM radio-quality sound in so-called real time."[23] Eventually, companies such as Nullsoft and Microsoft released streaming audio players as free downloads.[24] As the software audio players became available, "many Web-based radio stations began springing up."[24] In 1995, Scott Bourne founded NetRadio.com as the world's first Internet-only radio network. NetRadio.com was a pioneer in Internet radio. It was the first Internet-only network to be licensed by ASCAP. Net Radio
Radio
eventually went on to an IPO in October 1999. Most of the current Internet
Internet
radio providers followed the path that NetRadio.com carved out in digital media. [25] In March 1996, Virgin Radio
Radio
- London became the first European radio station to broadcast its full program live on the Internet.[26] It broadcast its FM signal, live from the source, simultaneously on the Internet
Internet
24 hours a day.[27] On May 1, 1997, Radio306.com (now Pure Rock Radio) launched in Saskatoon, Canada. The internet-only station purerockradio.net celebrated 20 years on air in 2017 as the longest-running Canadian internet station. Internet
Internet
radio attracted significant media and investor attention in the late 1990s. In 1998, the initial public stock offering for Broadcast.com
Broadcast.com
set a record at the time for the largest jump in price in stock offerings in the United States. The offering price was US$18 and the company's shares opened at US$68 on the first day of trading.[28] The company was losing money at the time and indicated in a prospectus filed with the Securities Exchange Commission that they expected the losses to continue indefinitely.[28] Yahoo! purchased Broadcast.com
Broadcast.com
on July 20, 1999,[29] for US$5.7 billion.[30] With the advent of streaming RealAudio over HTTP, streaming became more accessible to a number of radio shows. One such show, TechEdge Radio
Radio
in 1997, was broadcast in three formats - live on the radio, live from a RealAudio server and streamed from the web over HTTP.In 1998, the longest running internet radio show,[31] The Vinyl Lounge, began netcasting from Sydney, Australia, from Australia's first Internet
Internet
radio station, NetFM (www.netfm.net). In 1999, Australian telco "Telstra" launched The Basement Internet
Internet
Radio
Radio
Station but it was later shut down in 2003 as it was not a viable business for the company. From 2000 onwards, most Internet
Internet
radio stations increased their stream quality as bandwidth became more economical. Today, most stations stream between 64 kbit/s and 128 kbit/s providing near CD quality audio.[citation needed] As of 2017 the mobile app Radio Garden, a research project of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, was streaming approximately 8,000 radio stations to a global audience.[32] US royalty controversy[edit] In October 1998, the US Congress passed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), one result of which is that performance royalties are to be paid for satellite radio and Internet
Internet
radio broadcasts in addition to publishing royalties. In contrast, traditional radio broadcasters pay only publishing royalties and no performance royalties.[33][34] A rancorous dispute ensued over how performance royalties should be assessed for Internet
Internet
broadcasters.[7][30][34][35][36][37][38] Some observers said that royalty rates that were being proposed were overly burdensome and intended to disadvantage independent Internet-only stations[34]—that "while Internet
Internet
giants like AOL may be able to afford the new rates, many smaller Internet
Internet
radio stations will have to shut down."[37] The Digital Media Association (DiMA) said that even large companies, like Yahoo! Music, might fail due to the proposed rates.[7] Some observers said that some U.S.-based Internet
Internet
broadcasts might be moved to foreign jurisdictions where US royalties do not apply.[36] Many of these critics organized SaveNetRadio.org, "a coalition of listeners, artists, labels and webcasters"[35] that opposed the proposed royalty rates. To focus attention on the consequences of the impending rate hike, many US Internet
Internet
broadcasters participated in a "Day of Silence" on June 26, 2007. On that day, they shut off their audio streams or streamed ambient sound, sometimes interspersed with brief public service announcements voiced, written and produced by popular voiceover artist Dave Solomon.[39] Notable participants included Rhapsody, Live365, MTV, Pandora, Digitally Imported
Digitally Imported
and SHOUTcast. Some broadcasters did not participate, such as Last.fm, which had just been purchased for US$280 million by CBS Music
Music
Group.[40] According to a Last.fm
Last.fm
employee, they were unable to participate because participation "may compromise ongoing license negotiations."[41] SoundExchange, representing supporters of the increase in royalty rates, pointed out that the rates were flat from 1998 through 2005 (see above), without being increased to reflect cost-of-living increases. They also declared that if Internet
Internet
radio is to build businesses from the product of recordings, the performers and owners of those recordings should receive fair compensation. On May 1, 2007, SoundExchange
SoundExchange
came to an agreement with certain large webcasters regarding the minimum fees that were modified by the determination of the Copyright Royalty Board. While the CRB decision imposed a $500 per station or channel minimum fee for all webcasters, certain webcasters represented through DiMA negotiated a $50,000 "cap" on those fees with SoundExchange.[42] However, DiMA and SoundExchange continue to negotiate over the per song, per listener fees.[citation needed] SoundExchange
SoundExchange
has also offered alternative rates and terms to certain eligible small webcasters, that allow them to calculate their royalties as a percentage of their revenue or expenses, instead of at a per performance rate.[43] To be eligible, a webcaster had to have revenues of less than US $1.25 million a year and stream less than 5 million "listener hours" a month (or an average of 6830 concurrent listeners).[44] These restrictions would disqualify independent webcasters like AccuRadio, Digitally Imported, Club977 and others from participating in the offer, and therefore many small commercial webcasters continue to negotiate a settlement with SoundExchange.[45] An August 16, 2008, Washington Post article reported that although Pandora was "one of the nation's most popular Web radio services, with about 1 million listeners daily...the burgeoning company may be on the verge of collapse" due to the structuring of performance royalty payment for webcasters. "Traditional radio, by contrast, pays no such fee. Satellite radio pays a fee but at a less onerous rate, at least by some measures." The article indicated that "other Web radio outfits" may be "doomed" for the same reasons.[46] On September 30, 2008, the United States
United States
Congress passed "a bill that would put into effect any changes to the royalty rate to which [record labels and web casters] agree while lawmakers are out of session."[47] Although royalty rates are expected to decrease, many webcasters nevertheless predict difficulties generating sufficient revenue to cover their royalty payments.[47] In January 2009, the US Copyright Royalty Board announced that "it will apply royalties to streaming net services based on revenue."[48] Since then, websites like Pandora Radio, AccuRadio, Mog, 8tracks
8tracks
and recently[when?] Google Music
Music
have changed the way people discover and listen to music. The Webcaster Settlement Act of 2009 expired in January 2016, ending a 10-year period in which smaller online radio stations, Live365
Live365
among them, could pay reduced royalties to labels. On January 31, 2016, webcasters who are governed by rules adopted by the Copyright Royalty Board were required to pay to SoundExchange
SoundExchange
an annual, nonrefundable minimum fee of $500 for each channel and station,[49] the fee for services with greater than 100 stations or channels being $50,000 annually.[50] See also[edit]

Radio
Radio
portal

Comparison of streaming media systems Electronic commerce Internet
Internet
radio audience measurement TuneIn Radio Internet
Internet
radio device Internet
Internet
radio licensing Internet
Internet
talk radio List of Internet
Internet
radio stations List of streaming media systems Mbone, experimental "multicast backbone" Radio
Radio
music ripping Radio
Radio
over IP Simulcast

References[edit]

^ [1], Kiraly, Jozsef, "Method and system for implementing an internet radio device for receiving and/or transmitting media information"  ^ [2], Cerf, Vinton & Scott Huddle, " Internet
Internet
radio communication system"  ^ Fries, Bruce; Fries, Marty (2005). Digital Audio Essentials. O'Reilly Media. pp. 98–99. ISBN 9780596008567.  ^ Sanghoon, Jun (Spring 2013). "SmartRadio: Cloning Internet
Internet
Radio Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Stations". International Information Institute (Tokyo). Information. 16: 2701–2709 – via School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University.  ^ Hoeg, Wolfgang; Lauterbach, Thomas (2009). Digital audio broadcasting: principles and applications of DAB, DAB+ and DMB. Wiley. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-470-51037-7.  ^ Hoeg, p 43. ^ a b c d Olga Kharif, The Last Days of Internet
Internet
Radio?, March 7, 2007. Retrieved on March 7, 2007. ^ The "HD" in "HD radio" actually stands for hybrid digital, not high-definition. It's hybrid because analog and digital signals are broadcast together. ^ Joe Lensky; Bill Rose (June 24, 2008). "The Infinite Dial 2008: Radio's Digital Platforms" (PDF). Digital Radio
Radio
Study 2008. Arbitron and Edison Research.  ^ "Weekly online radio audience increases from 11 percent to 13 percent of Americans in last year, according to the latest Arbitron/Edison media research study". Arbitron & Edison Research. Red Orbit. April 9, 2008.  ^ a b Streaming Music
Music
is Gaining on Traditional Radio
Radio
Among Younger Music
Music
Listeners by The NPD Group: https://www.npd.com/wps/portal/npd/us/news/press-releases/streaming-music-is-gaining-on-traditional-radio-among-younger-music-listeners/ ^ "Half Of U.S. Listeners Tune Into Online Radio". www.mediapost.com. Retrieved October 5, 2017.  ^ "Monthly Online Radio
Radio
Listeners Now Exceed Half The Population 12+ - Edison Research". Edison Research. 2015-02-26. Retrieved 2017-10-28.  ^ " Radio
Radio
Sponsorship Rules" (PDF). www.ofcom.org.uk.  ^ " Internet
Internet
Talk
Talk
Radio". museum.media.org. Retrieved May 30, 2010.  ^ "Cable company is set to plug into Internet". The Wall Street Journal. August 24, 1993. Retrieved March 18, 2008.  ^ Randy Alfred (June 24, 2009). "This day in Tech". Wired. Retrieved April 11, 2013.  ^ Savetz, K., Randall, N., and Lepage, Y., "MBONE: Multicasting Tomorrow's Internet" (in the Musical Events section: "Severe Tire Damage was the first live band on the Internet. On June 24, 1993"), John Wiley, 1996, ISBN 1-56884-723-8 ^ Peter H. Lewis (February 8, 1995). "Peering Out a 'Real Time' Window". New York Times. Retrieved February 9, 2009.  ^ WXYC's groundbreaking internet simulcast is now 10 years old November 12, 2004. WXYC
WXYC
Chapel Hill, NC, 89.3 FM. ^ We got here first. Sort of. WREK
WREK
Atlanta, 91.1 FM. ^ " KJHK
KJHK
turns 30 years as the Sound Alternative". Archived from the original (English) on March 3, 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-26.  ^ Josh Quittner (May 1, 1995). " Radio
Radio
Free Cyberspace". Time. Retrieved March 5, 2009.  ^ a b Richard D. Rose (May 8, 2002). "Connecting the Dots: Navigating the Laws and Licensing Requirements of the Internet
Internet
Music
Music
Revolution" (PDF). IDEA: The Intellectual Property Law Review. Retrieved March 5, 2009.  ^ "Net.radio, AudioNet & ASCAP sign licensing agreement. - Free Online Library". www.thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved October 5, 2017.  ^ Adam Bowie (September 26, 2008). "A brief history of Virgin Radio". One Golden Square. Retrieved March 30, 2009.  ^ "An Introduction to Internet
Internet
Radio" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union (EBU). October 26, 2005. Retrieved July 26, 2016.  ^ a b Saul Hansell (July 20, 1998). " Broadcast.com
Broadcast.com
Faces Risks After Strong Initial Offering". New York Times. Retrieved November 23, 2008.  ^ "Yahoo! Completes Broadcast.com
Broadcast.com
Acquisition". Yahoo! Media Relations. July 20, 1999. Retrieved January 10, 2009.  ^ a b Doc Searls, (July 17, 2002) "Why Are So Many Internet
Internet
Radio Stations Still on the Air?" Linux
Linux
Journal. Retrieved March 14, 2010. ^ National Film & Sound Archive (September 20, 2010). "National Film & Sound Archive". National Film & Sound Archive.  ^ Visnjic, Filip (2017-07-09). " Radio
Radio
Garden – Radio
Radio
in the age of globalisation and digitisation". Creative Applications Network.  ^ Stockment, Andrew (December 2009). " Internet
Internet
Radio: The Case for a Technology Neutral Royalty Standard". Virginia Law Review. Retrieved October 6, 2013.  ^ a b c Michael Roberts (May 2, 2002). "Digital Dilemma: Will new royalty fees kill Web radio?". Westword. Retrieved March 14, 2010. ^ a b Carlos Militante (April 26, 2007). "Stagnant royalty rates may bring end to Internet
Internet
radio". Spartan Daily (San Jose State U.). The Daily Collegian. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved March 14, 2010.  ^ a b Michael Geist (April 9, 2007). Web radio may stream north to Canada. The Toronto Star. ^ a b Gray, Hiawatha (March 14, 2007). Royalty hike could mute Internet
Internet
radio: Smaller stations say rise will be too much, The Boston Globe. ^ Broache, Anne (April 26, 2007). "Lawmakers propose reversal of Net radio fee increases". CNet News. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved March 14, 2010.  ^ Official SaveNet Radio
Radio
PSAs & Day Of Silence Network Audio. The Toronto Star. ^ Duncan Riley (May 30, 2007). CBS Acquires Europe’s Last.FM for $280 million Techcrunch. Retrieved March 14, 2010. ^ Russ Garrett (June 25, 2007). Post by Russ on Last.fm
Last.fm
Forum - Day of Silence, June 25, 2007. Retrieved June 24, 2012. ^ Olga Kharif (August 23, 2007). "Webcasters and SoundExchange
SoundExchange
Shake Hands". BusinessWeek.com. Retrieved August 24, 2007.  ^ Mark Hefflinger (August 22, 2007). " SoundExchange
SoundExchange
Offers Discounted Music
Music
Rates To Small Webcasters". DigitalMediaWire.com. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2007.  ^ Rusty Hodge, (August 1, 2007) SoundExchange
SoundExchange
extends (not very good) offer to small webcasters. SomaFM. Retrieved March 14, 2010. ^ David Oxenford (September 19, 2007) SoundExchange
SoundExchange
Announces 24 Agreements - But Not One a Settlement With Small Webcasters Archived June 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. Broadcast Law Blog. ^ Peter Whoriskey (August 16, 2008) Giant Of Internet
Internet
Nears Its 'Last Stand'. The Washington Post. Retrieved March 14, 2010. ^ a b Miller, Cain Claire (Oct.27, 2008) Even If Royalties for Web Radio
Radio
Fall, Revenue Remains Elusive, The New York Times. ^ Scott M. Fulton, III (January 29, 2009) Copyright Board begrudgingly adopts revenue-based streaming royalties. BetaNews.com. Retrieved March 14, 2010. ^ "2016 Broadcasters Calendar" (PDF). wbklaw.com. Wilkinson Barker Knauer LLP. Retrieved 2016-02-01.  ^ "commercial webcaster 2016 rates". soundexchange.com. soundexchange. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 

Further reading[edit]

"VOA: First on the Internet," by Chris Kern (2006) Priestman, Chris (2001). Web Radio: Radio
Radio
Production for Internet Streaming. Focal Press. ISBN 978-0-240-51635-6.  Stockment, Andrew (2009). " Internet
Internet
Radio: The Case for a Technology Neutral Royalty Standard". Virginia Law Review. 95 (8). Retrieved March 17, 2015.  Villasenor, John (2012). "Digital Music
Music
Broadcast Royalties: The Case for a Level Playing Field" (PDF). Issues in Technology Innovation. 19. Retrieved March 17, 2015.  DiCola, Peter. "Copyright Equality: Free Speech, Efficiency, and Regulatory Parity in Distribution" (PDF). Boston University Law Review. 93 (6). Retrieved March 17, 2015. 

v t e

Broadcasting

Medium

Radio
Radio
( Radio
Radio
program Cable Satellite) Telephone Teletext Television
Television
( Television
Television
program Cable Satellite) Internet
Internet
television and radio (Webcast Streaming media Web television Peer-to-peer television BitTorrent television and movies)

Broadcasting niche

Campus radio Commercial broadcasting Community radio News
News
broadcasting Pirate radio / Pirate television Public broadcasting Religious broadcasting Talk
Talk
radio

Specialty channels

Adult television channels Children's interest channel / Children's television series Documentary channel Men's interest channel Movie television channels Music
Music
radio / Music
Music
television Quiz channel Shopping channel News
News
broadcasting

Business channels Public affairs Sports television channels

Women's interest channel

Production and funding

Broadcast designer Broadcast license Broadcast network Broadcast-safe Broadcast television systems Digital on-screen graphic Lower third Network affiliate News
News
ticker Score bug Television
Television
news screen layout Television
Television
licence Television
Television
studio Press box Press pool on-screen display

v t e

Media player software

Free software

Windows

Media Player Classic MediaPortal Mpxplay QuuxPlayer

Linux

active

Baudline cmus Helix Kaffeine Music
Music
on Console Noise Parole Rhythmbox Totem Xine XMMS2

inactive

JuK Muine Ogle DVD Player XMMS

Cross-platform

active

Amarok Audacious Clementine DeaDBeeF Exaile ffplay Kodi Mpg123 MPlayer/mpv (SMPlayer) Emby Music
Music
Player Daemon qmmp Quod Libet VLC

inactive

Banshee Miro Nightingale Songbird Zinf

Freeware

Windows

Adobe Media Player AIMP Dell MediaDirect foobar2000 GOM Player Groove Music jetAudio KMPlayer MadCat Media Browser Media Go MediaMonkey Microsoft Movies & TV Mod4Win MusicBee MusikCube InterActual Player PotPlayer QuickTime Quintessential Player Style Jukebox Winamp

Cross-platform

Boxee DivX Player iTunes Plex QuickTime RealPlayer

Commercial (proprietary)

Windows

Connect Player Iriver plus 3 JRiver Media Center PowerDVD TotalMedia Theatre SonicStage WinDVD Windows
Windows
Media Center Windows
Windows
Media Player Yahoo! Music
Music
Jukebox

macOS

DVD Player Front Row Peel

Mobile

CoreAVC
CoreAVC
CorePlayer Core Pocket Media Player doubleTwist RealPlayer TuneWiki Winamp

Lists

Video players Audio players Free software
Free software
audio players Portable media players Personal video recorders

v t e

Telecommunications

History

Beacon Broadcasting Cable protection system Cable TV Communications satellite Computer network Drums Electrical telegraph Fax Heliographs Hydraulic telegraph Internet Mass media Mobile phone Optical telecommunication Optical telegraphy Pager Photophone Prepay mobile phone Radio Radiotelephone Satellite communications Semaphore Smartphone Smoke signals Telecommunications history Telautograph Telegraphy Teleprinter
Teleprinter
(teletype) Telephone The Telephone
Telephone
Cases Television Timeline of communication technology Undersea telegraph line Videoconferencing Videophone Videotelephony Whistled language

Pioneers

Edwin Howard Armstrong John Logie Baird Paul Baran Alexander Graham Bell Tim Berners-Lee Jagadish Chandra Bose Vint Cerf Claude Chappe Donald Davies Lee de Forest Philo Farnsworth Reginald Fessenden Elisha Gray Erna Schneider Hoover Charles K. Kao Hedy Lamarr Innocenzo Manzetti Guglielmo Marconi Antonio Meucci Radia Perlman Alexander Stepanovich Popov Johann Philipp Reis Nikola Tesla Camille Tissot Alfred Vail Charles Wheatstone Vladimir K. Zworykin

Transmission media

Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication

Optical fiber

Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio
Radio
waves Transmission line

Network topology and switching

Links Nodes Terminal node Network switching (circuit packet) Telephone
Telephone
exchange

Multiplexing

Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division

Networks

ARPANET BITNET Cellular network Computer CYCLADES Ethernet FidoNet Internet ISDN LAN Mobile NGN NPL network Public Switched Telephone Radio Telecommunications equipment Television Telex WAN Wireless World Wide Web

.