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The Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a department of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation that oversees global IP address
IP address
allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System
Domain Name System
(DNS), media types, and other Internet
Internet
Protocol-related symbols and Internet
Internet
numbers.[1][2] Before ICANN
ICANN
was established primarily for this purpose in 1998, IANA was administered principally by Jon Postel
Jon Postel
at the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) of the University of Southern California
University of Southern California
(USC) situated at Marina Del Rey (Los Angeles), under a contract USC/ISI had with the United States
United States
Department of Defense, until ICANN
ICANN
was created to assume the responsibility under a United States
United States
Department of Commerce contract. Following ICANN's transition to a global multistakeholder governance model, the IANA functions were transferred to Public Technical Identifiers, an affiliate of ICANN.[3] In addition, five regional Internet
Internet
registries delegate number resources to their customers, local Internet
Internet
registries, Internet service providers, and end-user organizations. A local Internet registry is an organization that assigns parts of its allocation from a regional Internet
Internet
registry to other customers. Most local Internet registries are also Internet
Internet
service providers.

Contents

1 Responsibilities

1.1 IP addresses 1.2 Domain names 1.3 Protocol parameters 1.4 Time zone
Time zone
database

2 History 3 Oversight 4 Managers 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Responsibilities[edit] IANA is broadly responsible for the allocation of globally unique names and numbers that are used in Internet
Internet
protocols that are published as Request for Comments documents. These documents describe methods, behaviors, research, or innovations applicable to the working of the Internet
Internet
and Internet-connected systems. IANA maintains a close liaison with the Internet Engineering Task Force
Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF) and RFC Editorial team in fulfilling this function.[citation needed] In the case of the two major Internet
Internet
namespaces, namely IP addresses and domain names, extra administrative policy and delegation to subordinate administrations is required because of the multi-layered distributed use of these resources. IANA is responsible for assignment of Internet
Internet
numbers[4][5] which are numerical identifier assigned to an Internet
Internet
resource or used in the networking protocols of the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
Suite. Examples include IP addresses and autonomous system (AS) numbers. IP addresses[edit] IANA delegates allocations of IP address
IP address
blocks to regional Internet registries (RIRs). Each RIR allocates addresses for a different area of the world. Collectively the RIRs have created the Number Resource Organization formed as a body to represent their collective interests and ensure that policy statements are coordinated globally.[citation needed] The RIRs divide their allocated address pools into smaller blocks and delegate them to Internet service providers
Internet service providers
and other organizations in their operating regions. Since the introduction of the CIDR
CIDR
system, IANA has typically allocated address space in the size of /8 prefix blocks for IPv4
IPv4
and /23 to /12 prefix blocks from the 2000::/3 IPv6 block to requesting regional registries as needed. Since the exhaustion of the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
Version 4 address space, no further IPv4
IPv4
address space is allocated by IANA.[citation needed] Domain names[edit] IANA administers the data in the root nameservers, which form the top of the hierarchical Domain name system
Domain name system
(DNS) tree.[6] This task involves liaising with top-level domain "Registrar-of-Record"s, the root nameserver operators, and ICANN's policy making apparatus.[7] IANA operates the int registry for international treaty organizations, the arpa zone for Internet
Internet
infrastructure purposes, including reverse DNS service, and other critical zones such as root-servers.[citation needed] Protocol parameters[edit]

^ "About IANA - Introduction to IANA". Retrieved 17 December 2011.  ^ B. Carpenter, F. Baker, M. Roberts (June 2000). MoU Between IETF
IETF
and ICANN
ICANN
concerning IANA. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC2860. RFC 2860. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2860.  ^ Elise Gerich (2016-10-25). "IANA Services Update". RIPE
RIPE
73 Archives. Madrid, Spain: RIPE. Retrieved 2016-11-02.  ^ "RFC 790". www.ripe.net. RIPE. Retrieved 6 November 2014.  ^ "RFC 1166". www.ripe.net. RIPE. Retrieved 6 November 2014.  ^ DeNardis, Laura (2014). The Global War for Internet
Internet
Governance. Yale University Press. p. 49. ISBN 9780300181357.  ^ Mueller, Milton (2002). Ruling the Root: Internet
Internet
Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace. MIT Press. ISBN 9780262263795. 

Time zone
Time zone
database[edit] The IANA time zone database
IANA time zone database
holds the time zone differences and rules for the various regions of the world and allows this information to be mirrored and used by computers and other electronic devices to maintain proper configuration for timekeeping. IANA assumed responsibility for the database on October 16, 2011, after the Astrolabe, Inc. v. Olson et al.[1] decision caused the shutdown of the FTP server which had previously been the primary source of the database.[2][3] History[edit] IANA was established informally as a reference to various technical functions for the ARPANET, that Jon Postel
Jon Postel
and Joyce K. Reynolds performed at the University of California at Los Angeles
University of California at Los Angeles
(UCLA) and at the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute. On March 26, 1972, Vint Cerf
Vint Cerf
and Jon Postel
Jon Postel
at UCLA called for establishing a socket number catalog in RFC 322. Network administrators were asked to submit a note or place a phone call, "describing the function and socket numbers of network service programs at each HOST".[4] This catalog was subsequently published as RFC 433 in December 1972.[5] In it Postel first proposed a registry of assignments of port numbers to network services, calling himself the czar of socket numbers.[6] The first reference to the name "IANA" in the RFC series is in RFC 1083, published in December, 1988 by Postel at USC-ISI, referring to Joyce K. Reynolds as the IANA contact. However the function, and the term, was well established long before that; RFC 1174 says that "Throughout its entire history, the Internet
Internet
system has employed a central Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)..."[7] In 1995, the National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
authorized Network Solutions to assess domain name registrants a $50 fee per year for the first two years, 30 percent of which was to be deposited in the Intellectual Infrastructure Fund (IIF), a fund to be used for the preservation and enhancement of the intellectual infrastructure of the Internet.[8] There was widespread dissatisfaction with this concentration of power (and money) in one company, and people looked to IANA for a solution. Postel wrote up a draft[9] on IANA and the creation of new top level domains. He was trying to institutionalize IANA. In retrospect, this would have been valuable, since he unexpectedly died about two years later. In January 1998, Postel was threatened by US Presidential science advisor Ira Magaziner
Ira Magaziner
with the statement "You'll never work on the Internet
Internet
again" after Postel collaborated with root server operators to test using a root server other than Network Solutions' "A" root to act as the authority over the root zone. Demonstrating that control of the root was from the IANA rather than from Network Solutions would have clarified IANA's authority to create new top-level domains as a step to resolving the DNS Wars, but he ended his effort after Magaziner's threat, and died not long after.[10][11] Jon Postel
Jon Postel
managed the IANA function from its inception on the ARPANET until his death in October 1998. By his almost 30 years of "selfless service",[12] Postel created his de facto authority to manage key parts of the Internet
Internet
infrastructure. After his death, Joyce K. Reynolds, who had worked with him for many years, managed the transition of the IANA function to ICANN. Starting in 1988, IANA was funded by the U.S. government under a contract between the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
and the Information Sciences Institute. This contract expired in April 1997, but was extended to preserve IANA.[13] On December 24, 1998, USC entered into a transition agreement with the Internet
Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICANN, transferring the IANA project to ICANN, effective January 1, 1999, thus making IANA an operating unit of ICANN.[14] In June 1999, at its Oslo meeting, IETF
IETF
signed an agreement with ICANN concerning the tasks that IANA would perform for the IETF; this is published as RFC 2860.[15] On February 8, 2000, the Department of Commerce entered into an agreement with ICANN
ICANN
for ICANN
ICANN
to perform the IANA functions.[16] On October 7, 2013 the Montevideo Statement on the Future of Internet Cooperation was released by the leaders of a number of organizations involved in coordinating the Internet's global technical infrastructure, loosely known as the "I*" (or "I-star") group. Among other things, the statement "expressed strong concern over the undermining of the trust and confidence of Internet
Internet
users globally due to recent revelations of pervasive monitoring and surveillance" and "called for accelerating the globalization of ICANN
ICANN
and IANA functions, towards an environment in which all stakeholders, including all governments, participate on an equal footing". This desire to move away from a United States
United States
centric approach is seen as a reaction to the ongoing NSA surveillance scandal. The statement was signed by the heads of the Internet
Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the Internet
Internet
Engineering Task Force, the Internet Architecture Board, the World Wide Web Consortium, the Internet Society, and the five regional Internet
Internet
address registries (African Network Information Center, American Registry for Internet
Internet
Numbers, Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre, Latin America and Caribbean Internet
Internet
Addresses Registry, and Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre).[17][18][19] In October 2013, Fadi Chehadé, current President and CEO of ICANN, met with Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff in Brasilia. Upon Chehadé's invitation, the two announced that Brazil would host an international summit on Internet
Internet
governance in April 2014.[20] The announcement came after the 2013 disclosures of mass surveillance by the U.S. government, and President Rousseff's speech at the opening session of the 2013 United Nations General Assembly, where she strongly criticized the American surveillance program as a "breach of international law". The "Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet
Internet
Governance (NET mundial)" will include representatives of government, industry, civil society, and academia.[21] At the IGF VIII meeting in Bali in October 2013 a commenter noted that Brazil intends the meeting to be a "summit" in the sense that it will be high level with decision-making authority.[22] The organizers of the "NET mundial" meeting have decided that an online forum called "/1net", set up by the I* group, will be a major conduit of non-governmental input into the three committees preparing for the meeting in April.[19][23][24] In April 2014 the NetMundial Initiative, a plan for international governance of the Internet, was proposed at the Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet
Internet
Governance (GMMFIG) conference (23–24 April 2014)[25][26][27] and later developed into the NetMundial Initiative by ICANN
ICANN
CEO Fadi Chehade
Fadi Chehade
along with representatives of the World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
(WEF)[28] and the Brazilian Internet
Internet
Steering Committee (Comitê Gestor da Internet
Internet
no Brasil), commonly referred to as "CGI.br".[29] The meeting produced a nonbinding statement in favor of consensus-based decision-making. It reflected a compromise and did not harshly condemn mass surveillance or include the words "net neutrality", despite initial support for that from Brazil. The final resolution says ICANN
ICANN
should be under international control by September 2015.[30] A minority of governments, including Russia, China, Iran and India, were unhappy with the final resolution and wanted multi-lateral management for the Internet, rather than broader multi-stakeholder management.[31] A month later, the Panel On Global Internet
Internet
Cooperation and Governance Mechanisms (convened by the Internet
Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and the World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
(WEF) with assistance from The Annenberg Foundation), supported and included the NetMundial statement in its own report.[32] Oversight[edit] IANA has been managed by the Internet
Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) under contract with the United States
United States
Department of Commerce (DOC) and pursuant to an agreement with the IETF
IETF
since 1998.[33][34] The Department of Commerce also provides an ongoing oversight function, whereby it verifies additions and changes made in the DNS root zone to ensure IANA complies with its policies. The Internet
Internet
Architecture Board (IAB), on behalf of the IETF, may terminate the agreement under which ICANN
ICANN
performs IANA functions with six months notice.[citation needed] ICANN
ICANN
and the Department of Commerce made an agreement for the "joint development of the "mechanisms methods, and procedures necessary to effect the transition of Internet
Internet
domain name and addressing system (DNS) to the private sector" via a "Joint Project Agreement" in 1998. On January 28, 2003, the Department of Commerce, via the Acquisition and Grants Office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, issued a notice of intent to extend the IANA contract for three years. In August 2006, the U.S. Department of Commerce extended the IANA contract with ICANN
ICANN
by an additional five years, subject to annual renewals.[35] Since ICANN
ICANN
is managing a worldwide resource, while the IANA function is contracted to ICANN
ICANN
by the US Department of Commerce, various proposals have been brought forward to decouple the IANA function from ICANN.[citation needed] On October 1, 2009 the "Joint Project Agreement" between ICANN
ICANN
and U.S. Department of Commerce expired, replaced by an "Affirmation of Commitments".[36][37] On March 14, 2014, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced its intent to transition key Internet
Internet
domain name functions to a global multi-stakeholder community.[38][39] On August 16, 2016, the Department of Commerce confirmed that its criteria for transitioning IANA Stewardship to the Internet multistakeholder community had been met, and that it intended to allow its contract with ICANN
ICANN
to expire on September 30, 2016, allowing the transition to take effect.[40][41][42] On October 1, 2016, the contract between the United States
United States
Department of Commerce and ICANN
ICANN
to perform the IANA functions was allowed to expire and the stewardship of IANA functions was officially transitioned to the private-sector.[43][44] Managers[edit]

In 1972, Jon Postel
Jon Postel
and Joyce K. Reynolds. In 1998, Joyce K. Reynolds. In 2003, Doug Barton. In 2005, David Conrad. In 2010, Elise Gerich. In 2018, Kim Davies.[45]

See also[edit]

Greater Los Angeles portal Internet
Internet
portal

American Registry for Internet
Internet
Numbers Enterprise numbers Internet
Internet
governance List of information technology acronyms List of TCP and UDP port numbers Montevideo Statement on the Future of Internet
Internet
Cooperation National Internet
Internet
registry NetMundial Initiative, a plan for international governance of the Internet
Internet
first proposed at the Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet
Internet
Governance (GMMFIG) conference, 23–24 April 2014). Registration authority VPIM

References[edit]

^ "Astrolabe, Inc. v. Olson et al". 2011-10-06. Retrieved 2011-10-16.  ^ " ICANN
ICANN
rescues time zone database". 2011-10-16. Retrieved 2011-10-16.  ^ "IANA - Time Zone Database". 2018-10-16. Retrieved 2011-10-16.  ^ V. Cerf, J. Postel (26 March 1972). Well Known Socket Numbers. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC0322. RFC 322. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc322.  ^ Jon Postel, Nancy Neigus (22 December 1972). Socket Number List. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC0433. RFC 433. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc433.  ^ J. Postel (30 May 1972). Proposed Standard Socket Numbers. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC0349. RFC 349. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc349.  ^ V. Cerf (August 1990). IAB Recommended Policy on Distributing Internet
Internet
Identifier Assignment and IAB Recommended Policy Change to Internet
Internet
"Connected" Status. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC1174. RFC 1174. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1174.  ^ "NTIA DNS Statement of Policy". June 1998.  ^ J. Postel (June 1996). New Registries and the Delegation of International Top Level Domains. IETF. I-D draft-postel-iana-itld-admin-0. http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-postel-iana-itld-admin-01.  ^ Damien Cave (July 2, 2002). "It's time for ICANN
ICANN
to go". Salon.com. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011.  ^ Dave Farber (July 2, 2002). "a comment on Gilmore: ICANN
ICANN
Must Go (good insights)". Interesting-people mailing list. Archived from the original on May 25, 2010.  ^ V. Cerf (October 1998). I Remember IANA. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC2468. RFC 2468. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2468.  ^ Snyder, Joel; Konstantinos, Komaitis; Robachevsky, Andrei (9 May 2016). "The History of IANA - An Extended Timeline with Citations and Commentary". Internet
Internet
Society. Retrieved 7 March 2018.  ^ "USC ICANN
ICANN
Transition Agreement". ICANN. Retrieved 22 October 2016.  ^ "Memorandum of Understanding Concerning the Technical Work of the Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority". Retrieved 21 January 2017.  ^ "IANA Functions Contract" (PDF). Dept of Commerce/NTIA. Retrieved 15 March 2013.  ^ Montevideo Statement on the Future of Internet
Internet
Cooperation, ICANN, 7 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2016. ^ "Brazil's anti-NSA prez urged to SNATCH keys to the internet from America", Rik Myslewski, The Register, 11 October 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013. ^ a b Milton Mueller (2013-11-19). "Booting up Brazil". IGP Blog. Retrieved 2014-02-11.  ^ "Entrevista com Fadi Chehadé: Brasil sediará encontro mundial de governança da internet em 2014", Palácio do Planalto, 9 October 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2014. ^ "Brazil to host global internet summit in ongoing fight against NSA surveillance", RT News, 10 October 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013. ^ "Chair's Summary", Eighth Meeting of the Internet
Internet
Governance Forum (IGF), Bali, Indonesia, 22–25 October 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013. ^ "CENTR: Internet
Internet
Governance in 2013 and What's Coming Up in 2014". CircleID. 2014-01-27. Retrieved 2014-02-11.  ^ Paul Wilson (2013-11-29). "What Is "1net" to Me". CircleID blog. Retrieved 2014-02-11.  ^ "NETmundial Multistakeholder Statement Concludes Act One of 2014 Internet
Internet
Governance Trifecta". CircleID. 2014-05-03. Retrieved 2014-06-02.  ^ " ICANN
ICANN
Releases Roadmap, Timeline for Future Management of Internet". PC Tech Magazine. 2014-05-21. Retrieved 2014-06-02.  ^ "Future of the internet debated at NetMundial in Brazil". BBC News. 2014-04-23. Retrieved 2014-06-02.  ^ "NETmundial Initiative - Debrief with Founding Partners". Archived from the original on 2015-02-09. Retrieved 2014-09-02.  ^ "Public Declaration on the NETmundial Initiative issued by members of the board of CGI.br". Retrieved 2014-09-02.  ^ "At NETmundial, the U.S. Kept Its Companies on the Global Stage". Businessweek. 2014-04-30. Retrieved 2014-06-02.  ^ "The future of the internet". Business Standard. 2014-05-03. Retrieved 2014-06-02.  ^ "Towards a Collaborative, Decentralized Internet
Internet
Governance Ecosystem - report by the Panel On Global Internet
Internet
Cooperation and Governance Mechanisms". 2014-05-20. Archived from the original on 2014-06-06. Retrieved 2014-06-02.  ^ Cite error: The named reference B. Carpenter, F. Baker, M. Roberts was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "The IANA stewardship transition: what is happening? (Part I) DiploFoundation". www.diplomacy.edu. Retrieved 2016-09-20.  ^ ICANN
ICANN
awarded net administration until 2011 by The Register ^ "Affirmation of Commitments by the United States
United States
Department of Commerce and the Internet
Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers" (PDF). US Department of Commerce. September 30, 2009. Retrieved 2016-09-14.  ^ US Government finally lets ICANN
ICANN
go by ZDNet ^ "NTIA Announces Intent to Transition Key Internet
Internet
Domain Name Functions". United States
United States
Department of Commerce. Retrieved 15 March 2014.  ^ "U.S. Plans to Give Up Oversight of Web Domain Manager". Wall Street Journal. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.  ^ "The IANA stewardship transition: what is happening? (Part II) DiploFoundation". www.diplomacy.edu. Retrieved 2016-09-20.  ^ "US Government Announces Go-Ahead For IANA Transition By October". Intellectual Property Watch. 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2016-09-14.  ^ "Update on the IANA Transition". US Department of Commerce. August 16, 2016. Retrieved 2016-09-14.  ^ "Stewardship of IANA Functions Transitions to Global Internet Community as Contract with U.S. Government Ends". 2016-10-01. Retrieved 2016-10-03.  ^ "Statement of Assistant Secretary Strickling on IANA functions contract". 2016-10-01. Retrieved 2016-10-03.  ^ "Kim Davies Appointed VP, IANA Functions and President, PTI". 2017-12-15. Retrieved 2018-01-26. 

External links[edit]

IANA website IANA MIME media types list IANA character sets Numbers Resource Organization USC/ ICANN
ICANN
transition agreement IANA Functions Purchase Order of the United States
United States
Department of Commerce ICANN
ICANN
contract for IANA, March 2003 IANA List of Registrars

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 149194762 LCCN: no00004829 ISNI: 0000 00

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