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Coordinates: 37°46′56″N 122°28′18″W / 37.7823°N 122.4716°W / 37.7823; -122.4716

Internet Archive

Type of business 501(c)(3) nonprofit

Type of site

Digital library

Available in English

Founded May 12, 1996; 21 years ago (1996-05-12)[1][2]

Headquarters Richmond District San Francisco, California, U.S.

Chairman Brewster Kahle

Services Archive-It, Open Library, Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(since 2001), Netlabels, NASA
NASA
Images, Prelinger Archives

Revenue $14.0 million (2015)[3]

Employees 200

Website archive.org

Alexa rank 284 (September 2017[update])[4]

Launched 1996

Headquarters

Since 2009, headquarters have been at 300 Funston Avenue in San Francisco, a former Christian Science Church

Mirror of the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
in the Bibliotheca Alexandrina

The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge."[5][6] It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books. As of October 2016[update], its collection topped 15 petabytes.[7] In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet. The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as much of the public web as possible. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains over 308 billion web captures.[8][9] The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects. Founded by Brewster Kahle
Brewster Kahle
in May 1996, the Archive is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit operating in the United States. It has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources: revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.[10] Its headquarters are in San Francisco, California. Most of its staff work in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities: San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond. To prevent losing the data in case of e.g. a natural disaster, the Archive attempts to create copies of (parts of) the collection at more distant locations, currently including the Bibliotheca Alexandrina[11] in Egypt
Egypt
and a facility in Amsterdam.[12] The Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium[13] and was officially designated as a library by the State of California
California
in 2007.[14]

Contents

1 History 2 Web archiving

2.1 Wayback Machine 2.2 Archive-It

3 Book collections

3.1 Text collection 3.2 Number of texts for each language 3.3 Number of texts for each decade 3.4 Open Library

4 Media collections

4.1 Audio collection 4.2 Brooklyn Museum 4.3 Images collection

4.3.1 Cover Art Archive 4.3.2 Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
images 4.3.3 NASA
NASA
Images 4.3.4 Occupy Wall Street Flickr archive 4.3.5 USGS Maps

4.4 Machinima
Machinima
archive 4.5 Mathematics – Hamid Naderi Yeganeh 4.6 Microfilm collection 4.7 Moving image collection 4.8 Netlabels 4.9 Open Educational Resources 4.10 TV News Search & Borrow

5 Other services and endeavors

5.1 Physical media 5.2 Software

6 Controversies and legal disputes

6.1 Grateful Dead 6.2 National security letter 6.3 Uncensored hosting 6.4 Omni magazine 6.5 Opposition to SOPA and PIPA bills 6.6 Opposition to Google
Google
Books settlement 6.7 Nintendo Power
Nintendo Power
magazine 6.8 Government of India 6.9 Turkey

7 Ceramic
Ceramic
archivists collection 8 List of digitizing sponsors for ebooks 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

History[edit]

From 1996 to 2009, headquarters were in the Presidio of San Francisco, a former U.S. military base

Brewster Kahle
Brewster Kahle
founded the Archive in 1996 at around the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet.[15] In October 1996, the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
in large quantities,[16] though it saved the earliest pages in May 1996.[17][18] The archived content wasn't available to the general public until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the Prelinger Archives. Now the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
includes texts, audio, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images
NASA Images
Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It, and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site Open Library. Soon after that, the Archive began working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled; publicly accessible books were made available in a protected Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) format.[19] According to its website:[20]

Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars.

In August 2012, the Archive announced[21] that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for over 1.3 million existing files, and all newly uploaded files.[22][23] This method is the fastest means of downloading media from the Archive, as files are served from two Archive data centers, in addition to other torrent clients which have downloaded and continue to serve the files.[22][24] On November 6, 2013, the Internet Archive's headquarters in San Francisco's Richmond District caught fire,[25] destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.[26] According to the Archive, it lost a side-building housing one of 30 of its scanning centers; cameras, lights, and scanning equipment worth hundreds of thousands of dollars; and "maybe 20 boxes of books and film, some irreplaceable, most already digitized, and some replaceable".[27] The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage.[28] In November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
was building the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
of Canada, a copy of the archive to be based somewhere in Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build a backup archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump.[29][30][31] Kahle was quoted as saying that

On November 9th in America, we woke up to a new administration promising radical change. It was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and perpetually accessible. It means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions. It means serving patrons in a world in which government surveillance is not going away; indeed it looks like it will increase. Throughout history, libraries have fought against terrible violations of privacy—where people have been rounded up simply for what they read. At the Internet Archive, we are fighting to protect our readers’ privacy in the digital world.[29]

Web archiving[edit] Wayback Machine[edit] Main article: Wayback Machine

Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
logo, used since 1996

The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
capitalized on the popular use of the term "WABAC Machine" from a segment of the old Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon, and uses the name "Wayback Machine" for its service that allows archives of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
to be searched and accessed.[32] This service allows users to view archived web pages. The Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
was created as a joint effort between Alexa Internet
Alexa Internet
and the Internet Archive when a three-dimensional index was built to allow for the browsing of archived web content.[33] Millions of web sites and their associated data (images, source code, documents, etc.) are saved in a database. The service can be used to see what previous versions of web sites used to look like, to grab original source code from web sites that may no longer be directly available, or to visit web sites that no longer even exist. Not all web sites are available because many web site owners choose to exclude their sites. As with all sites based on data from web crawlers, the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
misses large areas of the web for a variety of other reasons. A 2004 paper found international biases in the coverage, but deemed them "not intentional".[34]

A purchase of additional storage at the Internet Archive

The use of the term "Wayback Machine" in the context of the Internet Archive has become common in popular culture; e.g., in the television show Law and Order: Criminal Intent ("Legacy", first run August 3, 2008), a computer tech uses the "Wayback Machine" to find an archive of a student's Facebook-style web site.[citation needed] Snapshots used to take at least 6–18 months to be added, but sites eventually were able to be added in real time by request.[citation needed] A "Save Page Now" archiving feature was made available in October 2013,[35] accessible on the lower right of the Wayback Machine's main page.[36] Once a target URL is entered and saved, if the target web site permits access via robots.txt, the web page will become part of the Wayback Machine.[35] (If the robots.txt of the web page changes later, it will become inaccessible.)

Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Number of all archived pages (billion) 40[37] 85[38] 85[39] 85[40] 150[41] 150[42] 150[43] 150[44] 373[45] 400[46]

Archive-It[edit]

Play media

Brewster Kahle
Brewster Kahle
of the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
talks about archiving operations

Created in early 2006, Archive-It[47] is a web archiving subscription service that allows institutions and individuals to build and preserve collections of digital content and create digital archives. Archive-It allows the user to customize their capture or exclusion of web content they want to preserve for cultural heritage reasons. Through a web application, Archive-It partners can harvest, catalog, manage, browse, search and view their archived collections.[48] In terms of accessibility, the archived web sites are full text searchable within seven days of capture.[49] Content collected through Archive-It is captured and stored as a WARC file. A primary and back-up copy is stored at the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
data centers. A copy of the WARC file can be given to subscribing partner institutions for geo-redundant preservation and storage purposes to their best practice standards.[50] The data captured through Archive-It is periodically indexed into the Internet Archive's general archive. As of March 2014[update], Archive-It had over 275 partner institutions in 46 U.S. states and 16 countries that have captured over 7.4 billion URLs for over 2,444 public collections. Archive-It partners are universities and college libraries, state archives, federal institutions, museums, law libraries and cultural organizations, including the Electronic Literature Organization, North Carolina State Archives and Library, Stanford University, Columbia University, American University in Cairo, Georgetown Law Library and many others. Book collections[edit] Text collection[edit]

Internet Archive
Internet Archive
"Scribe" book scanning workstation

The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Text Archive collection includes digitized books and special collections from various libraries and cultural heritage institutions from around the world.[citation needed] The Internet Archive operates 33 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1,000 books a day for a total of over 2 million books,[51] financially supported by libraries and foundations.[52] As of July 2013[update], the collection included 4.4 million books with over 15 million downloads per month.[51] As of November 2008[update], when there were about 1 million texts, the entire collection was over 0.5 petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, PDFs, and raw OCR data.[53] Between about 2006 and 2008 Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation had a special relationship with Internet Archive
Internet Archive
texts through its Live Search Books
Live Search Books
project, scanning over 300,000 books which were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23, 2008, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced it would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books.[54] Microsoft
Microsoft
made its scanned books available without contractual restriction and donated its scanning equipment to its former partners.[54]

An Internet Archive
Internet Archive
in-house scan ongoing

Around October 2007, Archive users began uploading public domain books from Google
Google
Book Search.[55] As of November 2013 there were over 900,000 Google-digitized books in the Archive's collection:[56] the books are identical to the copies found on Google, except without the Google
Google
watermarks, and are available for unrestricted use and download.[57] Brewster Kahle
Brewster Kahle
revealed in 2013 that this archival effort was coordinated by Aaron Swartz, who with a "bunch of friends" downloaded the public domain books from Google
Google
slow enough and from enough computers to stay within Google's restrictions. They did this to ensure public access to the public domain. The Archive ensured the items were attributed and linked back to Google, which never complained, while libraries "grumbled". According to Kahle, this is an example of Swartz's "genius" to work on what could give the most to the public good for millions of people.[58] Besides books, the Archive offers free and anonymous public access to more than four million court opinions, legal briefs, or exhibits uploaded from the United States Federal Courts' PACER electronic document system via the RECAP web browser plugin. These documents had been kept behind a federal court paywall. On the Archive, they had been accessed by over 6 million people by 2013.[58] Number of texts for each language[edit]

Number of all texts (June 2, 2016) 10,012,169[59]

Language English French German Spanish Chinese Arabic Dutch Portuguese Russian Urdu Japanese

Number of texts (November 27, 2015) 6,553,945[60] 358,721[61] 344,810[62] 134,170[63] 84,147[64] 66,786[65] 30,237[66] 25,938[67] 22,731[68] 14,978[69] 14,795[70]

Number of texts for each decade[edit]

Decade 1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s

Number of texts (November 27, 2015) 39,842[71] 51,151[72] 79,476[73] 105,021[74] 127,649[75] 180,950[76] 210,574[77] 214,505[78] 285,984[79] 370,726[80]

Decade 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

Number of texts (November 27, 2015) 504,000[81] 455,539[82] 185,876[83] 70,190[84] 85,062[85] 81,192[86] 125,977[87] 206,870[88] 181,129[89] 272,848[90] 579,905[91] 855,253[92]

Open Library[edit] Main article: Open Library The Open Library
Open Library
is another project of the Internet Archive. The wiki seeks to include a web page for every book ever published: it holds 25 million catalog records of editions. It also seeks to be a web-accessible public library: it contains the full texts of about 1,600,000 public domain books (out of the over five million from the main texts collection), which are fully readable, downloadable[93][94] and full-text searchable;[95] it offers access to an e-book lending program for over 250,000 recent books not in the public domain, in partnership with over 1,000 library partners from 6 countries[51][96] after a free registration on the web site. Open Library
Open Library
is a free/open source software project, with its source code freely available on GitHub. Media collections[edit]

Media reader

Microfilms at the Internet Archive

Videocassettes at the Internet Archive

In addition to web archives, the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the public domain in the United States
United States
or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as Creative Commons
Creative Commons
licenses. Media are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, etc.), and into sub-collections by various criteria. Each of the main collections includes a "Community" sub-collection (formerly named "Open Source") where general contributions by the public are stored. Audio collection[edit] Main articles: Live Music Archive
Live Music Archive
and The Great 78 Project The Audio Archive includes music, audio books, news broadcasts, old time radio shows and a wide variety of other audio files. There are over 200,000 free digital recordings in the collection. The subcollections include audio books and poetry, podcasts,[97] non-English audio and many others.[98] The sound collections are curated by B. George, director of the ARChive of Contemporary Music.[99] The Live Music Archive
Live Music Archive
sub-collection includes over 170,000 concert recordings from independent artists, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts such as the Grateful Dead, and more recently, The Smashing Pumpkins. Also, Jordan Zevon has allowed the Internet Archive to host a definitive collection of his father Warren Zevon's concert recordings. The Zevon collection ranges from 1976–2001 and contains 126 concerts including 1,137 songs.[100] The Great 78 Project aims to digitize 250,000 78 rpm singles (500,000 songs) from the period between 1880 and 1960, donated by various collectors and institutions. It has been developed in collaboration with the ARChive of Contemporary Music
Music
and George Blood Audio, responsible for the audio digitization.[99] Brooklyn Museum[edit] This collection contains about 3,000 items from Brooklyn Museum.[101] Images collection[edit] This collection contains over 880,000 items.[102] Cover Art Archive, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
- Gallery Images, NASA
NASA
Images, Occupy Wall Street Flickr Archive, and USGS Maps
USGS Maps
and are some sub-collections of Image collection. Cover Art Archive[edit] The Cover Art Archive
Cover Art Archive
is a joint project between the Internet Archive and MusicBrainz, whose goal is to make cover art images on the Internet. This collection contains over 330,000 items.[103] Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
images[edit] The images of this collection are from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This collection contains over 140,000 items.[104] NASA
NASA
Images[edit] The NASA Images
NASA Images
archive was created through a Space Act Agreement between the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
and NASA
NASA
to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The IA NASA Images
NASA Images
team worked closely with all of the NASA
NASA
centers to keep adding to the ever-growing collection.[105] The nasaimages.org site launched in July 2008 and had more than 100,000 items online at the end of its hosting in 2012. Occupy Wall Street Flickr archive[edit] This collection contains creative commons licensed photographs from Flickr related to the Occupy Wall Street Movement. This collection contains over 15,000 items.[106] USGS Maps[edit] This collection contains over 59,000 items from Libre Map Project.[107] Machinima
Machinima
archive[edit] One of the sub-collections of the Internet Archive's Video Archive is the Machinima
Machinima
Archive. This small section hosts many Machinima
Machinima
videos (see Machinima: Virtual Filmmaking). Machinima
Machinima
is a digital artform in which computer games, game engines or software engine are used in a sandbox-like mode to create motion pictures, recreate plays or even publish presentations/keynotes. The archive collects a range of Machinima
Machinima
films from internet publishers such as Rooster Teeth and Machinima.com
Machinima.com
as well as independent producers. The sub collection is a collaborative effort between the Internet Archive, the How They Got Game research project at Stanford University, the Academy of Machinima Arts and Sciences and Machinima.com.[108] Mathematics – Hamid Naderi Yeganeh[edit] This collection contains mathematical images created by mathematical artist Hamid Naderi Yeganeh.[109] Microfilm collection[edit] This collection contains about 160,000 items from a variety of libraries including the University of Chicago Libraries, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the University of Alberta, Allen County Public Library, and the National Technical Information Service.[110][111] Moving image collection[edit] See also: list of films freely available on the Internet Archive The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
holds a collection of approximately 3,863 feature films.[112] Additionally, the Internet Archive's Moving Image collection includes: newsreels, classic cartoons, pro- and anti-war propaganda, The Video Cellar Collection, Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection, early television, and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as advertising, educational, and industrial films and amateur and home movie collections. Subcategories of this collection include:

IA's Brick Films collection, which contains stop-motion animation filmed with Lego
Lego
bricks, some of which are "remakes" of feature films. IA's Election 2004 collection, a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the 2004 United States
United States
Presidential Election. IA's FedFlix collection, Joint Venture NTIS-1832 between the National Technical Information Service and Public.Resource.Org that features "the best movies of the United States
United States
Government, from training films to history, from our national parks to the U.S. Fire Academy and the Postal Inspectors"[113] IA's Independent News collection, which includes sub-collections such as the Internet Archive's World At War competition from 2001, in which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters". Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. IA's September 11 Television Archive, which contains archival footage from the world's major television networks of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, as they unfolded on live television.[114]

Netlabels[edit] Not to be confused with Netlabel. The Archive has a collection of freely distributable music that is streamed and available for download via its Netlabels service. The music in this collection generally have Creative Commons-license catalogs of virtual record labels.[115][116] Open Educational Resources[edit] Open Educational Resources is a digital collection at archive.org. This collection contains hundreds of free courses, video lectures, and supplemental materials from universities in the United States
United States
and China. The contributors of this collection are ArsDigita University, Hewlett Foundation, MIT, Monterey Institute
Monterey Institute
and Naropa University.[117] TV News Search & Borrow[edit]

TV tuners at the Internet Archive

In September 2012, the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
launched the TV News Search & Borrow service for searching U.S. national news programs.[118] The service is built on closed captioning transcripts and allows user to search and stream 30-second video clips. Upon launch, the service contained "350,000 news programs collected over 3 years from national U.S. networks and stations in San Francisco
San Francisco
and Washington D.C."[119] According to Kahle, the service was inspired by the Vanderbilt Television News Archive, a similar library of televised network news programs.[120] In contrast to Vanderbilt, which limits access to streaming video to individuals associated with subscribing colleges and universities, the TV News Search & Borrow allows open access to its streaming video clips. In 2013, the Archive received an additional donation of "approximately 40,000 well-organized tapes," from the estate of a Philadelphia
Philadelphia
woman, Marion Stokes. Stokes "had recorded more than 35 years of TV news in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Boston
Boston
with her VHS
VHS
and Betamax
Betamax
machines."[121] Other services and endeavors[edit] Physical media[edit]

An example of another "archived" item

Voicing a strong reaction to the idea of books simply being thrown away, and inspired by the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Kahle now envisions collecting one copy of every book ever published. "We're not going to get there, but that's our goal", he said. Alongside the books, Kahle plans to store the Internet Archive's old servers, which were replaced in 2010.[122] Software[edit] The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
has "the largest collection of historical software online in the world", spanning 50 years of computer history in terabytes of computer magazines and journals, books, shareware discs, FTP web sites, video games, etc. The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
has created an archive of what it describes as "vintage software", as a way to preserve them.[123] The project advocated for an exemption from the United States
United States
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
to permit them to bypass copy protection, which was approved in 2003 for a period of three years.[124] The Archive does not offer the software for download, as the exemption is solely "for the purpose of preservation or archival reproduction of published digital works by a library or archive."[125] The exemption was renewed in 2006, and in 2009 was indefinitely extended pending further rulemakings.[126] The Library reiterated the exemption, as a "Final Rule" with no expiration date, in 2010.[127] In 2013, the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
began to provide abandonware video games browser-playable via MESS, for instance the Atari 2600
Atari 2600
game E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.[128] Since December 23, 2014, the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
presents via a browser based DOSBox emulation thousands of DOS/PC games[129][130][131][132] for "scholarship and research purposes only".[133][134][135] Controversies and legal disputes[edit] See also: Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
§ In legal evidence

The main hall of the current headquarters

Grateful Dead[edit] In November 2005, free downloads of Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
concerts were removed from the site. John Perry Barlow
John Perry Barlow
identified Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, and Bill Kreutzmann
Bill Kreutzmann
as the instigators of the change, according to an article in The New York Times.[136] Phil Lesh
Phil Lesh
commented on the change in a November 30, 2005, posting to his personal web site:

It was brought to my attention that all of the Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
shows were taken down from Archive.org right before Thanksgiving. I was not part of this decision making process and was not notified that the shows were to be pulled. I do feel that the music is the Grateful Dead's legacy and I hope that one way or another all of it is available for those who want it.[137]

A November 30 forum post from Brewster Kahle
Brewster Kahle
summarized what appeared to be the compromise reached among the band members. Audience recordings could be downloaded or streamed, but soundboard recordings were to be available for streaming only. Concerts have since been re-added.[138] National security letter[edit]

A national security letter issued to the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
demanding information about a user

On May 8, 2008, it was revealed that the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
had successfully challenged an FBI
FBI
national security letter asking for logs on an undisclosed user.[139][140] On November 28, 2016, it was revealed that a second FBI
FBI
national security letter had been successfully challenged that had been asking for logs on another undisclosed user.[141] Uncensored hosting[edit] On August 17, 2011, Middle East Media Research Institute
Middle East Media Research Institute
published "Al-Qaeda, Jihadis Infest the San Francisco, California-Based 'Internet Archive' Library", which detailed how members can post anonymously and enjoy free uncensored hosting.[142] Omni magazine[edit] In a story at his Web site, titled "What the heck is going on at Internet Archive?", author Steven Saylor
Steven Saylor
noted: "Sometime in 2012, the entire run of Omni magazine was uploaded (and made available for download) at Internet Archive...Since those old issues must contain hundreds of works still under copyright by numerous contributors, how is this legal?"[143] At least one contributor to the magazine, author Steve Perry, has publicly complained that he never gave permission for his work to be uploaded ("they didn't say a word in my direction"),[144] and it has been noted that all issues containing the work of Harlan Ellison
Harlan Ellison
have apparently been taken down.[145] Glenn Fleishman, investigating the question "Who Owns Omni?", writes that "Almost all of the authors, photographers, and artists whose work appeared in the magazine had signed contracts that granted only short-term rights....[No one] could simply reprint or post the content from older issues."[146] Opposition to SOPA and PIPA bills[edit] The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
blacked out its web site for 12 hours on January 18, 2012, in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act
Stop Online Piracy Act
and the PROTECT IP Act bills, two pieces of pending legislation in the United States Congress that they claim will "negatively affect the ecosystem of web publishing that led to the emergence of the Internet Archive". This occurred in conjunction with the English blackout, as well as numerous other protests across the Internet.[147] Opposition to Google
Google
Books settlement[edit] The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
is a member of the Open Book Alliance, which has been among the most outspoken critics of the Google
Google
Book Settlement. The Archive advocates an alternative digital library project.[148] Nintendo Power
Nintendo Power
magazine[edit] In February 2016, Internet Archive
Internet Archive
had begun archiving digital copies of Nintendo
Nintendo
Power, Nintendo's official magazine for their games and products, which ran from 1988 to 2012. The first 140 issues had been collected, before Nintendo
Nintendo
had the archive removed on August 8, 2016. In response to the takedown, Nintendo
Nintendo
told gaming website Polygon, "[Nintendo] must protect our own characters, trademarks and other content... The unapproved use of Nintendo's intellectual property can weaken our ability to protect and preserve it, or to possibly use it for new projects".[149] Government of India[edit] In August 2017, the Government of India blocked the Internet Archive along with other file-sharing websites, citing piracy concerns after copies of two Bollywood films were allegedly shared via the service.[150] Turkey[edit] See also: Censorship in Turkey On October 9, 2016, the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
was blocked in Turkey.[151][why?] Ceramic
Ceramic
archivists collection[edit]

Ceramic
Ceramic
figures of Internet Archive
Internet Archive
employees

The Great Room of the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
features a collection of over 100 ceramic figures representing employees of the Internet Archive. This collection, inspired by the statues of the Xian warriors in China, was commissioned by Brewster Kahle, sculpted by Nuala Creed, and is ongoing. List of digitizing sponsors for ebooks[edit] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. This is a list of some digitizing sponsors for ebooks in the Internet Archive.

Sponsor Collection Number of texts (March 1, 2014)

Yahoo! [1] 1,076[152]

Microsoft [2] 412,094[153]

Google [3] 907,760[154]

Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation [4] 85,845[155]

University of Toronto [5] 139,446[156]

National Library of Scotland [6] 4,847[157]

Natural History Museum Library, London [7] 5,417[158]

University of Alberta
University of Alberta
Libraries [8] 76,472[159]

Research Library, Getty Research Institute [9] 8,409[160]

Boston
Boston
Library Consortium [10] 37,482[161]

The Library of Congress [11] 73,693[162]

Allen County Public Library [12] 21,986[163]

Internet Archive [13] 119,776[164]

Harvard University [14] 7,805[165]

China-America Digital Academic Library (CADAL) [15] 78,371[166]

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign [16] 53,076[167]

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill [17] 18,639[168]

Biodiversity Heritage Library [18] 10,001[169]

See also[edit]

Lists of Internet Archive's collections Public domain
Public domain
music Web archiving

Similar projects

archive.is Internet Memory Foundation LibriVox National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP) National Digital Library Program
National Digital Library Program
(NDLP) Project Gutenberg UK Government Web Archive at The National Archives (United Kingdom) UK Web Archiving Consortium WebCite

Other

Archive Team Digital Dark Age Digital preservation Heritrix Link rot Memory hole PetaBox Web crawler

Internet portal Information technology portal History portal Library and information science portal

References[edit]

^ "Internet Archive: About the Archive". Wayback Machine. April 8, 2000. Archived from the original on April 8, 2000. Retrieved March 13, 2016.  ^ "archive.org WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info – DomainTools". WHOIS. Retrieved March 13, 2016.  ^ 2015 Form 990 ^ "archive.org Site Info". Alexa Internet. Archived from the original on June 18, 2016. Retrieved September 29, 2017.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Frequently Asked Questions". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2013.  ^ "Internet Archive: Universal Access to all Knowledge". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 10, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013.  ^ "Defining Web pages, Web sites and Web captures". Archived from the original on December 9, 2016.  ^ "Internet Archive: Projects". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 1, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2013.  ^ Grotke, A. (December 2011). "Web Archiving at the Library of Congress" Archived December 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Computers In Libraries, v.31 n.10, pp. 15–19. Information Today. ^ Womack, David (Spring 2003). "Who Owns History?". Cabinet Magazine (10). Archived from the original on March 19, 2013.  ^ "Donation to the new Library of Alexandria in Egypt" Archived January 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.; Alexandria, Egypt; April 20, 2002. Bibliotheca Alexandrina
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Archived September 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Internet Archive. ^ "Brewster Kahle: Universal Access to All Knowledge – The Long Now". longnow.org. 45'47". Retrieved October 18, 2016.  ^ ""Members"". Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved April 24, 2011. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) International Internet Preservation Consortium. Netpreserve.org ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
officially a library" Archived February 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., May 2, 2007. Internet Archive ^ " Brewster Kahle
Brewster Kahle
. In Scientific American". Internet Archive. November 4, 1997. Archived from the original on October 11, 1997. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ "Internet Archive: In the Collections". Wayback Machine. June 6, 2000. Archived from the original on June 6, 2000. Retrieved March 15, 2016.  ^ "MTV Online: Main Page
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– Wayback Machine". Wayback Machine. May 12, 1996. Archived from the original on May 12, 1996. Retrieved December 16, 2016.  ^ "Infoseek Guide – Wayback Machine". Wayback Machine. May 12, 1996. Archived from the original on May 12, 1996. Retrieved December 16, 2016.  ^ "Daisy Books for the Print Disabled" Archived January 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., February 25, 2013. Internet Archive. ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
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Blogs. ^ a b Ernesto (August 7, 2012). " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Starts Seeding 1,398,875 Torrents". TorrentFreak. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012.  ^ "Hot List for bt1.us.archive.org (Updated August 7 2012, 7:31 pm PDT)" Archived August 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. US Cluster. Internet Archive. ^ "Welcome to Archive torrents" Archived January 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. Internet Archive. ^ B, Sarah (November 6, 2013). "Part of Internet Archive
Internet Archive
building badly burned in early morning fire".  ^ Alexander, Kurtis (November 16, 2013). "Internet Archive's S.F. office damaged in fire". San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle. Archived from the original on December 12, 2013.  ^ "Fire Update: Lost Many Cameras, 20 Boxes. No One Hurt". Internet Archive Blogs. November 6, 2013. Archived from the original on November 7, 2013.  ^ Shu, Catherine (November 6, 2013). " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Seeking Donations To Rebuild Its Fire-Damaged Scanning Center". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on July 6, 2017.  ^ a b Kahle, Brewster (November 29, 2016). " Help Us Keep the Archive Free, Accessible, and Reader Private". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on May 21, 2017. Retrieved December 2, 2016.  ^ Johnson, Tim (December 1, 2016). "Donald Trump scares Internet Archive into moving to Canada". McClatchy DC. Archived from the original on December 2, 2016. Retrieved December 2, 2016.  ^ Rothschild, Mike (December 2, 2016). "The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Is Moving to Canada
Canada
to Protect Itself from Trump". Attn:. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved December 2, 2016.  ^ Green, Heather (February 28, 2002). "A Library as Big as the World". Business Week
Business Week
Online. Archived from the original on June 1, 2002.  ^ "Internet Archive. (2012). Frequently Asked Questions". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2013.  ^ Thelwall, Mike; Vaughan, Liwen (Spring 2004). "A fair history of the Web? Examining country balance in the Internet Archive" (PDF). Library & Information Science Research. 26 (2): 162–176. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2003.12.009. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 24, 2015.  ^ a b Rossi, Alexis (October 25, 2013). "Fixing Broken Links on the Internet". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on November 7, 2014. Retrieved December 29, 2013.  ^ " Wayback Machine
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Wayback Machine
Hits 400,000,000,000!". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.  ^ "archive-it.org". archive-it.org. Archived from the original on April 14, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013.  ^ "Truman, Gail. 2016. Web Archiving Environmental Scan. Harvard Library Report". 2016.  ^ "What is the Difference between the General Archive (sometimes called the Wayback Machine) and Archive-It?" Archived October 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. Archive-It How to FAQ. Archive-It. – via Jira.com. ^ "About Archive-It". Archive-It. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.  ^ a b c Hoffelder, Nate (July 9, 2013). " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Now Hosts 4.4 Million eBooks, Sees 15 Million eBooks Downloaded Each Month" Archived November 10, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. The Digital Reader. ^ Kahle, Brewster (May 23, 2008). "Books Scanning to be Publicly Funded" Archived September 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. Internet Archive Forums. ^ "Bulk Access to OCR for 1 Million Books" Archived December 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. Open Library
Open Library
Blog. November 24, 2008. ^ a b "Book search winding down". MSDN Live Search Blog. May 23, 2008. Archived from the original on August 20, 2008.  ^ " Google
Google
Books at Internet Archive" Archived October 11, 1997, at the Wayback Machine.. Internet Archive. ^ "List of Google
Google
scans" Archived January 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. (search). Internet Archive. ^ Books imported from Google
Google
have a metadata tag of scanner:google for searching purposes. The archive provides a link to Google
Google
for PDF copies, but also maintains a local PDF copy, which is viewable under the "All Files: HTTPS" link. As all the other books in the collection, they also provide OCR text and images in open formats, particularly DjVu, which Google
Google
Books doesn't offer. ^ a b Brewster Kahle, Aaron Swartz
Aaron Swartz
memorial at the Internet Archive Archived June 29, 2015, at the Wayback Machine., 2013-01-24, via well-prepared mind, via S.I.Lex. ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : (language:eng OR language:"English")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 15, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : (language:fre OR language:"French")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : (language:ger OR language:"German")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 14, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : (language:spa OR language:"Spanish")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : (language:Chinese OR language:"chi") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : (language:ara OR language:"Arabic")". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : (language:Dutch OR language:"dut") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : (language:Portuguese OR language:"por") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : (language:rus OR language:"Russian") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : (language:urd OR language:"Urdu") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : (language:Japanese OR language:"jpn") AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1800-01-01 TO 1809-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1810-01-01 TO 1819-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
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Internet Archive
Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1830-01-01 TO 1839-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1840-01-01 TO 1849-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
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Internet Archive
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Internet Archive
Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1870-01-01 TO 1879-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
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Internet Archive
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Internet Archive
Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1900-01-01 TO 1909-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 18, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
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Internet Archive
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Internet Archive
Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1930-01-01 TO 1939-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
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Internet Archive
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Internet Archive
Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1960-01-01 TO 1969-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1970-01-01 TO 1979-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1980-01-01 TO 1989-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[1990-01-01 TO 1999-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 11, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[2000-01-01 TO 2009-12-31]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : mediatype:texts AND date:[2010-01-01 TO 2015-11-27]". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.  ^ Gonsalves, Antone (December 20, 2006). " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Claims Progress Against Google
Google
Library Initiative". InformationWeek. Archived from the original on October 14, 2007.  ^ "The Open Library
Open Library
Makes Its Online Debut". The Wired Campus. Chronicle of Higher Education. July 19, 2007. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007.  ^ "Search Inside" Archived October 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. (feature). OpenLibrary.org. ^ Internet Archive
Internet Archive
(June 25, 2011). "In-Library eBook Lending Program Expands to 1,000 Libraries" Archived August 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Blogs. June 25, 2011. ^ "How to Host Podcast
Podcast
MP3 on Archive.org". TurboFuture. Retrieved 2017-08-04.  ^ "Welcome to Audio Archive" Archived January 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Internet Archive. ^ a b Pritchard, Will (August 18, 2017). "How The Great 78 Project is saving half a million songs from obscurity". The Vinyl Factory. Retrieved November 2, 2017.  ^ Tirpack, Alex (June 3, 2009). " Warren Zevon
Warren Zevon
live shows hit the web, possible film in the works". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on February 2, 2013.  ^ "Brooklyn Museum: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2014.  ^ "Download & Streaming : Images : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014.  ^ "Cover Art Archive: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2014.  ^ " Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
– Gallery Images: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2014.  ^ " NASA
NASA
Images" (archive). Internet Archive. Archived from the original on November 11, 2012. Retrieved April 13, 2013.  ^ "Occupy Wall Street Flickr Archive: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2014.  ^ "USGS Maps: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2014.  ^ "Welcome to Machinima" Archived March 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Internet Archive. ^ "Mathematics – Hamid Naderi Yeganeh
Hamid Naderi Yeganeh
(Image): Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 14, 2014. Retrieved December 4, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search: collection:microfilm". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 31, 2016. Retrieved March 20, 2014.  ^ "Microfilm". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on March 20, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search: Collection: Feature Films". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 2, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2013.  ^ "FedFlix". Internet Archive. Retrieved December 14, 2013.  ^ "September 11th Television Archive" Archived April 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Internet Archive. ^ "Welcome to Netlabels" Archived April 4, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Internet Archive. ^ Boswell, Wendy (October 21, 2006). "Download free music at the Internet Archive". Lifehacker. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
has a ginormous collection of free, downloadable music in their NetLabels category [...]  ^ "Download & Streaming : Open Educational Resources : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved June 17, 2014.  ^ "TV NEWS : Search Captions. Borrow Broadcasts : TV Archive : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 20, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013.  ^ Fowler, Geoffrey A.; Hagey, Keach (September 18, 2012). "Let's Go to the Videotape: Nonprofit Offers News Clips". The Wall Street Journal Online. Archived from the original on April 24, 2013. (subscription required) ^ Kahle, Brewster (September 17, 2012). "Launch of TV News Search & Borrow with 350,000 Broadcasts". Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Blogs. Archived from the original on August 13, 2014.  ^ Brownell, Brett; Benjy Hansen-Brandy (May 22, 2014). "Meet the People Behind the Wayback Machine, One of Our Favorite Things About the Internet". Mother Jones. Archived from the original on June 7, 2014. Retrieved June 7, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
founder turns to new information storage device – the book". The Guardian. August 1, 2011. Archived from the original on August 22, 2012. Brewster Kahle, the man behind a project to file every webpage, now wants to gather one copy of every published book  ^ "The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Classic Software Preservation Project". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 19, 2007. Retrieved October 21, 2007.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Gets DMCA Exemption To Help Archive Vintage Software". Archived from the original on October 20, 2007. Retrieved October 21, 2007.  ^ Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Copyright Office (November 27, 2006). "Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies". Federal Register. 71 (227): 68472–68480. Archived from the original on November 1, 2007. Retrieved October 21, 2007. Computer programs and video games distributed in formats that have become obsolete and that require the original media or hardware as a condition of access, when circumvention is accomplished for the purpose of preservation or archival reproduction of published digital works by a library or archive. A format shall be considered obsolete if the machine or system necessary to render perceptible a work stored in that format is no longer manufactured or is no longer reasonably available in the commercial marketplace.  ^ Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Copyright Office (October 28, 2009). "Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies" (PDF). Federal Register. 27 (206): 55137–55139. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 2, 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2009.  ^ Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Copyright Office (July 27, 2010). "Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies". Federal Register. 75 (143): 43825–43839. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015.  ^ Robertson, Adi (October 25, 2013). "The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
puts Atari games and obsolete software directly in your browser". The Verge. Archived from the original on October 27, 2013.  ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (January 5, 2015). "You can now play nearly 2,400 MS-DOS
MS-DOS
video games in your browser". Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 7, 2015. Retrieved January 8, 2015.  ^ Each New Boot a Miracle Archived January 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. by Jason Scott
Jason Scott
(December 23, 2014) ^ collection:softwarelibrary_msdos Archived June 28, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. in the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
(December 29, 2014) ^ Graft, Kris (March 5, 2015). "Saving video game history begins right now". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on March 7, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.  ^ "Internet Archive's Terms of Use, Privacy Policy, and Copyright Policy". archive.org. December 31, 2014. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved January 8, 2015. Access to the Archive's Collections is provided at no cost to you and is granted for scholarship and research purposes only.  ^ Lu, Kathy (January 12, 2015). "Time suck alert: 'Pac-Man' among thousands of MS-DOS
MS-DOS
games available for free". The Kansas City Star. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2016.  ^ O'Neil, Lauren (January 7, 2015). "90's kids rejoice as Internet Archive releases 2,300 MS-DOS
MS-DOS
games for free – Your Community". CBCNEWS. Archived from the original on October 17, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2016.  ^ Leeds, Jeff; Mayshark, Jesse Fox (December 1, 2005). "Wrath of Deadheads stalls a Web crackdown". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 8, 2015.  ^ Lesh, Phil (November 30, 2005). "An Announcement from Phil Lesh". Hotline (blog). PhilLesh.net. Archived from the original on July 15, 2007.  ^ Kahle, Brewster; Vernon, Matt (December 1, 2005). "Good News and an Apology: GD on the Internet Archive". Live Music Archive
Live Music Archive
Forum. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on August 6, 2014.  Authors and date indicate the first posting in the forum thread. ^ Broache, Anne (May 7, 2008). " FBI
FBI
rescinds secret order for Internet Archive records". CNet. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008.  ^ Nakashima, Ellen (May 8, 2008). " FBI
FBI
Backs Off From Secret Order for Data After Lawsuit". Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 6, 2008.  ^ Crocker, Andrew (December 1, 2016). " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Received National Security Letter with FBI
FBI
Misinformation about Challenging Gag Order". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Archived from the original on December 13, 2016.  ^ Stalinsky, Steven (August 17, 2011). "Al-Qaeda, Jihadis Infest the San Francisco, California-Based 'Internet Archive' Library". The Middle East Media Research Institute. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013.  ^ "Archive Page – What's the heck is going on at Internet Archive?". Stevensaylor.com. January 8, 2013. Archived from the original on June 30, 2013.  ^ Perry, Steve (January 8, 2013). "Unca Harlan's Art Deco Dining Pavilion: Another Can of Worms". Harlanellison.com.  ^ "OMNI, Digital Rights, and Voodoo". Harlanellison.com. January 8, 2013.  ^ Fleishman, Glenn (August 2, 2013). "The rebirth of Omni—and its vibe". BoingBoing. Archived from the original on August 5, 2013.  ^ Kahle, Brewster (January 17, 2012). "12 Hours Dark: Internet Archive vs. Censorship". Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Blogs. Archived from the original on August 13, 2014.  ^ "Open Content Alliance". opencontentalliance.org. Archived from the original on April 10, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013.  ^ Frank, Allegra (August 8, 2016). "" Nintendo
Nintendo
takes down Nintendo Power collection from Internet Archive
Internet Archive
after noticing it"". Polygon. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016.  ^ Kelion, Leo (August 9, 2017). "'Bollywood blocks the Internet Archive'". BBC. Retrieved 1 January 2018.  ^ "Turkey restores access to Google
Google
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Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:"Yahoo!"". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
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Internet Archive
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Internet Archive
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Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:"University of Toronto"". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:"National Library of Scotland"". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:"Natural History Museum Library, London"". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:"University of Alberta Libraries"". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:"Research Library, The Getty Research Institute"". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:" Boston
Boston
Library Consortium"". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:"The Library of Congress"". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:"Allen County Public Library"". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:"Internet Archive" AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:"Harvard University" AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:"China-America Digital Academic Library (CADAL)" AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:"University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign" AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:"University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill" AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2014.  ^ " Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Search : sponsor:"Biodiversity Heritage Library" AND mediatype:texts". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Kahle, Brewster (November 1996). "Archiving the Internet". Scientific America.  Kahle, Brewster (November 6, 2013). "Scanning Center Fire — Please Help Rebuild". Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Blogs.  Lepore, Jill (January 26, 2015). "The Cobweb". The New Yorker.  Ringmar, Erik (April 10, 2008). "Liberate and Disseminate". Times Higher Education Supplement. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Internet Archive.

Official website Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Mirror at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt Web Archiving at archive.org, details of Internet Archive
Internet Archive
operations Internet Archive
Internet Archive
at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived October 11, 1997) Earliest known website on the Archive at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived May 12, 1996) Second earliest known website on the Archive at the Wayback Machine (archived May 12, 1996) Internet Archive
Internet Archive
(recursive archive) Early websites from 1996

v t e

Internet Archive

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Projects

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Partners & Collaborators

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Collections

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Image

NASA
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Images USGS Maps

Texts

American Libraries Canadian Libraries Children's Library RECAP US Federal Court Documents Microfilm US Government Documents Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Collected texts of Simon Schwartzman

Audio

Live Music
Music
Archive LibriVox

Video

NASA
NASA
Images FedFlix Democracy Now! Marion Stokes

The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
Software Collection Open Educational Resources

People

Brewster Kahle David Rumsey Rick Prelinger Jason Scott

Software

Heritrix

v t e

E-books

Formats

ePub FictionBook CBR/CBZ Kindle File
File
Format Mobipocket PDF Plain text

Reading

Devices

Amazon Kindle Barnes & Noble Nook Bookeen Elonex ebook enTourage eDGe Hanlin eReader iriver Story Kobo eReader Onyx Boox Plastic Logic
Plastic Logic
Reader PocketBook eReader Rocket eBook SoftBook Smartphones Tablets Tolino

Software

Adobe Acrobat Adobe Digital Editions Aldiko Blio Bluefire Reader Calibre FBReader Google
Google
Play Books iBooks Kindle app Kitabu Kobo Lektz Lucifox Okular OverDrive Media Console Snapplify STDU Viewer Sumatra PDF

Editing

ABBYY FineReader AbiWord Adobe InDesign Adobe RoboHelp Atlantis Word Processor Booktype Calibre Calligra Author eXeLearning Help & Manual HelpNDoc iBooks Author iStudio Publisher LaTeX LibreOffice MadCap Flare Oxygen XML Editor PagePlus Pages QuarkXPress Scrivener Sigil Writer2epub

Vendors

Commercial

Amazon Kindle
Amazon Kindle
Store Baen Free Library Barnes & Noble Booktrack Feedbooks Google
Google
Play iBooks Store Kobo Bookstore Sony Reader Store Smashwords

Noncommercial

HathiTrust Internet Archive Project Gutenberg

Australia Canada

Wikisource

Related topics

Academic journal publishing reform Braille e-book Comparison of e-book readers Comparison of iOS e-book reader software Comparison of Android e-book reader software E-book
E-book
lending Electronic publishing iBooks Author Conference International Digital Publishing Forum Kindle single OPDS Reflowable document S

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