Internet slang, a troll (/troʊl, trɒl/) is a person who sows
discord on the
Internet by starting quarrels or upsetting people, by
posting inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an
online community (such as a newsgroup, forum, chat room, or blog) with
the intent of provoking readers into an emotional response or of
otherwise disrupting normal, on-topic discussion, often for the
This sense of both the noun and the verb "troll" is associated with
Internet discourse, but also has been used more widely. Media
attention in recent years has equated trolling with online harassment.
For example, the mass media have used "troll" to mean "a person who
Internet tribute sites with the aim of causing grief to
families". In addition, depictions of trolling have been
included in popular fictional works, such as the
program The Newsroom, in which a main character encounters harassing
persons online and tries to infiltrate their circles by posting
negative sexual comments.
2 Origin and etymology
2.1 In other languages
3 Trolling, identity, and anonymity
4 Corporate, political, and special-interest sponsored trolls
5 Psychological characteristics
6 Concern troll
8 Media coverage and controversy
8.3 United Kingdom
8.4 United States
10 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
13.1 Trolling advocacy and safety
13.2 Background and definitions
13.3 Academic and debate
The advice to ignore rather than engage with a troll is sometimes
phrased as "Please do not feed the trolls."
Application of the term troll is subjective. Some readers may
characterize a post as trolling, while others may regard the same post
as a legitimate contribution to the discussion, even if controversial.
Like any pejorative term, it can be used as an ad hominem attack,
suggesting a negative motivation.
As noted in an OS News article titled "Why People
Troll and How to
Stop Them" (25 January 2012), "The traditional definition of trolling
includes intent. That is, trolls purposely disrupt forums. This
definition is too narrow. Whether someone intends to disrupt a thread
or not, the results are the same if they do." Others have
addressed the same issue, e.g., Claire Hardaker, in her Ph.D.
thesis "Trolling in asynchronous computer-mediated communication:
From user discussions to academic definitions." Popular recognition
of the existence (and prevalence) of non-deliberate, "accidental
trolls", has been documented widely, in sources as diverse as Nicole
Sullivan's keynote speech at the 2012 Fluent Conference, titled "Don't
Feed the Trolls" Gizmodo, online opinions on the subject
written by Silicon Valley executives and comics.
Regardless of the circumstances, controversial posts may attract a
particularly strong response from those unfamiliar with the robust
dialogue found in some online, rather than physical, communities.
Experienced participants in online forums know that the most effective
way to discourage a troll is usually to ignore it,
because responding tends to encourage trolls to continue disruptive
posts – hence the often-seen warning: "Please do not feed the
The "trollface" is an image occasionally used to indicate trolling in
At times, the word can be abused to refer to anyone with controversial
opinions they disagree with. Such usage goes against the ordinary
meaning of troll in multiple ways. While psychologists have determined
that the dark triad traits are common among
Internet trolls, some
observers claim trolls don't actually believe the controversial views
Farhad Manjoo criticises this view, noting that if the
person really is trolling, they are more intelligent than their
critics would believe.
Origin and etymology
There are competing theories of where and when "troll" was first used
Internet slang, with numerous unattested accounts of BBS and UseNet
origins in the early 1980s or before.
The English noun "troll" in the standard sense of ugly dwarf or giant
dates to 1610 and comes from the
Old Norse word "troll" meaning giant
or demon. The word evokes the trolls of
Scandinavian folklore and
children's tales: antisocial, quarrelsome and slow-witted creatures
which make life difficult for travellers.
In modern English usage, "trolling" may describe the fishing technique
of slowly dragging a lure or baited hook from a moving boat
whereas trawling describes the generally commercial act of dragging a
fishing net. Early non-
Internet slang use of "trolling" can be found
in the military: by 1972 the term "trolling for MiGs" was documented
in use by
US Navy pilots in Vietnam. It referred to use of "...decoys,
with the mission of drawing...fire away..."
The contemporary use of the term is said to have appeared on the
Internet in the late 1980s, but the earliest known attestation
according to the
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary is in 1992.
The context of the quote cited in the Oxford English Dictionary
sets the origin in
Usenet in the early 1990s as in the phrase
"trolling for newbies", as used in alt.folklore.urban (AFU).
Commonly, what is meant is a relatively gentle inside joke by veteran
users, presenting questions or topics that had been so overdone that
only a new user would respond to them earnestly. For example, a
veteran of the group might make a post on the common misconception
that glass flows over time. Long-time readers would both recognize the
poster's name and know that the topic had been discussed repeatedly,
but new subscribers to the group would not realize, and would thus
respond. These types of trolls served as a practice to identify group
insiders. This definition of trolling, considerably narrower than the
modern understanding of the term, was considered a positive
contribution. One of the most notorious AFU trollers, David
Mikkelson, went on to create the urban folklore website
By the late 1990s, alt.folklore.urban had such heavy traffic and
participation that trolling of this sort was frowned upon. Others
expanded the term to include the practice of playing a seriously
misinformed or deluded user, even in newsgroups where one was not a
regular; these were often attempts at humor rather than provocation.
The noun troll usually referred to an act of trolling – or to the
resulting discussion – rather than to the author, though some posts
punned on the dual meaning of troll.
In other languages
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2016) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message)
In Chinese, trolling is referred to as bái mù (Chinese: 白目;
literally: "white eye"), which can be straightforwardly explained as
"eyes without pupils", in the sense that whilst the pupil of the eye
is used for vision, the white section of the eye cannot see, and
trolling involves blindly talking nonsense over the Internet, having
total disregard to sensitivities or being oblivious to the situation
at hand, akin to having eyes without pupils. An alternative term is
bái làn (Chinese: 白爛; literally: "white rot"), which describes a
post completely nonsensical and full of folly made to upset others,
and derives from a Taiwanese slang term for the male genitalia, where
genitalia that is pale white in colour represents that someone is
young, and thus foolish. Both terms originate from Taiwan, and are
also used in
Hong Kong and mainland China. Another term, xiǎo bái
(Chinese: 小白; literally: "little white") is a derogatory term that
refers to both bái mù and bái làn that is used on anonymous
Internet forums. Another common term for a troll used in
mainland China is pēn zi (Chinese: 噴子; literally: "sprayer,
In Japanese, tsuri (釣り) means "fishing" and refers to
intentionally misleading posts whose only purpose is to get the
readers to react, i.e. get trolled. arashi (荒らし) means "laying
waste" and can also be used to refer to simple spamming.
In Icelandic, þurs (a thurs) or tröll (a troll) may refer to trolls,
the verbs þursa (to troll) or þursast (to be trolling, to troll
about) may be used.
In Korean, nak-si (낚시) means "fishing", and is used to refer to
Internet trolling attempts, as well as purposefully misleading post
titles. A person who recognizes the troll after having responded (or,
in case of a post title nak-si, having read the actual post) would
often refer to himself as a caught fish.
In Portuguese, more commonly in its Brazilian variant, troll (produced
[ˈtɾɔw] in most of Brazil as spelling pronunciation) is the usual
term to denote
Internet trolls (examples of common derivate terms are
trollismo or trollagem, "trolling", and the verb trollar, "to troll",
which entered popular use), but an older expression, used by those
which want to avoid anglicisms or slangs, is complexo do pombo
enxadrista to denote trolling behavior, and pombos enxadristas
(literally, "chessplayer pigeons") or simply pombos are the terms used
to name the trolls. The terms are explained by an adage or popular
saying: "Arguing with fulano (i.e., John Doe) is the same as playing
chess with a pigeon: the pigeon defecates on the table, drop the
pieces and simply fly, claiming victory."
In Thai, the term krian (เกรียน) has been adopted to
Internet trolls. According to the Royal Institute of Thailand,
the term, which literally refers to a closely cropped hairstyle worn
by schoolboys in Thailand, is from the behaviour of these schoolboys
who usually gather to play online games and, during which, make
annoying, disruptive, impolite, or unreasonable expressions. The
term top krian (ตบเกรียน; "slap a cropped head")
refers to the act of posting intellectual replies to refute and cause
the messages of
Internet trolls to be perceived as
In the Sinhala language, this is called ala kireema (අල
කිරීම), which means "turning it into potatoes (Sabotage)".
Sometimes it is used as ala vagaa kireema (අල වගා
කිරීම) – "planting potatoes". People or profiles who do
trolling often are called "potato planters" – ala vagaakaruvan
(අල වගාකරුවන්). This seems to have originated
with the university slang ala væda (අල වැඩ), which means
"potato business" and is used to refer to violations of university
Trolling, identity, and anonymity
Early incidents of trolling were considered to be the same as
flaming, but this has changed with modern usage by the news media to
refer to the creation of any content that targets another person. The
Internet dictionary NetLingo suggests there are four grades of
trolling: playtime trolling, tactical trolling, strategic trolling,
and domination trolling. The relationship between trolling and
flaming was observed in open-access forums in California, on a series
of modem-linked computers. CommuniTree was begun in 1978 but was
closed in 1982 when accessed by high school teenagers, becoming a
ground for trashing and abuse. Some psychologists have suggested
that flaming would be caused by deindividuation or decreased
self-evaluation: the anonymity of online postings would lead to
disinhibition amongst individuals Others have suggested that
although flaming and trolling is often unpleasant, it may be a form of
normative behavior that expresses the social identity of a certain
user group According to Tom Postmes, a professor of social and
organisational psychology at the universities of Exeter, England, and
Groningen, The Netherlands, and the author of Individuality and the
Group, who has studied online behavior for 20 years, "Trolls aspire to
violence, to the level of trouble they can cause in an environment.
They want it to kick off. They want to promote antipathetic emotions
of disgust and outrage, which morbidly gives them a sense of
The practice of trolling has been documented by a number of academics
as early as the 1990s. This included Steven Johnson in 1997 in the
book Interface Culture, and a paper by
Judith Donath in 1999. Donath's
paper outlines the ambiguity of identity in a disembodied "virtual
community" such as Usenet:
In the physical world there is an inherent unity to the self, for the
body provides a compelling and convenient definition of identity. The
norm is: one body, one identity ... The virtual world is
different. It is composed of information rather than matter.
Donath provides a concise overview of identity deception games which
trade on the confusion between physical and epistemic community:
Trolling is a game about identity deception, albeit one that is played
without the consent of most of the players. The troll attempts to pass
as a legitimate participant, sharing the group's common interests and
concerns; the newsgroups members, if they are cognizant of trolls and
other identity deceptions, attempt to both distinguish real from
trolling postings, and upon judging a poster a troll, make the
offending poster leave the group. Their success at the former depends
on how well they – and the troll – understand identity
cues; their success at the latter depends on whether the troll's
enjoyment is sufficiently diminished or outweighed by the costs
imposed by the group.
Trolls can be costly in several ways. A troll can disrupt the
discussion on a newsgroup, disseminate bad advice, and damage the
feeling of trust in the newsgroup community. Furthermore, in a group
that has become sensitized to trolling – where the rate of
deception is high – many honestly naïve questions may be
quickly rejected as trollings. This can be quite off-putting to the
new user who upon venturing a first posting is immediately bombarded
with angry accusations. Even if the accusation is unfounded, being
branded a troll is quite damaging to one's online reputation.
Susan Herring and colleagues in "Searching for Safety Online: Managing
'Trolling' in a Feminist Forum" point out the difficulty inherent in
monitoring trolling and maintaining freedom of speech in online
communities: "harassment often arises in spaces known for their
freedom, lack of censure, and experimental nature". Free speech
may lead to tolerance of trolling behavior, complicating the members'
efforts to maintain an open, yet supportive discussion area,
especially for sensitive topics such as race, gender, and
In an effort to reduce uncivil behavior by increasing accountability,
many web sites (e.g. Reuters, Facebook, and Gizmodo) now require
commenters to register their names and e-mail addresses.
Corporate, political, and special-interest sponsored trolls
See also: troll army and Megaphone desktop tool
Sharyl Attkisson is one of several in the
media who has reported on the trend for organizations to utilize
trolls to manipulate public opinion as part and parcel of an
astroturfing initiative. Teams of sponsored trolls, sometimes referred
to as sockpuppet armies, swarm a site to overwhelm any honest
discourse and denigrate any who disagree with them. A 2012 Pew
Center on the States presentation on "effective messaging" included
two examples of social media posts by a recently launched "rapid
response team" dedicated to promoting fluoridation of community water
supplies. That same presentation also emphasized changing the topic of
conversation as a winning strategy.
A 2016 study by Harvard political scientist Gary King reported that
the Chinese government's
50 Cent Party creates 440 million
pro-government social media posts per year. The report said
that government employees were paid to create pro-government posts
around the time of national holidays to avoid mass political protests.
The Chinese Government ran an editorial in the state-funded Global
Times defending censorship and
50 Cent Party trolls.
A 2016 study for the
NATO Strategic Communications Centre of
Excellence on hybrid warfare notes that the Russian military
intervention in Ukraine "demonstrated how fake identities and accounts
were used to disseminate narratives through social media, blogs, and
web commentaries in order to manipulate, harass, or deceive
NATO report describes that a "troll"
uses a type of message design where a troll does not add "emotional
value" to reliable "essentially true" information in re-posts, but
presents it "in the wrong context, intending the audience to draw
false conclusions." For example, information, without context, from
about the military history of the United States "becomes
value-laden if it is posted in the comment section of an article
criticizing Russia for its military actions and interests in Ukraine.
The troll is 'tricky', because in terms of actual text, the
information is true, but the way it is expressed gives it a completely
different meaning to its readers."(p62) Unlike "classic trolls,"
trolls "have no emotional input, they just supply
misinformation" and are one of "the most dangerous" as well as one of
"the most effective trolling message designs."(pp70, 76) Even
among people who are "emotionally immune to aggressive messages" and
apolitical, "training in critical thinking" is needed, according to
NATO report, because "they have relatively blind trust in
sources and are not able to filter information that comes
from platforms they consider authoritative."(p72) While
Russian-language hybrid trolls use the troll message design
to promote anti-Western sentiment in comments, they "mostly attack
aggressively to maintain emotional attachment to issues covered in
articles."(p75) Discussions about topics, other than International
sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis, "attracted very aggressive
trolling" and became polarized according to the
NATO report, which
"suggests that in subjects in which there is little potential for
re-educating audiences, emotional harm is considered more effective"
for pro-Russian Latvian-language trolls.(p76)
Ben Radford wrote about the phenomenon of clowns in history
and modern day in his book Bad Clowns and found that bad clowns have
Internet trolls. They do not dress up as traditional
clowns but, for their own amusement, they tease and exploit "human
foibles" in order to speak the "truth" and gain a reaction. Like
clowns in make-up,
Internet trolls hide behind "anonymous accounts and
fake usernames." In their eyes they are the trickster and are
performing for a nameless audience via the Internet.
A concern troll is a false flag pseudonym created by a user whose
actual point of view is opposed to the one that the troll claims to
hold. The concern troll posts in Web forums devoted to its declared
point of view and attempts to sway the group's actions or opinions
while claiming to share their goals, but with professed "concerns".
The goal is to sow fear, uncertainty and doubt within the group.
This is a particular case of sockpuppeting.
An example of this occurred in 2006 when Tad Furtado, a staffer for
Charles Bass (R-NH), was caught posing as a
"concerned" supporter of Bass's opponent, Democrat Paul Hodes, on
New Hampshire blogs, using the pseudonyms "IndieNH" or
"IndyNH". "IndyNH" expressed concern that Democrats might just be
wasting their time or money on Hodes, because Bass was
unbeatable. Hodes eventually won the election.
Although the term "concern troll" originated in discussions of online
behavior, it now sees increasing use to describe similar behaviors
that take place offline. For example, James Wolcott of Vanity Fair
accused a conservative
New York Daily News
New York Daily News columnist of "concern
troll" behavior in his efforts to downplay the Mark Foley scandal.
Wolcott links what he calls concern trolls to what
Saul Alinsky calls
"Do-Nothings", giving a long quote from Alinsky on the Do-Nothings'
method and effects:
These Do-Nothings profess a commitment to social change for ideals of
justice, equality, and opportunity, and then abstain from and
discourage all effective action for change. They are known by their
brand, 'I agree with your ends but not your means'.
The Hill published an op-ed piece by
Markos Moulitsas of the liberal
Daily Kos titled "Dems: Ignore 'Concern Trolls'". The concern
trolls in question were not
Internet participants but rather
Republicans offering public advice and warnings to the Democrats. The
author defines "concern trolling" as "offering a poisoned apple in the
form of advice to political opponents that, if taken, would harm the
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November
While many webmasters and forum administrators consider trolls a
scourge on their sites[according to whom?], some websites welcome
them. For example, a
New York Times
New York Times article discussed troll activity
4chan and at Encyclopedia Dramatica, which it described as "an
online compendium of troll humor and troll lore". 4chan's /b/
board is recognized as "one of the Internet's most infamous and active
trolling hotspots." This site and others are often used as a base
to troll against sites that their members can not normally post on.
These trolls feed off the reactions of their victims because "their
agenda is to take delight in causing trouble".
Media coverage and controversy
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a
worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss
the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate.
(October 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Mainstream media outlets have focused their attention on the
willingness of some
Internet users to go to extreme lengths to
participate in organized psychological harassment.
In February 2010, the Australian government became involved after
users defaced the
Facebook tribute pages of murdered children Trinity
Bates and Elliott Fletcher. Australian communications minister Stephen
Conroy decried the attacks, committed mainly by
4chan users, as
evidence of the need for greater
Internet regulation, stating, "This
argument that the
Internet is some mystical creation that no laws
should apply to, that is a recipe for anarchy and the wild west."
Facebook responded by strongly urging administrators to be aware of
ways to ban users and remove inappropriate content from Facebook
pages. In 2012, the Daily Telegraph started a campaign to take
action against "Twitter trolls", who abuse and threaten users. Several
high-profile Australians including Charlotte Dawson, Robbie Farah,
Laura Dundovic, and
Ray Hadley have been victims of this
Newslaundry covered the phenomenon of "Twitter Trolling" in its
Criticles. It has also been characterising Twitter trolls in its
In the United Kingdom, contributions made to the
Internet are covered
Malicious Communications Act 1988
Malicious Communications Act 1988 as well as Section 127 of the
Communications Act 2003, under which jail sentences were, until 2015,
limited to a maximum of six months. In October 2014, the UK's
Justice Secretary, Chris Grayling, said that "
Internet trolls" would
face up to two years in jail, under measures in the Criminal Justice
and Courts Bill that extend the maximum sentence and time limits for
bringing prosecutions. The House of Lords Select Committee on
Communications had earlier recommended against creating a specific
offence of trolling. Sending messages which are "grossly offensive or
of an indecent, obscene or menacing character" is an offence whether
they are received by the intended recipient or not. Several people
have been imprisoned in the UK for online harassment.
Trolls of the testimonial page of Georgia Varley faced no prosecution
due to misunderstandings of the legal system in the wake of the term
trolling being popularized. In October 2012, a twenty-year-old man
was jailed for twelve weeks for posting offensive jokes to a support
group for friends and family of April Jones.
On 31 March 2010, the Today Show ran a segment detailing the deaths of
three separate adolescent girls and trolls' subsequent reactions to
their deaths. Shortly after the suicide of high school student Alexis
Pilkington, anonymous posters began performing organized psychological
harassment across various message boards, referring to Pilkington as a
"suicidal slut", and posting graphic images on her
page. The segment also included an exposé of a 2006 accident, in
which an eighteen-year-old fatally crashed her father's car into a
highway pylon; trolls emailed her grieving family the leaked pictures
of her mutilated corpse.
In 2007, the media was fooled by trollers into believing that students
were consuming a drug called Jenkem, purportedly made of human waste.
A user named Pickwick on
TOTSE posted pictures implying that he was
inhaling this drug. Major news corporations such as Fox News Channel
reported the story and urged parents to warn their children about this
drug. Pickwick's pictures of
Jenkem were fake and the pictures did not
actually feature human waste.
In August 2012, the subject of trolling was featured on the HBO
television series The Newsroom. The character of Neal Sampat
encounters harassing individuals online, particularly looking at
4chan, and he ends up choosing to post negative comments himself on an
economics-related forum. The attempt by the character to infiltrate
trolls' inner circles attracted debate from media reviewers critiquing
The publication of the 2015 non-fiction book The Dark Net: Inside the
Digital Underworld by Jamie Bartlett, a journalist and a
representative of the British think tank Demos, attracted some
attention for its depiction of misunderstood sections of the Internet,
describing interactions on encrypted sites such as those accessible
with the software Tor. Detailing trolling-related groups and the
harassment created by them, Bartlett advocated for greater awareness
of them and monitoring of their activities. Professor Matthew
Wisnioski wrote for
The Washington Post
The Washington Post that a "league of trolls,
anarchists, perverts and drug dealers is at work building a digital
world beyond the Silicon Valley offices where our era’s best and
brightest have designed a Facebook-friendly" surface and agreed with
Bartlett that the activities of trolls go back decades to the Usenet
'flame wars' of the 1990s and even earlier.
As reported on 8 April 1999, investors became victims of trolling via
an online financial discussion regarding PairGain, a telephone
equipment company based in California. Trolls operating in the stock's
Yahoo Finance chat room posted a fabricated Bloomberg News article
stating that an Israeli telecom company could potentially acquire
PairGain. As a result, PairGain's stock jumped by 31%. However, the
stock promptly crashed after the reports were identified as false.
So-called Gold Membership trolling originated in 2007 on
when users posted fake images claiming to offer upgraded
privileges; without a "Gold" account, one could not view certain
content. This turned out to be a hoax designed to fool board members,
especially newcomers. It was copied and became an
Internet meme. In
some cases, this type of troll has been used as a scam, most notably
on Facebook, where fake
Facebook Gold Account upgrade ads have
proliferated in order to link users to dubious websites and other
The case of
Zeran v. America Online, Inc.
Zeran v. America Online, Inc. resulted primarily from
trolling. Six days after the Oklahoma City bombing, anonymous users
posted advertisements for shirts celebrating the bombing on AOL
message boards, claiming that the shirts could be obtained by
contacting Mr. Kenneth Zeran. The posts listed Zeran's address and
home phone number. Zeran was subsequently harassed.
Anti-Scientology protests by Anonymous, commonly known as Project
Chanology, are sometimes labeled as "trolling" by media such as
Wired, and the participants sometimes explicitly self-identify as
The Daily Stormer
The Daily Stormer orchestrates what it calls a "Troll
Army", and has encouraged trolling of Jewish MP
Luciana Berger and
Muslim activist Mariam Veiszadeh.
Fake news website
^ "Definition of troll". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 17
^ "Definition of: trolling". PCMAG.COM. Ziff Davis Publishing Holdings
Inc. 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
^ Indiana University: University Information Technology Services (5
May 2008). "What is a troll?". Indiana University Knowledge Base. The
Trustees of Indiana University. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
^ "Police charge alleged creator of
Facebook hate page aimed at murder
victim". Australia: The Courier Mail. 22 July 2010. Retrieved 27 July
^ a b "Trolling: The Today Show Explores the Dark Side of the
Internet" Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine., 31 March
2010. Retrieved on 4 April 2010.
^ Fosdick, Howard (25 January 2012). "Why People
Troll and How to Stop
Them". OS News.
^ a b Tastam90, Message # 369489 (9 June 2013). "Terminology: Trolling
in CNet?!?". CollegeNET.
^ Hardaker, C. (2010). "Trolling in asynchronous computer-mediated
communication: From user discussions to academic definitions". Journal
of Politeness Research. Language, Behaviour, Culture. 6 (2).
^ "De-Trolling the Web: Don't Post in Anger". 4 June 2012.
^ Mat Honan (6 Jan 2012). "Why We Troll".
^ Mike Elgan (6 Jan 2012). "What is a troll?". Google+.
^ "Accidental troll mom rage". RageComics. Archived from the original
on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
^ "Trollface hack strikes PlayStation 3? PSU community member reports
XMB weirdness". Psu.com. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
^ ""Pasta" y "MasterDog" ya son parte de la jerga universitaria".
Publicmetro.cl. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
^ a b Manjoo, Farhad (5 December 2012). "Stop Calling Me a Troll".
Slate. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
^ Harper, Douglas. "troll". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14
^ ln. "Trollmother". Retrieved 22 October 2014.
^ "Trolls. Who are they?". unknown. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
^ "troll". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2010. Retrieved 7
^ John Saar (4 February 1972). "Carrier War". Life.
^ a b Schwartz, Mattathias (3 August 2008). "The Trolls Among Us". The
New York Times. pp. MM24. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
^ Miller, Mark S. (8 February 1990). "FOADTAD".
Newsgroup: alt.flame. Usenet: 131460@sun.Eng.Sun.COM.
Retrieved 2 June 2009. Just go die in your sleep you mindless
^ troll, n.1. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
2006. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ a b Chan, Terry (8 October 1992). "Post the FAQ".
Newsgroup: alt.folklore.urban. Usenet: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Retrieved 21 July 2016. Maybe after I post it, we could go trolling
some more and see what happens.
^ Esan, David (2 October 1992). "Mixed up translations".
Newsgroup: alt.folklore.urban. Usenet: email@example.com.
Retrieved 21 July 2016. It just amazes me that when someone goes
newbie trolling how many people he catches.
^ a b c Tepper, Michele (1997). "
Usenet Communities and the Cultural
Politics of Information". In Porter, David.
Internet culture. New
York, New York, United States: Routledge Inc. p. 48.
ISBN 978-0-415-91683-7. Retrieved 24 March 2009. ... the two
most notorious trollers in AFU, Ted Frank and Snopes, are also two of
the most consistent posters of serious research.
^ Cromar, Scott (9 October 1992). "Trolling for Newbies".
Usenet: Oct.firstname.lastname@example.org. Retrieved 16
July 2016. Some people call this game trolling for newbies
^ Zotti, Ed; et al. (14 April 2000). "What is a troll?". The Straight
Dope. Retrieved 24 March 2009. To be fair, not all trolls are
slimeballs. On some message boards, veteran posters with a mischievous
bent occasionally go 'newbie trolling.'
^ Wilbur, Tom (8 February 1993). "AFU REALLY REALLY WAY SOUTH".
Usenet: 1993Feb8.010006.1589@Csli.Stanford.EDU. Retrieved 21 July
2016. Tom "nice troll, by the way" Wilbur
Royal Institute of Thailand
Royal Institute of Thailand (2009). Photchananukrom Kham Mai Lem
Song Chabap Ratchabandittayasathan
พจนานุกรมคำใหม่ เล่ม ๒
Institute Dictionary of New Words, Volume 2] (in Thai). Bangkok: Royal
Institute of Thailand. p. 11. ISBN 9786167073040.
Stevan Harnad (1987/2011) "Sky-Writing, Or, When Man First Met
Troll" The Atlantic
Troll (aka Trolling)". Netlingo.com. 1994–2011. Retrieved 21
November 2011. In general, to "troll" means to allure, to fish, to
entice or to bait.
Internet trolls are people who fish for other
people's confidence and, once found, exploit it. Trolls vary in
^ a b Adams, Tim (24 July 2011). "How the
Internet created an age of
rage". London: The Guardian (The Observer).
^ S. Kiesler; J. Siegel; T.W. McGuire (1984). "Social psychological
aspects of computer-mediated communication". American Psychologist. 39
(10): 1123–34. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.39.10.1123.
^ M. Lea; T. O'Shea; P. Fung; R. Spears (1992). "'Flaming' in
Computer-Mediated Communication: observation, explanations,
implications". Contexts of Computer-Mediated Communication:
^ Postmes, T.; Spears, R.; Lea, M. (1998). "Breaching or building
social boundaries? SIDE-effects of computer-mediated communication".
Communication Research. 25: 689–715.
^ a b Donath, Judith S. (1999). "Identity and deception in the virtual
community". In Smith, Marc A.; Kollock, Peter. Communities in
Cyberspace (illustrated, reprint ed.). Routledge. pp. 29–59.
ISBN 978-0-415-19140-1. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
^ a b Herring, Susan; Job-Sluder, Kirk; Scheckler, Rebecca; Barab,
Sasha (2002). "Searching for Safety Online: Managing "Trolling" in a
Feminist Forum" (PDF). Center for Social Informatics – Indiana
University. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
^ J. Zhao, "Where Anonymity Breeds Contempt", The New York Times, 29
^ Elsner, K. "China Uses an Army of Sockpuppets to Control Public
Opinion – and the US Will Too". Liberty Voice. Retrieved 27 June
^ Attkisson, Sharyl (2014). Stonewalled: My Fight For the Truth
Against the Forces of Obstruction, Intimidation and Harassment in
Obama’s Washington. Harper.
^ National Netword for Oral Health Access (1 October 2012). "Effective
Messaging: Fluoridation & the Dental Workforce" (PDF). The Pew
Center on the States. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
^ Gary King; Jennifer Pan; Margaret E. Roberts (1 June 2016). "How the
Chinese Government Fabricates Social Media Posts for Strategic
Distraction, not Engaged Argument" (PDF). Archived from the original
(PDF) on 2 June 2016.
^ "Behind China's viral curtain". Harvard Gazette. 11 June 2016.
Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url
^ Gary King; Jennifer Pan; Margaret Roberts. "How the Chinese
Government Fabricates Social Media Posts for Strategic Distraction,
not Engaged Argument: Supplementary Appendix" (PDF).
Gking.harvard.edu. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
^ a b c d e f Spruds, Andris; Rožukalne, Anda; et al. (n.d.).
Internet Trolling as a hybrid warfare tool: the case of Latvia".
stratcomcoe.org. Riga, LV:
NATO Strategic Communications Centre of
Excellence (published 28 January 2016). Archived from the original on
28 January 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
^ Radford, Ben (2016). Bad Clowns. Albuquerque: University of New
Mexico Press. ISBN 978-0-8263-5666-6.
^ Cox, Ana Marie (16 December 2006). "Making Mischief on the Web".
TIME. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
^ Saunders, Anne (27 September 2006). "Bass aide resigns for fake
website postings". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 17
May 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
^ "Bass Aide Resigns After Posing As Democrat On Blogs". WMUR. 26
September 2006. Archived from the original on 23 November 2008.
Retrieved 5 February 2010.
^ Wolcott, James (6 October 2006). "Political Pieties from a
Post-Natal Drip". James Wolcott's Blog – Vanity Fair. Condé Nast.
Archived from the original on 18 February 2009. Retrieved 25 March
^ Moulitsas, Markos (9 January 2008). "Dems: Ignore 'concern trolls'".
TheHill.com. Capitol Hill Publishing Corp. Retrieved 25 March
^ Phillips, Whitney. "
Troll Sub-Culture's Savage Spoofing of
Mainstream Media [Excerpt]". Scientific American. Retrieved 24
^ "How to be a Great ≤
Internet Troll". Fox Sports. Archived from the
original on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2009.
Internet without laws a 'recipe for anarchy' Archived 4 April 2010
at the Wayback Machine., News.ninemsn.com.au, 1 April 2010. Retrieved
5 April 2010.
Facebook takes (small) step against tribute page trolls", TG Daily,
30 March 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
^ Jones, Gemma (11 September 2012). "Time is up for Twitter trolls and
bullies". News.com.au. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
^ "Twitter trolls attack radio host Ray Hadley, NRL star Robbie
Farah". Herald Sun. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
^ "Twitter makes moves to prevent online trolls". Herald Sun.
Retrieved 15 September 2012.
^ Ashoka Prasad. "Taking On The Trolls". Newslaundry.
^ "NL Hafta – Episode 24". Newslaundry. 17 July 2015.
^ a b "
Internet trolls face up to two years in jail under new laws".
BBC News. 19 October 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
^ UK Ministry of Justice (20 October 2014). "
Internet trolls to face 2
years in prison". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
^ Tom de Castella; Virginia Brown (14 September 2011). "Trolling: Who
does it and why?".
BBC News Magazine. BBC News. Retrieved 14 September
^ "Georgia Varley-inspired trolling law is waste of time says internet
campaigner". Liverpool Echo. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
^ "Lancashire man JAILED over April Jones
Facebook posts". The
Register. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
^ Whitney Phillips (15 May 2015). "
Troll Sub-Culture's Savage
Spoofing of Mainstream Media [Excerpt]". Scientific American.
^ "Review: The Newsroom – The Blackout Part 2: Mock Debate:
^ Beth Hanna (20 August 2012). "'The Newsroom' Episode 9 Review and
Recap: 'The Blackout – Thompson on Hollywood". Thompson on
^ "Inside the online world not indexed by search engines". Washington
Post. 26 June 2015.
^ a b Bond, Robert (1999). "Links, Frames, Meta-tags and Trolls".
International Review of Law, Computers & Technology 13.
^ "All that glisters is not (Facebook) gold", CounterMeasures:
Security, Privacy & Trust (A TrendMicro Blog). Retrieved 6 April
^ Dibbell, Julian (21 September 2009). "The Assclown Offensive: How to
Enrage the Church of Scientology". Wired. Retrieved 5 October
^ Whiteman, Hilary (28 February 2015). "I will not be silenced:
Australian Muslim fights Twitter 'troll army'". CNN. Retrieved 4 March
Walter, T.; Hourizi, R.; Moncur, W.; Pitsillides (2012). Does the
Internet Change How We Die And Mourn? An Overview Online.
Look up troll in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trolls (Internet).
Wikinews has related news: UK court jails man for trolling online
Trolling advocacy and safety
The Trolling Academy – trolling advice, comment, and training
Get Safe Online – free expert advice on online safety
Background and definitions
Usenet and Bulletin Board
Abuse at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Urban Dictionary definition
Academic and debate
Searching for Safety Online: Managing "Trolling" in a Feminist Forum
How to Respond to
Malwebolence – The World of Web Trolling; New York Times
Magazine, By Mattathias Schwartz; 3 August 2008.
Internet Trolls Are Narcissists, Psychopaths, and Sadists. Jennifer
Golbeck for Psychology Today. September 18, 2014.
Anonymous and the Internet
Guy Fawkes mask
Low Orbit Ion Cannon
February 2010 Australian Cyberattacks
advertising and products
animation and comics