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The International Phonetic Association
International Phonetic Association
(IPA; in French, Association phonétique internationale, API) is an organization that promotes the scientific study of phonetics and the various practical applications of that science. The IPA’s major contribution to phonetics is the International Phonetic Alphabet—a notational standard for the phonetic representation of all languages. The acronym IPA is used to refer to both the association and the alphabet. It was incorporated as a UK private company limited by guarantee on 30 June 2015.[1][2] The IPA also publishes the Journal of the International Phonetic Association. In addition, it arranges for the quadrennial International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS)[3] through its affiliate, the Permanent Council for the Organization of ICPhS.

Contents

1 Early history 2 Development of the Alphabet 3 Examinations 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Early history[edit] In 1886, a small group of language teachers in Paris
Paris
formed an association to encourage the use of phonetic notation in schools to help children acquire realistic pronunciations of foreign languages and also to aid in teaching reading to young children. The group, led by Paul Passy, called itself initially Dhi Fonètik Tîtcerz' Asóciécon (the FTA). In January 1889, the name of the Association was changed to L'Association Phonétique des Professeurs de Langues Vivantes (AP), and, in 1897, to L'Association Phonétique Internationale (API)—in English, the International Phonetic Association (IPA). The IPA’s early peak of membership and influence in education circles was around 1914, when there were 1751 members in 40 countries. World War I
World War I
and its aftermath severely disrupted the Association's activities, and the Journal did not resume regular publication until 1922. Development of the Alphabet[edit] The group’s initial aim was to create a set of phonetic symbols to which different articulations could apply, such that each language would have an alphabet particularly suited to describe the sounds of the language. Eventually it was decided that a universal alphabet, with the same symbol being used for the same sound in different languages was the ideal, and development of the International Phonetic Alphabet progressed rapidly up to the turn of the 20th century. Since then, there have been several sets of changes to the Alphabet, with additions and deletions that the progress of the science of phonetics has indicated. Examinations[edit] The IPA also has given examinations in phonetics since 1908, awarding Certificates of Proficiency in the phonetics of English, French, or German. See also[edit]

List of phonetics topics Language reform

References[edit]

^ a b About the Association ^ "The International Phonetic Association". Companies House.  ^ IPA: Conferences

Further reading[edit]

International Phonetic Association. (1999). Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

External links[edit]

International Phonetic Association

v t e

International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(chart)

IPA topics

IPA

International Phonetic Association History of the IPA Extensions to the IPA (extIPA) Voice Quality Symbols (VoQS) Journal of the IPA (JIPA)

Phonetics

Diacritics Segments Tone letter Place of articulation Manner of articulation

Special
Special
topics

Cursive forms Case variants Obsolete and nonstandard symbols Naming conventions IPA chart for English dialects World Orthography

Encodings

SAMPA X-SAMPA Kirshenbaum TIPA Phonetic symbols in Unicode WorldBet IPA Braille

Consonants

Pulmonic consonants

Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal

Manner ↓ Bi­labial Labio­dental Linguo­labial Dental Alveolar Post­alveolar Retro­flex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn­geal/Epi­glottal Glottal

Nasal m̥ m

ɱ

n̥ n

ɳ̊ ɳ ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ

ɴ

Stop p b p̪ b̪ t̼ d̼

t d

ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ

ʔ

Sibilant affricate

ts dz t̠ʃ d̠ʒ ʈʂ ɖʐ t̠ɕ d̠ʑ

Non-sibilant affricate pɸ bβ p̪f b̪v

t̪θ d̪ð tɹ̝̊ dɹ̝ t̠ɹ̠̊˔ d̠ɹ̠˔

cç ɟʝ kx ɡɣ qχ

ʡʢ ʔh

Sibilant fricative

s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ

Non-sibilant fricative ɸ β f v θ̼ ð̼ θ ð θ̠ ð̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔

ɻ˔ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ

Approximant

ʋ̥ ʋ

ɹ̥ ɹ

ɻ̊ ɻ j̊ j ɰ̊ ɰ

ʔ̞

Flap/tap

ⱱ̟

ɾ̼

ɾ̥ ɾ

ɽ̊ ɽ

ɢ̆

ʡ̆

Trill ʙ̥ ʙ

r̥ r

ɽ̊ɽ̊ ɽɽ

ʀ̥ ʀ ʜ ʢ

Lateral affricate

tɬ dɮ

ʈɭ̊˔

cʎ̝̊

kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝

Lateral fricative

ɬ ɮ

ɭ̊˔

ʎ̝̊ ʎ̝ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝

Lateral approximant

l̥ l

ɭ̊ ɭ ʎ̥ ʎ ʟ̥ ʟ

ʟ̠

Lateral flap/tap

ɺ

ɭ̆

ʎ̆

ʟ̆

help full chart template

Symbols to the right in a cell are voiced, to the left are voiceless. Shaded areas denote articulations judged to be impossible.

Non-pulmonic consonants

Bi­labial Labio­dental Dental Alveolar Post­alveolar Retro­flex Palatal Velar Uvular Epi­glottal Glottal

Ejectives Stop pʼ

ʈʼ

ʡʼ

Affricate

t̪θʼ

tsʼ

t̠ʃʼ

ʈʂʼ

kxʼ

qχʼ

Lateral affricate

tɬʼ

cʎ̝̊ʼ

kʟ̝̊ʼ

Fricative

θʼ

ʃʼ

ʂʼ

ɕʼ

χʼ

Lateral fricative

ɬʼ

Clicks Nasal

ʘ̃

ǀ̃

ǃ̃

ǃ̃˞

ǂ̃

◌̃ˀ

Stop ʘ ʘ̬

ǀ ǀ̬ ǃ ǃ̬

ǃ˞ ǃ̬˞ ǂ ǂ̬ ʞ

◌ˀ

Lateral nasal

ǁ̃

Lateral fricative

ǁ ǁ̬

Implosive ɓ̥ ɓ

ɗ̥ ɗ

ᶑ̥ ᶑ ʄ̊ ʄ ɠ̊ ɠ ʛ̥ ʛ

help full chart template

Co-articulated consonants

Nasals

n͡m Labial–alveolar

ŋ͡m Labial–velar

Stops

t͡p Labial–alveolar (voiceless)

d͡b Labial–alveolar (voiced)

k͡p Labial–velar (voiceless)

ɡ͡b Labial–velar (voiced)

q͡ʡ Uvular–epiglottal

Fricatives

ɧ Sj-sound

Approximants

ʍ Labialized velar (voiceless)

w Labialized velar (voiced)

ɫ Velarized alveolar (lateral)

ɥ̊ Labialized palatal (voiceless)

ɥ Labialized palatal (voiced)

help full chart template

Vowels

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back

Close

i y

ɨ ʉ

ɯ u

ɪ ʏ

ɪ̈ ʊ̈

ɯ̽ ʊ

e ø

ɘ ɵ

ɤ o

e̞ ø̞

ə ɵ̞

ɤ̞ o̞

ɛ œ

ɜ ɞ

ʌ ɔ

æ

ɐ ɞ̞

a ɶ

ä ɒ̈

ɑ ɒ

Near-close

Close-mid

Mid

Open-mid

Near-open

Open

help full chart template

Paired vowels are: unrounded

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