The INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ASSOCIATION (IPA; in French , Association
phonétique internationale, API) is an organization that promotes the
scientific study of phonetics and the various practical applications
of that science. The IPA’s major contribution to phonetics is the
International Phonetic Alphabet
The IPA also publishes the Journal of the International Phonetic Association . In addition, it arranges for the quadrennial International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS) through its affiliate, the Permanent Council for the Organization of ICPhS.
* 1 Early history * 2 Development of the Alphabet * 3 Examinations * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links
In 1886, a small group of language teachers in
DEVELOPMENT OF THE ALPHABET
The group’s initial aim was to create a set of phonetic symbols to which different articulations could apply, such that each language would have an alphabet particularly suited to describe the sounds of the language. Eventually it was decided that a universal alphabet, with the same symbol being used for the same sound in different languages was the ideal, and development of the International Phonetic Alphabet progressed rapidly up to the turn of the 20th century. Since then, there have been several sets of changes to the Alphabet, with additions and deletions that the progress of the science of phonetics has indicated.
The IPA also has given examinations in phonetics since 1908, awarding Certificates of Proficiency in the phonetics of English, French, or German.
* ^ About the Association * ^ IPA: Conferences