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The International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties (signatories) to the four Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 (Protocol I, Protocol II) and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts. Such victims include war wounded, prisoners, refugees, civilians, and other non-combatants.[3] The ICRC is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement along with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and 190 National Societies.[4] It is the oldest and most honoured organization within the movement and one of the most widely recognized organizations in the world, having won three Nobel Peace Prizes in 1917, 1944, and 1963.[5]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Solferino, Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
and the foundation of ICRC 1.2 World War
War
I 1.3 Chaco War 1.4 World War
War
II 1.5 After World War
War
II

1.5.1 Fatalities

1.6 The Holocaust

2 Characteristics

2.1 Mission 2.2 Legal status 2.3 Legal Basis 2.4 Funding and financial matters 2.5 Responsibilities within the movement

3 Organization

3.1 Directorate 3.2 Assembly

3.2.1 Assembly Council 3.2.2 The President

3.3 Staff 3.4 The ICRC worldwide 2013

4 Relationships within the movement

4.1 Acceptance of Magen David Adom

5 International relationships 6 References 7 Bibliography

7.1 Books 7.2 Articles

8 External links

History[edit]

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Solferino, Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
and the foundation of ICRC[edit]

Henry Dunant, author of A Memory of Solferino

Up until the middle of the 19th century, there were no organized and well-established army nursing systems for casualties and no safe and protected institutions to accommodate and treat those who were wounded on the battlefield. In June 1859, the Swiss businessman Henry Dunant travelled to Italy
Italy
to meet French emperor Napoléon III
Napoléon III
with the intention of discussing difficulties in conducting business in Algeria, at that time occupied by France. When he arrived in the small Italian town of Solferino
Solferino
on the evening of 24 June, he witnessed the Battle of Solferino, an engagement in the Second Italian War
War
of Independence. In a single day, about 40,000 soldiers on both sides died or were left wounded on the field. Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
was shocked by the terrible aftermath of the battle, the suffering of the wounded soldiers, and the near-total lack of medical attendance and basic care. He completely abandoned the original intent of his trip and for several days he devoted himself to helping with the treatment and care for the wounded. He succeeded in organizing an overwhelming level of relief assistance by motivating the local population to aid without discrimination. Back in his home in Geneva, he decided to write a book entitled A Memory of Solferino[6] which he published with his own money in 1862. He sent copies of the book to leading political and military figures throughout Europe. In addition to penning a vivid description of his experiences in Solferino
Solferino
in 1859, he explicitly advocated the formation of national voluntary relief organizations to help nurse wounded soldiers in the case of war. In addition, he called for the development of international treaties to guarantee the neutrality and protection of those wounded on the battlefield as well as medics and field hospitals.

Original document of the first Geneva
Geneva
Convention, 1864

On 9 February 1863 in Geneva, Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
founded the "Committee of the Five" (together with four other leading figures from well-known Geneva
Geneva
families) as an investigatory commission of the Geneva
Geneva
Society for Public Welfare.[7] Their aim was to examine the feasibility of Dunant's ideas and to organize an international conference about their possible implementation. The members of this committee, aside from Dunant himself, were Gustave Moynier, lawyer and chairman of the Geneva
Geneva
Society for Public Welfare; physician Louis Appia, who had significant experience working as a field surgeon; Appia's friend and colleague Théodore Maunoir, from the Geneva
Geneva
Hygiene and Health Commission; and Guillaume-Henri Dufour, a Swiss Army
Swiss Army
general of great renown. Eight days later, the five men decided to rename the committee to the "International Committee for Relief to the Wounded". In October (26–29) 1863, the international conference organized by the committee was held in Geneva
Geneva
to develop possible measures to improve medical services on the battle field. The conference was attended by 36 individuals: eighteen official delegates from national governments, six delegates from other non-governmental organizations, seven non-official foreign delegates, and the five members of the International Committee. The states and kingdoms represented by official delegates were Grand Duchy of Baden, Kingdom of Bavaria, Second French Empire, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland, Kingdom of Hanover, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Austrian Empire, Kingdom of Prussia, Russian Empire, Kingdom of Saxony, United Kingdoms of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway, and Spanish Empire.[citation needed] Among the proposals written in the final resolutions of the conference, adopted on 29 October 1863, were:

The foundation of national relief societies for wounded soldiers; Neutrality and protection for wounded soldiers; The utilization of volunteer forces for relief assistance on the battlefield; The organization of additional conferences to enact these concepts in legally binding international treaties; and The introduction of a common distinctive protection symbol for medical personnel in the field, namely a white armlet bearing a red cross, honoring the history of neutrality of Switzerland
Switzerland
and of its own Swiss organizers by reversing the Swiss flag's colors.

The Red Cross in action in 1864

Memorial commemorating the first use of the Red Cross symbol in an armed conflict during the Battle of Dybbøl
Dybbøl
(Denmark) in 1864; jointly erected in 1989 by the national Red Cross societies of Denmark
Denmark
and Germany

Only one year later, the Swiss government invited the governments of all European countries, as well as the United States, Brazil, and Mexico, to attend an official diplomatic conference. Sixteen countries sent a total of twenty-six delegates to Geneva. On 22 August 1864, the conference adopted the first Geneva
Geneva
Convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field". Representatives of 12 states and kingdoms signed the convention:[8]

 Grand Duchy of Baden  Kingdom of Belgium  Kingdom of Denmark  Second French Empire  Grand Duchy of Hesse  Kingdom of Italy  Kingdom of the Netherlands   Kingdom of Portugal
Kingdom of Portugal
and the Algarves  Kingdom of Prussia   Switzerland  Kingdom of Spain  Kingdom of Württemberg

The convention contained ten articles, establishing for the first time legally binding rules guaranteeing neutrality and protection for wounded soldiers, field medical personnel, and specific humanitarian institutions in an armed conflict. Furthermore, the convention defined two specific requirements for recognition of a national relief society by the International Committee:

The national society must be recognized by its own national government as a relief society according to the convention, and The national government of the respective country must be a state party to the Geneva
Geneva
Convention.

Directly following the establishment of the Geneva
Geneva
Convention, the first national societies were founded in Belgium, Denmark, France, Oldenburg, Prussia, Spain, and Württemberg. Also in 1864, Louis Appia and Charles van de Velde, a captain of the Dutch Army, became the first independent and neutral delegates to work under the symbol of the Red Cross in an armed conflict. Three years later in 1867, the first International Conference of National Aid Societies for the Nursing
Nursing
of the War
War
Wounded was convened. Also in 1867, Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
was forced to declare bankruptcy due to business failures in Algeria, partly because he had neglected his business interests during his tireless activities for the International Committee. The controversy surrounding Dunant's business dealings and the resulting negative public opinion, combined with an ongoing conflict with Gustave Moynier, led to Dunant's expulsion from his position as a member and secretary. He was charged with fraudulent bankruptcy and a warrant for his arrest was issued. Thus, he was forced to leave Geneva
Geneva
and never returned to his home city. In the following years, national societies were founded in nearly every country in Europe. The project resonated well with patriotic sentiments that were on the rise in the late-nineteenth-century, and national societies were often encouraged as signifiers of national moral superiority.[9] In 1876, the committee adopted the name "International Committee of the Red Cross" (ICRC), which is still its official designation today. Five years later, the American Red Cross was founded through the efforts of Clara Barton. More and more countries signed the Geneva
Geneva
Convention and began to respect it in practice during armed conflicts. In a rather short period of time, the Red Cross gained huge momentum as an internationally respected movement, and the national societies became increasingly popular as a venue for volunteer work. When the first Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
was awarded in 1901, the Norwegian Nobel Committee opted to give it jointly to Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
and Frédéric Passy, a leading international pacifist. More significant than the honour of the prize itself, the official congratulation from the International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
marked the overdue rehabilitation of Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
and represented a tribute to his key role in the formation of the Red Cross. Dunant died nine years later in the small Swiss health resort of Heiden. Only two months earlier his long-standing adversary Gustave Moynier
Gustave Moynier
had also died, leaving a mark in the history of the Committee as its longest-serving president ever. In 1906, the 1864 Geneva
Geneva
Convention was revised for the first time. One year later, the Hague Convention X, adopted at the Second International Peace Conference in The Hague, extended the scope of the Geneva
Geneva
Convention to naval warfare. Shortly before the beginning of the First World War
War
in 1914, 50 years after the foundation of the ICRC and the adoption of the first Geneva
Geneva
Convention, there were already 45 national relief societies throughout the world. The movement had extended itself beyond Europe and North America to Central and South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, El Salvador, Uruguay, Venezuela), Asia (the Republic of China, Japan, Korea, Siam), and Africa (South Africa). World War
War
I[edit]

French postcard celebrating the role of Red Cross nurses during the First World War, 1915.

With the outbreak of World War
War
I, the ICRC found itself confronted with enormous challenges which it could only handle by working closely with the national Red Cross societies. Red Cross nurses from around the world, including the United States
United States
and Japan, came to support the medical services of the armed forces of the European countries involved in the war. On 15 October 1914, immediately after the start of the war, the ICRC set up its International Prisoners-of- War
War
(POW) Agency, which had about 1,200 mostly volunteer staff members by the end of 1914. By the end of the war, the Agency had transferred about 20 million letters and messages, 1.9 million parcels, and about 18 million Swiss francs
Swiss francs
in monetary donations to POWs of all affected countries. Furthermore, due to the intervention of the Agency, about 200,000 prisoners were exchanged between the warring parties, released from captivity and returned to their home country. The organizational card index of the Agency accumulated about 7 million records from 1914 to 1923, each card representing an individual prisoner or missing person. The card index led to the identification of about 2 million POWs and the ability to contact their families, as part of the Restoring Family Links
Restoring Family Links
effort of the organization. The complete index is on loan today from the ICRC to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Museum
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Museum
in Geneva. The right to access the index is still strictly restricted to the ICRC. During the entire war, the ICRC monitored warring parties’ compliance with the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of the 1907 revision and forwarded complaints about violations to the respective country. When chemical weapons were used in this war for the first time in history, the ICRC vigorously protested against this new type of warfare. Even without having a mandate from the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions, the ICRC tried to ameliorate the suffering of civil populations. In territories that were officially designated as "occupied territories," the ICRC could assist the civilian population on the basis of the Hague Convention's "Laws and Customs of War
War
on Land" of 1907. This convention was also the legal basis for the ICRC's work for prisoners of war. In addition to the work of the International Prisoner-of- War
War
Agency as described above this included inspection visits to POW
POW
camps. A total of 524 camps throughout Europe were visited by 41 delegates from the ICRC until the end of the war. Between 1916 and 1918, the ICRC published a number of postcards with scenes from the POW
POW
camps. The pictures showed the prisoners in day-to-day activities such as the distribution of letters from home. The intention of the ICRC was to provide the families of the prisoners with some hope and solace and to alleviate their uncertainties about the fate of their loved ones. After the end of the war, the ICRC organized the return of about 420,000 prisoners to their home countries. In 1920, the task of repatriation was handed over to the newly founded League of Nations, which appointed the Norwegian diplomat and scientist Fridtjof Nansen
Fridtjof Nansen
as its "High Commissioner for Repatriation of the War
War
Prisoners". His legal mandate was later extended to support and care for war refugees and displaced persons when his office became that of the League of Nations
League of Nations
"High Commissioner for Refugees". Nansen, who invented the Nansen passport for stateless refugees and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1922, appointed two delegates from the ICRC as his deputies. A year before the end of the war, the ICRC received the 1917 Nobel Peace Prize for its outstanding wartime work. It was the only Nobel Peace Prize awarded in the period from 1914 to 1918. In 1923, the Committee adopted a change in its policy regarding the selection of new members. Until then, only citizens from the city of Geneva
Geneva
could serve in the Committee. This limitation was expanded to include Swiss citizens. As a direct consequence of World War
War
I, an additional protocol to the Geneva
Geneva
Convention was adopted in 1925 which outlawed the use of suffocating or poisonous gases and biological agents as weapons. Four years later, the original Convention was revised and the second Geneva
Geneva
Convention "relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War" was established. The events of World War
War
I and the respective activities of the ICRC significantly increased the reputation and authority of the Committee among the international community and led to an extension of its competencies. As early as in 1934, a draft proposal for an additional convention for the protection of the civil population during an armed conflict was adopted by the International Red Cross Conference. Unfortunately, most governments had little interest in implementing this convention, and it was thus prevented from entering into force before the beginning of World War
War
II. Chaco War[edit] In the Interwar period, Bolivia
Bolivia
and Paraguay
Paraguay
were disputing possession of the Gran Chaco - a desert region between the two countries. The dispute escalated into a full-scale conflict in 1932. During the war the ICRC visited 18,000 Bolivian prisoners of war and 2,500 Paraguayan detainees. With the help of the ICRC both countries made improvements to the conditions of the detainees. [10] World War
War
II[edit]

Red Cross message from Łódź, Poland, 1940.

The most reliable primary source on the role of the Red Cross during World War
War
II are the three volumes of the "Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross on its activities during the second world war (September 1, 1939 – June 30, 1947)" written by the International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
itself. The report can be read online.[11] The legal basis of the work of the ICRC during World War
War
II was the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions in their 1929 revision. The activities of the Committee were similar to those during World War
War
I: visiting and monitoring POW
POW
camps, organizing relief assistance for civilian populations, and administering the exchange of messages regarding prisoners and missing persons. By the end of the war, 179 delegates had conducted 12,750 visits to POW
POW
camps in 41 countries. The Central Information Agency on Prisoners-of- War
War
(Zentralauskunftsstelle für Kriegsgefangene) had a staff of 3,000, the card index tracking prisoners contained 45 million cards, and 120 million messages were exchanged by the Agency. One major obstacle was that the Nazi-controlled German Red Cross
German Red Cross
refused to cooperate with the Geneva statutes including blatant violations such as the deportation of Jews from Germany
Germany
and the mass murders conducted in the concentration camps run by the German government. Moreover, two other main parties to the conflict, the Soviet Union and Japan, were not party to the 1929 Geneva
Geneva
Conventions and were not legally required to follow the rules of the conventions. During the war, the ICRC failed to obtain an agreement with Nazi Germany
Germany
about the treatment of detainees in concentration camps, and it eventually abandoned applying pressure to avoid disrupting its work with POWs. The ICRC also failed to develop a response to reliable information about the extermination camps and the mass killing of European Jews. This is still considered the greatest failure of the ICRC in its history. After November 1943, the ICRC achieved permission to send parcels to concentration camp detainees with known names and locations. Because the notices of receipt for these parcels were often signed by other inmates, the ICRC managed to register the identities of about 105,000 detainees in the concentration camps and delivered about 1.1 million parcels, primarily to the camps Dachau, Buchenwald, Ravensbrück, and Sachsenhausen.[12]

Marcel Junod, delegate of the ICRC, visiting POWs in Nazi Germany. (Benoit Junod, Switzerland)

Swiss historian Jean-Claude Favez, who conducted an 8-year review of the Red Cross records, says that even though the Red Cross knew by November 1942 about the Nazi’s annihilation plans for the Jews – and even discussed it with U.S. officials – the group did nothing to inform the public, maintaining silence even in the face of pleas by Jewish groups.[13] Because the Red Cross was based in Geneva
Geneva
and largely funded by the Swiss government, it was very sensitive to Swiss wartime attitudes and policies. On October 1942, the Swiss government and the Red Cross’ board of members vetoed a proposal by several Red Cross board members to condemn the persecution of civilians by the Nazis. For the rest of the war, the Red Cross took its cues from Switzerland
Switzerland
in avoiding acts of opposition or confrontation with the Nazis.[14]

A sick Polish survivor in the Hannover-Ahlem concentration camp receives medicine from a German Red Cross
German Red Cross
worker, April 1945

On 12 March 1945, ICRC president Jacob Burckhardt received a message from SS General Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
accepting the ICRC's demand to allow delegates to visit the concentration camps. This agreement was bound by the condition that these delegates would have to stay in the camps until the end of the war. Ten delegates, among them Louis Haefliger (Mauthausen Camp), Paul Dunant (Theresienstadt Camp) and Victor Maurer (Dachau Camp), accepted the assignment and visited the camps. Louis Haefliger prevented the forceful eviction or blasting of Mauthausen-Gusen by alerting American troops, thereby saving the lives of about 60,000 inmates. His actions were condemned by the ICRC because they were deemed as acting unduly on his own authority and risking the ICRC's neutrality. Only in 1990, his reputation was finally rehabilitated by ICRC president Cornelio Sommaruga. In 1944, the ICRC received its second Nobel Peace Prize. As in World War
War
I, it received the only Peace Prize awarded during the main period of war, 1939 to 1945. At the end of the war, the ICRC worked with national Red Cross societies to organize relief assistance to those countries most severely affected. In 1948, the Committee published a report reviewing its war-era activities from 1 September 1939 to 30 June 1947. Since January 1996, the ICRC archive for this period has been open to academic and public research. After World War
War
II[edit]

The ICRC Headquarters in Geneva.

On 12 August 1949, further revisions to the existing two Geneva Conventions were adopted. An additional convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea", now called the second Geneva
Geneva
Convention, was brought under the Geneva
Geneva
Convention umbrella as a successor to the 1907 Hague Convention X. The 1929 Geneva
Geneva
convention "relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War" may have been the second Geneva Convention from a historical point of view (because it was actually formulated in Geneva), but after 1949 it came to be called the third Convention because it came later chronologically than the Hague Convention. Reacting to the experience of World War
War
II, the Fourth Geneva
Geneva
Convention, a new Convention "relative to the Protection of Civilian
Civilian
Persons in Time of War," was established. Also, the additional protocols of 8 June 1977 were intended to make the conventions apply to internal conflicts such as civil wars. Today, the four conventions and their added protocols contain more than 600 articles, a remarkable expansion when compared to the mere 10 articles in the first 1864 convention. In celebration of its centennial in 1963, the ICRC, together with the League of Red Cross Societies, received its third Nobel Peace Prize. Since 1993, non-Swiss individuals have been allowed to serve as Committee delegates abroad, a task which was previously restricted to Swiss citizens. Indeed, since then, the share of staff without Swiss citizenship has increased to about 35%. On 16 October 1990, the UN General Assembly
UN General Assembly
decided to grant the ICRC observer status for its assembly sessions and sub-committee meetings, the first observer status given to a private organization. The resolution was jointly proposed by 138 member states and introduced by the Italian ambassador, Vieri Traxler, in memory of the organization's origins in the Battle of Solferino. An agreement with the Swiss government signed on 19 March 1993, affirmed the already long-standing policy of full independence of the Committee from any possible interference by Switzerland. The agreement protects the full sanctity of all ICRC property in Switzerland
Switzerland
including its headquarters and archive, grants members and staff legal immunity, exempts the ICRC from all taxes and fees, guarantees the protected and duty-free transfer of goods, services, and money, provides the ICRC with secure communication privileges at the same level as foreign embassies, and simplifies Committee travel in and out of Switzerland. The ICRC continued its activities throughout the 1990s. It broke its customary media silence when it denounced the Rwandan Genocide
Rwandan Genocide
in 1994. It struggled to prevent the crimes that happened in and around Srebrenica
Srebrenica
in 1995 but admitted, "We must acknowledge that despite our efforts to help thousands of civilians forcibly expelled from the town and despite the dedication of our colleagues on the spot, the ICRC's impact on the unfolding of the tragedy was extremely limited."[15] It went public once again in 2007 to decry "major human rights abuses" by Burma's military government including forced labour, starvation, and murder of men, women, and children.[16] Fatalities[edit] At the end of the Cold War, the ICRC's work actually became more dangerous. In the 1990s, more delegates lost their lives than at any point in its history, especially when working in local and internal armed conflicts. These incidents often demonstrated a lack of respect for the rules of the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions and their protection symbols. Among the slain delegates were:

Frédéric Maurice. He died on 19 May 1992 at the age of 39, one day after a Red Cross transport he was escorting was attacked in the former Yugoslavian city of Sarajevo. Fernanda Calado (Spain), Ingeborg Foss (Norway), Nancy Malloy (Canada), Gunnhild Myklebust (Norway), Sheryl Thayer (New Zealand), and Hans Elkerbout (Netherlands). They were shot at point-blank range while sleeping in the early hours of 17 December 1996 in the ICRC field hospital in the Chechen city of Nowije Atagi near Grozny. Their murderers have never been caught and there was no apparent motive for the killings. Rita Fox (Switzerland), Véronique Saro (Democratic Republic of Congo, formerly Zaire), Julio Delgado (Colombia), Unen Ufoirworth (DR Congo), Aduwe Boboli (DR Congo), and Jean Molokabonge (DR Congo). On 26 April 2001, they were en route with two cars on a relief mission in the northeast of the Democratic Republic of Congo
Democratic Republic of Congo
when they came under fatal fire from unknown attackers. Ricardo Munguia (El Salvador). He was working as a water engineer in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and travelling with local colleagues on March 27, 2003 when their car was stopped by unknown armed men. He was killed execution-style at point-blank range while his colleagues were allowed to escape. He was 39 years old. The killing prompted the ICRC to temporarily suspend operations across Afghanistan.[17] Vatche Arslanian (Canada). Since 2001, he worked as a logistics coordinator for the ICRC mission in Iraq. He died when he was travelling through Baghdad
Baghdad
together with members of the Iraqi Red Crescent. Their car accidentally came into the crossfire of fighting in the city. Nadisha Yasassri Ranmuthu (Sri Lanka). He was killed by unknown attackers on 22 July 2003, when his car was fired upon near the city of Hilla
Hilla
in the south of Baghdad. Emmerich Pregetter (Austria). He was an ICRC Logistics Specialist who was killed by a swarm of bees on 11 August 2008. Emmerich was participating in a field trip along with the ICRC Water and Habitat team on a convoy which was delivering construction material for reconstruction of a rural surgical health clinic in the area of Jebel Marra, West Darfur, Sudan.

The Holocaust[edit] By taking part in the 1995 ceremony to commemorate the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp, the President of the ICRC, Cornelio Sommaruga, sought to show that the organization was fully aware of the gravity of The Holocaust
Holocaust
and the need to keep the memory of it alive, so as to prevent any repetition of it. He paid tribute to all those who had suffered or lost their lives during the war and publicly regretted the past mistakes and shortcomings of the Red Cross with regard to the victims of the concentration camps.[18] In 2002, an ICRC official outlined some of the lessons the organization has learned from the failure:

from a legal point of view, the work that led to the adoption of the Geneva
Geneva
Convention relative to the protection of civilian persons in time of war; from an ethical point of view, the adoption of the declaration of the Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, building on the distinguished work of Max Huber and Jean Pictet, to prevent any more abuses such as those that occurred within the movement after Hitler
Hitler
rose to power in 1933; on a political level, the ICRC's relationship with Switzerland
Switzerland
was redesigned to ensure its independence; with a view to keeping memories alive, the ICRC accepted, in 1955, to take over the direction of the International Tracing Service
International Tracing Service
where records from concentration camps are maintained; finally, to establish the historical facts of the case, the ICRC invited Jean-Claude Favez to carry out an independent investigation of its activities on behalf of the victims of Nazi persecution, and gave him unfettered access to its archives relating to this period; out of concern for transparency, the ICRC also decided to give all other historians access to its archives dating back more than 50 years; having gone over the conclusions of Favez's work, the ICRC acknowledged its past failings and expressed its regrets in this regard.[19]

In an official statement made on 27 January 2005, the 60th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz, the ICRC stated:

Auschwitz also represents the greatest failure in the history of the ICRC, aggravated by its lack of decisiveness in taking steps to aid the victims of Nazi persecution. This failure will remain part of the ICRC's memory, as will the courageous acts of individual ICRC delegates at the time.[20]

Characteristics[edit]

The emblem of the International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
(French: Comité international de la croix-rouge).

The original motto of the International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
was Inter Arma Caritas ("Amidst War, Charity"). It has preserved this motto while other Red Cross organizations have adopted others. Due to Geneva's location in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, the ICRC is also known under its initial French name Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR). However, the ICRC has three official languages (English, French and Spanish). The official symbol of the ICRC is the Red Cross on white background (the inverse of the Swiss flag) with the words "COMITE INTERNATIONAL GENEVE" circling the cross. Under the Geneva
Geneva
Convention, the red cross, red crescent and red crystal emblems provide protection for military medical services and relief workers in armed conflicts and is to be placed on humanitarian and medical vehicles and buildings. The original emblem that has a red cross on a white background is the exact reverse of the flag of neutral Switzerland. It was later supplemented by two others which are the Red Crescent, and the Red Crystal. The Red Crescent
Red Crescent
was adopted by the Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish war and the Red Crystal
Red Crystal
by the governments in 2005, as an additional emblem devoid of any national, political or religious connotation.[21] Mission[edit] The official mission statement says that: "The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is an impartial, neutral, and independent organization whose independently humanitarian mission is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of war and internal violence and to provide them with assistance." It also conducts and coordinates international relief and works to promote and strengthen humanitarian law and universal humanitarian principles.[22] The core tasks of the Committee, which are derived from the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions and its own statutes[23] are:

to monitor compliance of warring parties with the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions to organize nursing and care for those who are wounded on the battlefield to supervise the treatment of prisoners of war and make confidential interventions with detaining authorities to help with the search for missing persons in an armed conflict (tracing service) to organize protection and care for civil populations to act as a neutral intermediary between warring parties

The ICRC drew up seven fundamental principles in 1965 that were adopted by the entire Red Cross Movement.[24] They are humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, volunteerism, unity, and universality.[25] Legal status[edit] ICRC is the only institution explicitly named under International Humanitarian Law (IHL) as a controlling authority. The legal mandate of the ICRC stems from the four Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 1949, as well as its own Statutes. The ICRC also undertakes tasks that are not specifically mandated by law, such as visiting political prisoners outside of conflict and providing relief in natural disasters. The ICRC is a private association registered in Switzerland
Switzerland
that has enjoyed various degrees of special privileges and legal immunities within the territory of Switzerland
Switzerland
for many years.[when?] On 19 March 1993, a legal foundation for this special treatment was created by a formal agreement between the Swiss government and the ICRC. This agreement protects the full sanctity of all ICRC property in Switzerland
Switzerland
including its headquarters and archive, grants members and staff legal immunity, exempts the ICRC from all taxes and fees, guarantees protected and duty-free transfer of goods, services, and money, provides the ICRC with secure communication privileges at the same level as foreign embassies, and simplifies Committee travel in and out of Switzerland. On the other hand, Switzerland
Switzerland
does not recognize ICRC issued passports.[26] Contrary to popular belief, the ICRC is not a sovereign entity like the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
and also it is not an international organization, neither of non-governmental nor of governmental type. The ICRC limits its membership to Swiss nationals only, and also unlike most NGOs[citation needed] it does not have a policy of open and unrestricted membership for individuals as its new members are selected by the Committee itself (a process called cooptation). However, since the early 1990s, the ICRC employs persons from all over the world to serve in its field mission and at Headquarters. In 2007, almost half of ICRC staff was non-Swiss. The ICRC has special privileges and legal immunities in many countries,[which?] based on national law in these countries, based on agreements between the ICRC and the respective governments, or, in some cases, based on international jurisprudence (such as the right of ICRC delegates not to bear witness in front of international tribunals). Legal Basis[edit] ICRC operations are generally based on International Humanitarian Law (IHL), the four Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 1949, their two Additional Protocols of 1977 and Additional Protocol III
Protocol III
of 2005, the Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent
Red Crescent
Movement, and the resolutions of the International Conferences of the Red Cross and Red Crescent.[27] International Humanitarian Law
International Humanitarian Law
(IHL), Treaties and Customary Law International Humanitarian Law
International Humanitarian Law
is a set of rules that come into effect in armed conflicts. It aims to minimize the harms of an armed conflict by imposing obligations and duties to those who participate in armed conflicts. IHL mainly deals with two parts, the protection of persons who are not, or no longer taking part in fighting and restrictions on the means and methods of warfare such as weapons and tactics.[28] IHL is founded upon Geneva
Geneva
conventions which were first signed in 1864 by 16 countries. Traditions and Customs had governed the conduct of war until then, which varied depending on the location and time. The First Geneva
Geneva
Convention of 1949 covers the protection for the wounded and sick of armed conflict on land. The Second Geneva
Geneva
Convention asks for the protection and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked of armed conflict at sea. The Third Geneva
Geneva
Convention emphasizes the treatment of prisoners of war. The Fourth Geneva
Geneva
Convention concerns the protection of civilians in time of war. In addition, there are many more body of Customary International Laws (CIL) that come into effect when necessary. Funding and financial matters[edit] The 2010 budget of the ICRC amounts to about 1156 million Swiss francs.[29] All payments to the ICRC are voluntary and are received as donations based on two types of appeals issued by the Committee: an annual Headquarters Appeal to cover its internal costs and Emergency Appeals for its individual missions. The total budget for 2009 consists of about 996.9 million Swiss Francs (85% of the total) for field work and 168.6 million Swiss Francs (15%) for internal costs. In 2009, the budget for field work increased by 6.9% and the internal budget by 4.4% compared to 2008, primarily due to above-average increases in the number and scope of its missions in Africa. Most of the ICRC's funding comes from Switzerland
Switzerland
and the United States, with the other European states and the EU close behind. Together with Australia, Canada, Japan, and New Zealand, they contribute about 80–85% of the ICRC's budget. About 3% comes from private gifts, and the rest comes from national Red Cross societies.[30] Responsibilities within the movement[edit] The ICRC is responsible for legally recognizing a relief society as an official national Red Cross or Red Crescent
Red Crescent
society and thus accepting it into the movement. The exact rules for recognition are defined in the statutes of the movement. After recognition by the ICRC, a national society is admitted as a member to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent
Red Crescent
Societies (the Federation, or IFRC). The ICRC and the Federation cooperate with the individual national societies in their international missions, especially with human, material, and financial resources and organizing on-site logistics. According to the 1997 Seville Agreement, the ICRC is the lead Red Cross agency in conflicts while other organizations within the movement take the lead in non-war situations. National societies will be given the lead especially when a conflict is happening within their own country. Organization[edit] The ICRC is headquartered in the Swiss city of Geneva
Geneva
and has external offices called Delegations in about eighty countries. Each delegation is under the responsibility of a Head of delegation who is the official representative of the ICRC in the country. Of its 2,000 professional employees, roughly 800 work in its Geneva
Geneva
headquarters and 1,200 expatriates work in the field. About half of the field workers serve as delegates managing ICRC operations in the different countries, while the other half are specialists like doctors, agronomists, engineers, or interpreters. In the delegations, the international staff are assisted by some 13,000 national employees, bringing the total staff under the authority of the ICRC to roughly 15,000. Delegations also often work closely with the National Red Cross Societies of the countries where they are based, and thus can call on the volunteers of the National Red Cross to assist in some of the ICRC operations. The organizational structure of the ICRC is not well understood by outsiders. This is partly because of organizational secrecy, but also because the structure itself is highly mutable and has been prone to change. The Assembly and Presidency are two long-standing institutions, but the Assembly Council and Directorate were created only in the latter part of the twentieth century. Decisions are often made in a collective way, so authority and power relationships are not set in stone. Today, the leading organs are the Directorate and the Assembly.[citation needed] Directorate[edit] The Directorate is the executive body of the Committee. It attends to the daily management of the ICRC, whereas the Assembly sets policy. The Directorate consists of a Director-General and five directors in the areas of "Operations", "Human Resources", "Financial Resources and Logistics ", "Communication and Information Management", and "International Law and Cooperation within the Movement". The members of the Directorate are appointed by the Assembly to serve for four years. The Director-General has assumed more personal responsibility in recent years, much like a CEO, where he was formerly more of a first among equals at the Directorate.[31] Assembly[edit] The Assembly (also called the Committee) convenes on a regular basis and is responsible for defining aims, guidelines, and strategies and for supervising the financial matters of the Committee. The Assembly has a membership of a maximum of twenty-five Swiss citizens. Members must speak the house language of French, but many also speak English and German as well. These Assembly members are co-opted for a period of four years, and there is no limit to the number of terms an individual member can serve. A three-quarters majority vote from all members is required for re-election after the third term, which acts as a motivation for members to remain active and productive. In the early years, every Committee member was Genevan, Protestant, white, and male. The first woman, Renée-Marguerite Cramer, was co-opted in 1918. Since then, several women have attained the Vice Presidency, and the female proportion after the Cold War
War
has been about 15%. The first non-Genevans were admitted in 1923, and one Jew has served in the Assembly.[32] While the rest of the Red Cross Movement
Red Cross Movement
may be multi-national, the Committee believes that its mono-national nature is an asset because the nationality in question is Swiss. Thanks to permanent Swiss neutrality, conflicting parties can be sure that no one from "the enemy" will be setting policy in Geneva.[33] The Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71 showed that even Red Cross actors (in this case National Societies) can be so bound by nationalism that they are unable to sustain neutral humanitarianism.[34]

Jakob Kellenberger, former president of the ICRC (2000–2012)

Assembly Council[edit] Furthermore, the Assembly elects a five-member Assembly Council that constitutes an especially active core of the Assembly. The Council meets at least ten times per year and has the authority to decide on behalf of the full Assembly in some matters. The Council is also responsible for organizing the Assembly meetings and for facilitating communication between the Assembly and the Directorate. The Assembly Council normally includes the president, two vice presidents and two elected members. While one of the vice presidents is elected for a four-year term, the other is appointed permanently with his tenure ending by retirement from the vice presidency or from the Committee. Currently[when?] Olivier Vodoz and Christine Beerli[35] are vice presidents.[36] The President[edit] The Assembly also selects, for a term of four years, one individual to act as President of the ICRC. The president is both a member of the Assembly and leader of the ICRC, and he has always been included on the Council since its formation. The President automatically becomes a member of the aforementioned groups once he is appointed, but he does not necessarily come from within the ICRC organization. There is a strong faction within the Assembly that wants to reach outside the organization to select a president from the Swiss government or professional circles like the banking or medical fields.[37] In fact, the last four presidents were previously officials in the Swiss government. The president's influence and role is not well-defined, and changes depending upon the times and each president's personal style. From 2000 to 2012, the president of the ICRC was Jakob Kellenberger, a reclusive man who rarely made diplomatic appearances but was quite skilled in personal negotiation and comfortable with the dynamics of the Assembly.[38] Since July 2012, the president is Peter Maurer, a former Swiss State secretary for foreign affairs. He has been appointed by the Assembly for a renewable four-year term.[39] The presidents of the ICRC have been:

1863–1864: Henri Dunant 1863–1864: Henri Dufour 1864–1910: Gustave Moynier 1910–1928: Gustave Ador 1928–1944: Max Huber 1944–1948: Carl Jacob Burckhardt 1948–1955: Paul Ruegger 1955–1964: Leopold Boissier 1964–1969: Samuel Gonard 1969–1973: Marcel Naville 1973–1976: Eric Martin 1976–1987: Alexandre Hay 1987–1999: Cornelio Sommaruga 2000–2012: Jakob Kellenberger Since 2012: Peter Maurer

Staff[edit] As the ICRC has grown and become more directly involved in conflicts, it has seen an increase in professional staff rather than volunteers over the years. The ICRC had only twelve employees in 1914[40] and 1,900 in the Second World War
War
complemented its 1,800 volunteers.[41] The number of paid staff dropped off after both wars, but has increased once again in the last few decades, averaging 500 field staff in the 1980s and over a thousand in the 1990s. Beginning in the 1970s, the ICRC became more systematic in training to develop a more professional staff.[42] The ICRC is an attractive career for university graduates especially in Switzerland,[43] but the workload as an ICRC employee is demanding. 15% of the staff leaves each year and 75% of employees stay less than three years.[44] The ICRC staff is multi-national and averaged about 50% non-Swiss citizens in 2004. The ICRC's international staff are assisted in their work by some 13,000 national employees hired in the countries where the delegations are based. The ICRC worldwide 2013[edit] The ICRC operates in over 80 countries with a total number of 11,000 employed people worldwide. The extensive network of missions and delegations of the ICRC can relieve Nations that are affected by armed conflicts and other sources of violence. In 2013 the ten largest operations worldwide are Pakistan, Mali/Niger, Afghanistan, Yemen, Iraq, Colombia, Israel, Somalia, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
and Sudan.[45] In 2011, with support from the Red Cross Society of the DRC, the ICRC returned to their families in the RDC 838 unaccompanied children including over 390 former child soldiers, 34 of whom had been in neighboring countries.[46] Relationships within the movement[edit]

By virtue of its age and place in international humanitarian law, the ICRC is the lead agency in the Red Cross Movement, but it has weathered some power struggles within the movement. The ICRC has come into conflict with the Federation and certain national societies at various times. The American Red Cross
American Red Cross
threatened to supplant the ICRC with its creation of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies as "a real international Red Cross" after the First World War.[47] Elements of the Swedish Red Cross desired to supplant the Swiss authority of the ICRC after WWII.[48] Over time the Swedish sentiments subsided, and the IFRC grew to work more harmoniously with the ICRC after years of organizational discord.[49] Currently, the IFRC's Movement Cooperation division organizes interaction and cooperation with the ICRC. In 1997, the ICRC and the IFRC signed the Seville Agreement which further defined the responsibilities of both organizations within the movement. According to the agreement, the Federation is the lead agency of the movement in any emergency situation which does not take place as part of an armed conflict. Acceptance of Magen David Adom[edit] From its inception in 1930 until 2006, the Magen David Adom organization, the Israeli equivalent to the Red Cross, was not accepted as part of the Federation, as it used the Star of David, which the ICRC refused to recognize as an acceptable symbol. This meant that although Arab ambulances would be protected by the ICRC, Israeli ambulances would not. In May 2000, Bernadine Healy, the president of the American Red Cross, wrote: "The international committee's feared proliferation of symbols is a pitiful fig leaf, used for decades as the reason for excluding the Magen David Adom
Magen David Adom
– the Shield (or Star) of David." In protest over the ICRC's perceived anti- Israel
Israel
discrimination, the ARC withdrew its financial support. In 2005, at a meeting of nations party to the Geneva
Geneva
convention, the ICRC adopted the new Red Crystal. Magen David Adom
Magen David Adom
then centered the Star of David sign inside the newly accepted signage, and in 2006 was accepted as a full member. Yonatan Yagodovsky, director of MDA’s fundraising department, said in an article published in October 2011 that "MDA will continue to use its emblem and logo, and no one ever asked us to take it off."[50] International relationships[edit]

The Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
ceremony in 1963 when the prize was jointly awarded to the ICRC and the Federation. From left to right: King Olav of Norway, ICRC President Leopold Boissier, League Chairman John MacAulay.

The ICRC prefers to engage states directly and relies on low-key and confidential negotiations[51] to lobby for access to prisoners of war and improvement in their treatment. Its findings are not available to the general public but are shared only with the relevant government. This is in contrast to related organizations like Doctors Without Borders and Amnesty International
Amnesty International
who are more willing to expose abuses and apply public pressure to governments. The ICRC reasons that this approach allows it greater access and cooperation from governments in the long run. When granted only partial access, the ICRC takes what it can get and keeps discreetly lobbying for greater access. In the era of apartheid South Africa, it was granted access to prisoners like Nelson Mandela serving sentences, but not to those under interrogation and awaiting trial.[52] After his release, Mandela publicly praised the Red Cross.[53] Some governments use the ICRC as a tool to promote their own ends.[citation needed] The presence of respectable aid organizations can make weak regimes appear more legitimate. Fiona Terry contends that "this is particularly true of ICRC, whose mandate, reputation, and discretion imbue its presence with a particularly affirming quality."[54] Recognizing this power, the ICRC can pressure weak governments to change their behavior by threatening to withdraw. As mentioned above, Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
acknowledged that the ICRC compelled better treatment of prisoners[55] and had leverage over his South African captors because "avoiding international condemnation was the authorities' main goal."[56] In a controversial move demonstrating the ICRC's commitment to neutrality, three officials from the Hamas
Hamas
political party, which some governments designate a terrorist organization, have been living at the International Red Cross office in Jerusalem. Israel
Israel
believes that these three Hamas
Hamas
legislators had a role in the 2006 kidnapping of Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit, and has a deportation order set for them. Red Cross spokesperson Cecilia Goin, in speaking with CBN News said that hosting the wanted Hamas
Hamas
officials is in line with the organization's humanitarian mission.[57] Israel
Israel
arrested two of the Hamas
Hamas
members for conducting " Hamas
Hamas
activities inside Jerusalem," said the police.[58] References[edit]

^ "ICRC Annual Report 2012, Key facts and figures" (PDF).  ^ "Annual report 2011, Key facts and figures".  ^ "Discover the ICRC". 2007. Retrieved 2009-05-12.  p.6. ^ "PageNotFound - IFRC". Retrieved 17 April 2016.  ^ "Nobel Laureates Facts – Organizations". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-10-13.  ^ IRC, Memory of Solferino
Solferino
by Henry Dunant, ICRC publication 1986, complete text ^ IRC Geneva
Geneva
Society for Public Welfare, 1863 ^ "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 22 August 1864". Geneva, Switzerland: International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
ICRC. Retrieved 2017-06-11.  ^ Dromi, Shai M. (2016). "For good and country: nationalism and the diffusion of humanitarianism in the late nineteenth century". The Sociological Review. 64 (2): 79–97. doi:10.1002/2059-7932.12003.  ^ "The Chaco war (1932-1935)". Retrieved 17 April 2016.  ^ "The Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
on its activities during the second world war (September 1, 1939 – June 30, 1947) Geneva
Geneva
1948".  ^ Favez, Jean-Claude (1999). The Red Cross and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-41587-3. p. 75. ^ Favez, Jean-Claude (1999). The Red Cross and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-41587-3. p. 6. ^ Favez, Jean-Claude (1999). The Red Cross and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-41587-3. p. 88. ^ Mégevand-Roggo, Béatrice. Srebrenica
Srebrenica
– remembering the missing. 5 July 2005. ^ "Red Cross Condemns Burman 'Abuses'" BBC News. 29 Jun 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6252024.stm ^ "Swiss ICRC delegate murdered". www.irinnews.org. IRIN. 28 March 2003. Retrieved 8 March 2016. Ricardo Munguia, a Swiss citizen of Salvadorian origin was travelling with Afghan colleagues on an assignment to improve the water supply to the district. He was shot in cold blood on Thursday by a group of unidentified assailants who stopped the vehicles transporting them...the assailants had shot the 39-year-old water and habitat engineer in the head and burned one car, warning two Afghans accompanying him not to work for foreigners...Asked what action ICRC was taking, Bouvier explained that 'for the time being, the ICRC has decided to temporarily freeze all field trips in Afghanistan, calling all staff to the main delegation’s offices.'  ^ "ICRC in WW II: the Holocaust". Retrieved 2012-08-28. . ^ Buignion, François (2002-11-05). "Dialogue with the past: the ICRC and the Nazi death camps". Retrieved 2007-10-19. . ^ ICRC: Official Statement (27 January 2005). "Commemorating the liberation of Auschwitz". Archived from the original on 10 December 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2007.  ^ "Emblem". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 17 April 2016.  ^ ICRC. The Mission.. 7 May 2006. ^ "International Committee of the Red Cross". 3 October 2013.  ^ David P Forsythe, The Humanitarians: The International Committee of the Red Cross, (Cambridge, NY:Cambridge University Press, 2005), 161. ^ ICRC. 1 Jan 1995. The Fundamental Principles. ^ Council of the European Union
European Union
– Schengen Visa Working Party – Table of travel documents Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/annual-report/annual-report-legal-bases-2009.htm ^ "Treaties and customary law: overview". Retrieved 17 April 2016.  ^ ICRC. 1 Dec 2009 Key Data for ICRC Emergency and Headquarters Appeals 2010. ^ Forsythe, The Humanitarians, 233. ^ Forsythe, The Humanitarians, 225. ^ Forsythe, The Humanitarians, 203-6. ^ Forsythe, The Humanitarians, 208. ^ Bugnion, La Protection, 1138–41. ^ ICRC. 27 April 2007. [1]. ^ ICRC. 1 Jan 2006. The members of the International Committee of the Red Cross. ^ Forsythe, The Humanitarians, 211. ^ Forsythe, The Humanitarians, 219. ^ ICRC names new president. 19 October 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2013. ^ Philippe Ryfman, La question humanitaire (Paris:Ellipses, 1999), 38. ^ Ryfman, La question humanitaire, 129. ^ Georges Willemin and Roger Heacock, The International Committee of the Red Cross, (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1984). ^ "Le CICR manqué de bras," LM, 20 July 2002, 15. ^ Forsythe, The Humanitarians, 231. ^ ICRC worldwide. 8 August 2013 ^ "Democratic Republic of the Congo/South Sudan: 61 children reunited with their families".  ^ Andre Durand, History of the International Committee of the Red Cross: From Sarajevo
Sarajevo
to Hiroshima, (Geneva:ICRC, 1984), 147. ^ Forsythe, The Humanitarians, 52. ^ Forsythe, The Humanitarians, 37. ^ "MDA symbol on ambulances in Yesha still unresolved".  ^ Merson, M. H.; Black, R. E.; Mills, A. J., eds. (2006), International Public Health: Diseases, Programs, Systems, and Policies (2nd ed.), Boston: Jones and Barlett, p. 497, ISBN 0-7637-2967-1 . ^ Forsythe, David P. (1993), "Choices More Ethical Than Legal: The International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
and Human Rights", Ethics and International Affairs, 7 (1): 139–140, doi:10.1111/j.1747-7093.1993.tb00147.x . ^ Mandela, Nelson (10 July 2003), Speech before the British Red Cross, London . ^ Terry, Fiona (2002), Condemned to Repeat? The Paradox of Humanitarian Action, London: Cornell University Press, p. 45, ISBN 0-8014-3960-4 . ^ Mandela, Nelson (16 May 2000), Interview on Larry King Live, CNN . ^ Mandela, Nelson (1994), Long Walk to Freedom, London: Little, Brown, p. 396, ISBN 0-316-54585-6 . ^ "Int'l Red Cross Sheltering Hamas
Hamas
Terrorist Officials". Retrieved 17 April 2016.  ^ Sharona Schwartz. "Israeli Police Arrest Hamas
Hamas
Politicians Hiding for More Than a Year at…the Red Cross". The Blaze. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 

Bibliography[edit] Books[edit]

Forsythe, David P. and B. Rieffer-Flanagan. The International Committee of the Red Cross- A Neutral Humanitarian Actor (Routledge, 2007) Forsythe, David P. The Humanitarians. The International Committee of the Red Cross. )2nd ed. Cambridge UP, 2005), ISBN 0-521-61281-0 Dunant, Henry. A Memory of Solferino. ICRC, Geneva
Geneva
1986, ISBN 2-88145-006-7 Haug, Hans. Humanity for all: the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
Institute, Geneva
Geneva
in association with Paul Haupt Publishers, Bern 1993, ISBN 3-258-04719-7 Willemin, Georges and Roger Heacock: International Organization and the Evolution of World Society. Volume 2: The International Committee of the Red Cross. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston 1984, ISBN 90-247-3064-3 Pierre Boissier: History of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Volume I: From Solferino
Solferino
to Tsushima. Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
Institute, Geneva
Geneva
1985, ISBN 2-88044-012-2 André Durand: History of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Volume II: From Sarajevo
Sarajevo
to Hiroshima. Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
Institute, Geneva
Geneva
1984, ISBN 2-88044-009-2 International Committee of the Red Cross: Handbook of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent
Red Crescent
Movement. 13th edition, ICRC, Geneva
Geneva
1994, ISBN 2-88145-074-1 Hutchinson, John F. Champions of Charity: War
War
and the Rise of the Red Cross. Westview Press, Boulder 1997, ISBN 0-8133-3367-9 Moorehead, Caroline. Dunant's dream: War, Switzerland
Switzerland
and the history of the Red Cross. HarperCollins, London 1998, ISBN 0-00-255141-1 (Hardcover edition); HarperCollins, London 1999, ISBN 0-00-638883-3 (Paperback edition) François Bugnion: The International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
and the protection of war victims. ICRC & Macmillan (ref. 0503), Geneva
Geneva
2003, ISBN 0-333-74771-2 Angela Bennett: The Geneva
Geneva
Convention: The Hidden Origins of the Red Cross. Sutton Publishing, Gloucestershire 2005, ISBN 0-7509-4147-2 Favez, Jean-Claude (1999). The Red Cross and the Holocaust. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41587-X.  Dominique-D. Junod : "The Imperiled Red Cross and the Palestine Eretz Yisrael Conflict: The Influence of Institutional Concerns on A Humanitarian Operation." 344 pages. Kegan Paul International. @ The Graduate Institute of International Studies Geneva. ISBN 0-7103-0519-2, 1995.

Articles[edit]

François Bugnion: The emblem of the Red Cross: a brief history. ICRC (ref. 0316), Geneva
Geneva
1977 Jean-Philippe Lavoyer, Louis Maresca: The Role of the ICRC in the Development of International Humanitarian Law. In: International Negotiation. 4(3)/1999. Brill Academic Publishers, p. 503–527, ISSN 1382-340X Neville Wylie: The Sound of Silence: The History of the International Committee of the Red Cross as Past and Present. In: Diplomacy and Statecraft. 13(4)/2002. Routledge/ Taylor & Francis, p. 186–204, ISSN 0959-2296 David P. Forsythe: "The International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
and International Humanitarian Law." In: Humanitäres Völkerrecht – Informationsschriften. The Journal of International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict. 2/2003, German Red Cross
German Red Cross
and Institute for International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict, p. 64–77, ISSN 0937-5414 François Bugnion: Towards a comprehensive Solution to the Question of the Emblem. Revised third edition. ICRC (ref. 0778), Geneva
Geneva
2005 International Committee of the Red Cross: "Discover the ICRC", ICRC, Geneva, 2007, 2nd edition, 53 pp. International Review of the Red Cross An unrivalled source of international research, analysis and debate on all aspects of humanitarian law, in armed conflict and other situations of collective violence.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to International Committee of the Red Cross.

International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC) Rules of war (in a nutshell)- vidéo Legacy Dr. Cornelio Sommaruga, President of the ICRC from 1987–1999, donated four hours of high-definition audiovisual life story interviews to Legacy. The ICRC audiovisual library houses copies of these interviews. Works by International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
at Internet Archive

v t e

International human rights organisations and institutions

Types

Human rights
Human rights
group Human rights
Human rights
commission Human rights
Human rights
institutions Truth and reconciliation commission

International institutions

Committee on the Rights of the Child Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities International Criminal Court Office of the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Human Rights UN Human Rights Committee UN Human Rights Council UN Security Council

Regional bodies

African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights African Court of Justice European Court of Human Rights European Committee for the Prevention of Torture Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Inter-American Court of Human Rights

Multi-lateral bodies

European Union Council of Europe Organisation of American States (OAS) UN High Commissioner for Refugees
High Commissioner for Refugees
(UNHCR) UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
(UNOCHA) International Labour Organization
International Labour Organization
(ILO) World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) UN Population Fund (UNFPA) UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) UN Development Programme (UNDP) Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
of the UN (FAO) UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)

Major NGOs

Amnesty International FIDH Human Rights Watch International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC) Emergency NGO Human Rights First

v t e

International Red Cross and Red Crescent
Red Crescent
Movement

International Organisations

International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC) International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent
Red Crescent
Societies (IFRC)

National Societies

   

 Afghanistan  Albania  Algeria  Andorra  Angola  Antigua and Barbuda  Argentina  Armenia  Australia  Austria  Azerbaijan  The Bahamas  Bahrain  Bangladesh  Barbados  Belarus  Belgium  Belize  Benin  Bolivia  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Botswana  Brazil   Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam  Bulgaria  Burkina Faso  Burundi  Cambodia  Cameroon  Canada  Cape Verde  Central African Republic  Chad  Chile  China  Colombia  Comoros  Congo  Congo, Democratic Republic of  Cook Islands  Costa Rica  Côte d'Ivoire  Croatia  Cuba  Cyprus  Czech Republic  Denmark  Djibouti  Dominica

 Dominican Republic  Ecuador  Egypt  El Salvador  Equatorial Guinea   Eritrea
Eritrea
(pending recognition and admission)  Estonia  Ethiopia  Fiji  Finland  France  Gabon  Gambia  Georgia  Germany  Ghana  Greece  Grenada  Guatemala  Guinea  Guinea-Bissau  Guyana  Haiti  Honduras  Hong Kong  Hungary  Iceland  India  Indonesia  Iran, Islamic Republic of  Iraq  Ireland  Israel  Italy  Jamaica  Japan  Jordan  Kazakhstan  Kenya  Kiribati  Korea, Democratic People's Republic of  Korea, the Republic of  Kuwait  Kyrgyzstan  Lao People's Democratic Republic  Latvia  Lebanon  Lesotho

 Liberia  Libyan Arab Jamahiriya  Liechtenstein  Lithuania  Luxembourg  Macedonia  Madagascar  Malawi  Malaysia  Mali  Malta  Mauritania  Mauritius  Mexico  Micronesia, Federated States of  Moldova  Monaco  Mongolia  Montenegro  Morocco  Mozambique  Myanmar  Namibia  Nepal  Netherlands  New Zealand  Nicaragua  Niger  Nigeria  Norway  Pakistan  Palau  Palestine  Panama  Papua New Guinea  Paraguay  Peru  Philippines  Poland  Portugal  Qatar  Romania  Russian Federation  Rwanda   Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
(pending recognition and admission)  Saint Kitts and Nevis  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

 Samoa  San Marino, Republic of  Sao Tome and Principe  Saudi Arabia  Senegal  Serbia  Seychelles  Sierra Leone  Singapore  Slovakia  Slovenia  Solomon Islands  Somalia  South Africa  Spain  Sri Lanka  Sudan  Suriname  Swaziland  Sweden  Switzerland  Syria  Taiwan  Tajikistan  Tanzania, United Republic of  Thailand  Timor-Leste  Togo  Tonga  Trinidad and Tobago  Tunisia  Turkey  Turkmenistan  Tuvalu  Uganda  Ukraine  United Arab Emirates  United Kingdom  United States  Uruguay  Uzbekistan  Vanuatu  Venezuela  Viet Nam  Yemen  Zambia  Zimbabwe

Sources www.icrc.org www.ifrc.org/address/rclinks.asp

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

Human rights
Human rights
portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 159191886 LCCN: n80158612 ISNI: 0000 0001 2195 1479 GND: 43195-3 SUDOC: 026480204 BNF: cb11872097t (data) NDL: 00299594 NKC: kn2004012

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