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The _INTERNATIONAL CODE OF NOMENCLATURE FOR ALGAE, FUNGI, AND PLANTS_ (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants". :Preamble, para. 8 It was formerly called the _INTERNATIONAL CODE OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE_ (ICBN); the name was changed at the International Botanical Congress in Melbourne
Melbourne
in July 2011 as part of the _ Melbourne
Melbourne
Code_ which replaces the _ Vienna
Vienna
Code_ of 2005. As with previous codes, it took effect as soon as it was ratified by the congress (on Saturday 23 July 2011), but the documentation of the code in its final form was not finished until some time after the congressional meeting. Preliminary wording of some of the articles with the most significant changes has been published in September 2011.

The name of the _Code_ is partly capitalized and partly not. The lower-case for "algae, fungi, and plants" indicates that these terms are not formal names of clades , but indicate groups of organisms that were historically known by these names and traditionally studied by phycologists , mycologists , and botanists . This includes blue-green algae ( Cyanobacteria ); fungi , including chytrids , oomycetes , and slime moulds ; photosynthetic protists and taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups. There are special provisions in the _ICN_ for some of these groups, as there are for fossils .

The _ICN_ can only be changed by an International Botanical Congress (IBC), with the International Association for Plant Taxonomy providing the supporting infrastructure. Each new edition supersedes the earlier editions and is retroactive back to 1753, except where different starting dates are specified. :Principle VI

For the naming of cultivated plants there is a separate code, the _ International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants _, which gives rules and recommendations that supplement the _ICN_.

CONTENTS

* 1 Principles * 2 History * 3 Versions * 4 See also * 5 References

PRINCIPLES

* Botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological, bacteriological, and viral nomenclature (see Nomenclature codes ). * A botanical name is fixed to a taxon by a type . :Article 7 This is almost invariably dried plant material and is usually deposited and preserved in a herbarium , although it may also be an image or a preserved culture. Some type collections can be viewed online at the websites of the herbaria in question. * A guiding principle in botanical nomenclature is priority, the first publication of a name for a taxon. :Principle III The formal starting date for purposes of priority is 1 May 1753, the publication of _ Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
_ by Linnaeus . However, to avoid undesirable (destabilizing) effects of strict enforcement of priority, conservation of family, genus, and species names is possible. * The intent of the Code is that each taxonomic group ("taxon ", plural "taxa") of plants has only one correct name that is accepted worldwide, provided that it has the same circumscription , position and rank . :Principle IV The value of a scientific name is that it is an identifier ; it is not necessarily of descriptive value. * Names of taxa are treated as Latin. * The rules of nomenclature are retroactive unless there is an explicit statement that this does not apply.

HISTORY

Main article: International Botanical Congress

The rules governing botanical nomenclature have a long and tumultuous history, dating back to dissatisfaction with rules that were established in 1843 to govern zoological nomenclature. The first set of international rules was the _Lois de la nomenclature botanique_ ("Laws of botanical nomenclature") that was adopted as the "best guide to follow for botanical nomenclature" at an "International Botanical Congress" convened in Paris
Paris
in 1867. Unlike modern codes, it was not enforced. It was organized as six sections with 68 articles in total.

Multiple attempts to bring more "expedient" or more equitable practice to botanical nomenclature resulted in several competing codes, which finally reached a compromise with the 1930 congress. In the meantime, the second edition of the international rules followed the Vienna
Vienna
congress in 1905. These rules were published as the _Règles internationales de la Nomenclature botanique adoptées par le Congrès International de Botanique de Vienne 1905_ (or in English, _International rules of Botanical Nomenclature adopted by the International Botanical Conference of Vienna
Vienna
1905_). Informally they are referred to as the _ Vienna
Vienna
Rules_ (not to be confused with the _ Vienna
Vienna
Code_ of 2006).

Some but not all subsequent meetings of the International Botanical Congress have produced revised versions of these _Rules_, later called the _International Code of Botanical Nomenclature_, and then _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_.

The Nomenclature Section of the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia (2011) made major changes:

* The _Code_ now permits electronic-only publication of names of new taxa; no longer will it be a requirement to deposit some paper copies in libraries. * The requirement for a Latin validating diagnosis or description was changed to allow either English or Latin for these essential components of the publication of a new name (Article 39). * " One fungus, one name " and "one fossil, one name" are important changes; the concepts of _anamorph _ and _teleomorph _ (for fungi) and _morphotaxa _ (for fossils) have been eliminated. * As an experiment with "registration of names", new fungal descriptions require the use of an identifier from "a recognized repository"; there are two recognized repositories so far, Index Fungorum and MycoBank .

VERSIONS

Some important versions are listed below.

YEAR OF ADOPTION INFORMAL NAME

1867 _Laws of botanical nomenclature_

1905 _ Vienna
Vienna
Rules_ (2nd ed., 1912)

1935 _Cambridge Rules_

1952 _Stockholm Code_

1969 _Seattle Code_

1975 _Leningrad Code_

1981 _Sydney Code_

1987 _Berlin Code_

1993 _Tokyo Code_

1999 _St Louis Code, The Black Code_

2005 _ Vienna
Vienna
Code_

2011 _ Melbourne
Melbourne
Code_ (current, yellow book cover)

SEE ALSO

Specific to botany

* Author citation (botany) * Botanical name

* Botanical nomenclature

* International Association for Plant Taxonomy * International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants * International Plant Names Index

* Correct name (botany) * Infraspecific name (botany) * Hybrid name (botany)

More general

* Glossary of scientific naming * Binomial nomenclature * Nomenclature codes * Scientific classification * Undescribed species

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ McNeill, J.; et al., eds. (2012). _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants ( Melbourne
Melbourne
Code), Adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011_ (electronic ed.). Bratislava: International Association for Plant
Plant
Taxonomy. Retrieved 2012-12-20 . * ^ Knapp, S.; McNeill, J.; Turland, N.J. (2011). "Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne
Melbourne
- what does e-publication mean for you?" . _PhytoKeys_. 6 (0): 5–11. PMC 3261035  _. PMID 22287918 . doi :10.3897/phytokeys.6.1960 . * ^ A_ _B_ _C_ Nicolson, D.H. (1991). "A History of Botanical Nomenclature". _Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden_. 78 (1): 33–56. JSTOR 2399589 . doi :10.2307/2399589 . * ^ Alphonse Pyramus de Candolle (1867). _Lois de la nomenclature botanique adoptées par le Congrès International de Botanique tenu à Paris
Paris
en août 1867 suivies d\'une deuxième édition de l\'introduction historique et du commentaire qui accompagnaient la rédaction préparatoire présentée au congrès_. Genève et Bale: J.-B. Baillière et fils. * ^ Alphonse Pyramus de Candolle (1868). _Laws of Botanical Nomenclature adopted by the International Botanical Congress held at Paris
Paris
in August 1867; together with an Historical Introduction and Commentary by Alphonse de Candolle, Translated from the French_. translated by Hugh Algernon Weddell . London: L. Reeve and Co. * ^ Miller JS, Funk VA, Wagner WL, Barrie F, Hoch PC, Herendeen P (2011). "Outcomes of the 2011 Botanical Nomenclature Section at the XVIII International Botanical Congress" . _PhytoKeys_. 5 (5): 1–3. PMC 3174450  _. PMID 22171188 . doi :10.3897/phytokeys.5.1850 . * ^ John McNeill, 2011. Important decisions of the Nomenclature Section of the XVIII International Botanical Congress, Melbourne, 18–22 July 2011. Botanical Electronic News_, ISSN 1188-603X , 441 * ^ Botanists finally ditch Latin and paper, enter 21st century, Hannah Waters, Scientific American blog, December 28, 2011 * ^ " Index Fungorum Registration".

* v * t * e

Botany
Botany

History of botany

SUBDISCIPLINES

* Plant
Plant
systematics * Ethnobotany * Paleobotany
Paleobotany
* Plant anatomy
Plant anatomy
* Plant ecology

* Phytogeography

* Geobotany * Flora
Flora

* Phytochemistry * Plant pathology * Bryology
Bryology
* Phycology * Floristics * Dendrology
Dendrology

PLANT GROUPS

* Algae
Algae
* Archaeplastida * Bryophyte * Non-vascular plants * Vascular plants * Spermatophytes * Pteridophyte * Gymnosperm

* Angiosperm (flowering)

* Grasses

Plant
Plant
morphology (glossary )

PLANT CELLS

* Cell wall
Cell wall
* Phragmoplast * Plastid * Plasmodesmata * Vacuole

TISSUES

* Meristem
Meristem

* Vascular tissue

* Vascular bundle

* Ground tissue

* Mesophyll

* Cork * Wood
Wood
* Storage organs

VEGETATIVE

* Root
Root
* Rhizoid * Bulb
Bulb
* Rhizome

* Shoot
Shoot

* Stem

* Leaf
Leaf

* Petiole * Cataphyll

* Bud
Bud
* Sessility

Reproductive (Flower)

* Flower
Flower
development

* Inflorescence
Inflorescence

* Umbel
Umbel
* Raceme * Bract * Pedicellate

* Flower
Flower

* Whorl * Floral symmetry * Floral diagram * Floral formula

* Receptacle * Hypanthium (Floral cup)

* Perianth

* Tepal * Petal
Petal
* Sepal

* Sporophyll

* Gynoecium

* Ovary

* Ovule
Ovule

* Stigma

* Archegonium

* Androecium

* Stamen * Staminode * Pollen
Pollen
* Tapetum

* Gynandrium * Gametophyte * Sporophyte * Plant
Plant
embryo

* Fruit
Fruit

* Fruit
Fruit
anatomy * Berry * Capsule

* Seed
Seed

* Seed
Seed
dispersal * Endosperm

SURFACE STRUCTURES

* Epicuticular wax * Plant
Plant
cuticle * Epidermis * Stoma * Nectary
Nectary
* Trichome * Prickle

* Plant
Plant
physiology * Materials

* Nutrition

* Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis

* Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll

* Plant
Plant
hormone * Transpiration * Turgor pressure * Bulk flow * Aleurone * Phytomelanin * Sugar
Sugar
* Sap
Sap
* Starch * Cellulose
Cellulose

PLANT GROWTH AND HABIT

* Secondary growth
Secondary growth
* Woody plants * Herbaceous plants

* Habit

* Vines

* Lianas

* Shrubs

* Subshrubs

* Trees * Succulent plants

Reproduction

* Evolution * Ecology

* Alternation of generations
Alternation of generations

* Sporangium
Sporangium

* Spore

* Microsporangia

* Microspore

* Megasporangium

* Megaspore

* Pollination

* Pollinators * Pollen
Pollen
tube

* Double fertilization
Double fertilization
* Germination
Germination
* Evolutionary development

* Evolutionary history

* timeline

* Hardiness zone

PLANT TAXONOMY

* History of plant systematics * Herbarium
Herbarium
* Biological classification

* Botanical nomenclature

* Botanical name * Correct name * Author citation * International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) * - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP)

* Taxonomic rank * International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) * Plant
Plant
taxonomy systems

* Cultivated plant taxonomy
Cultivated plant taxonomy

* Citrus taxonomy

* cultigen

* cultivar * Group * grex

PRACTICE

* Agronomy * Floriculture * Forestry
Forestry
* Horticulture
Horticulture

* Lists * Related topics

* Botanical terms

* Botanists

* by author abbreviation

* Botanical expedition

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