The _INTERNATIONAL CODE OF NOMENCLATURE FOR ALGAE, FUNGI, AND PLANTS_
(ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal
botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups
of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or
plants". :Preamble, para. 8 It was formerly called the _INTERNATIONAL
CODE OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE_ (ICBN); the name was changed at the
International Botanical Congress in
The name of the _Code_ is partly capitalized and partly not. The lower-case for "algae, fungi, and plants" indicates that these terms are not formal names of clades , but indicate groups of organisms that were historically known by these names and traditionally studied by phycologists , mycologists , and botanists . This includes blue-green algae ( Cyanobacteria ); fungi , including chytrids , oomycetes , and slime moulds ; photosynthetic protists and taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups. There are special provisions in the _ICN_ for some of these groups, as there are for fossils .
The _ICN_ can only be changed by an International Botanical Congress (IBC), with the International Association for Plant Taxonomy providing the supporting infrastructure. Each new edition supersedes the earlier editions and is retroactive back to 1753, except where different starting dates are specified. :Principle VI
For the naming of cultivated plants there is a separate code, the _ International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants _, which gives rules and recommendations that supplement the _ICN_.
* 1 Principles * 2 History * 3 Versions * 4 See also * 5 References
Botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological,
bacteriological, and viral nomenclature (see
Nomenclature codes ).
* A botanical name is fixed to a taxon by a type . :Article 7 This
is almost invariably dried plant material and is usually deposited and
preserved in a herbarium , although it may also be an image or a
preserved culture. Some type collections can be viewed online at the
websites of the herbaria in question.
* A guiding principle in botanical nomenclature is priority, the
first publication of a name for a taxon. :Principle III The formal
starting date for purposes of priority is 1 May 1753, the publication
Main article: International Botanical Congress
The rules governing botanical nomenclature have a long and tumultuous
history, dating back to dissatisfaction with rules that were
established in 1843 to govern zoological nomenclature. The first set
of international rules was the _Lois de la nomenclature botanique_
("Laws of botanical nomenclature") that was adopted as the "best guide
to follow for botanical nomenclature" at an "International Botanical
Congress" convened in
Multiple attempts to bring more "expedient" or more equitable
practice to botanical nomenclature resulted in several competing
codes, which finally reached a compromise with the 1930 congress. In
the meantime, the second edition of the international rules followed
Some but not all subsequent meetings of the International Botanical Congress have produced revised versions of these _Rules_, later called the _International Code of Botanical Nomenclature_, and then _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_.
The Nomenclature Section of the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia (2011) made major changes:
* The _Code_ now permits electronic-only publication of names of new taxa; no longer will it be a requirement to deposit some paper copies in libraries. * The requirement for a Latin validating diagnosis or description was changed to allow either English or Latin for these essential components of the publication of a new name (Article 39). * " One fungus, one name " and "one fossil, one name" are important changes; the concepts of _anamorph _ and _teleomorph _ (for fungi) and _morphotaxa _ (for fossils) have been eliminated. * As an experiment with "registration of names", new fungal descriptions require the use of an identifier from "a recognized repository"; there are two recognized repositories so far, Index Fungorum and MycoBank .
Some important versions are listed below.
YEAR OF ADOPTION INFORMAL NAME
1867 _Laws of botanical nomenclature_
1935 _Cambridge Rules_
1952 _Stockholm Code_
1969 _Seattle Code_
1975 _Leningrad Code_
1981 _Sydney Code_
1987 _Berlin Code_
1993 _Tokyo Code_
1999 _St Louis Code, The Black Code_
Specific to botany
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ McNeill, J.; et al., eds. (2012).
_International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
* v * t * e
* Angiosperm (flowering)
* Petiole * Cataphyll
* Receptacle * Hypanthium (Floral cup)
PLANT GROWTH AND HABIT
* Trees * Succulent plants
* Evolution * Ecology
* Evolutionary history
* Botanical name * Correct name * Author citation * International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) * - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP)
* cultivar * Group * grex
* Lists * Related topics
* Botanical terms
* by author abbreviation
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