The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero). A book can be printed without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure; however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the
CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Overview * 2.1 How ISBNs are issued * 2.2 Registration group identifier * 2.3 Registrant element * 2.3.1 Pattern for English language ISBNs * 3 Check digits * 3.1 ISBN-10 check digits * 3.2 ISBN-10 check digit calculation * 3.3 ISBN-13 check digit calculation * 3.4 ISBN-10 to ISBN-13 conversion * 3.5 Errors in usage * 3.6 eISBN * 4 EAN format used in barcodes, and upgrading * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY The Standard
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as
international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use
the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International
ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the
ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical
Committee 46/Subcommittee 9
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For
example, the second edition of
Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that
is compatible with "
OVERVIEW An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except
reprintings) of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, and a
hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN.
The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and
10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book
Number consists of 4 parts (if it is a 10 digit ISBN) or 5 parts (for
a 13 digit ISBN): The parts of a 10-digit ISBN and the
corresponding EAN‑13 and barcode. Note the different check digits in
each. The part of the EAN‑13 labeled "EAN" is the
* for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a
A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts (prefix element, registration group, registrant, publication and check digit), and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts (registration group, registrant, publication and check digit) of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. HOW ISBNS ARE ISSUED ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language. The ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, and so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number, type, and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the stated purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some other countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations, the issuing of ISBNs requires payment of a fee. AUSTRALIA: ISBNs are issued by the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker, and prices range from $42 for a single ISBN (plus a $55 registration fee for new publishers) to $2,890 for a block of 1,000 ISBNs. Access is immediate when requested via their website. BRAZIL:
CANADA:
COLOMBIA: Cámara Colombiana del Libro , a NGO, is responsible for issuing ISBNs. Cost of issuing an ISBN is about USD 20. HONG KONG: The Books Registration Office (BRO), under the Hong Kong Public Libraries, issues ISBNs in Hong Kong. There is no fee. INDIA: The Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN (
ITALY: The privately held company EDISER srl, owned by Associazione Italiana Editori (Italian Publishers Association) is responsible for issuing ISBNs. The original national prefix 978-88 is reserved for publishing companies, starting at €49 for a ten-codes block while a new prefix 979-12 is dedicated to self-publishing authors, at a fixed price of €25 for a single code. MALDIVES: The
MALTA: The National
MOROCCO: The National
NEW ZEALAND: The
PAKISTAN: The
PHILIPPINES: The
SOUTH AFRICA: The
UNITED KINGDOM AND REPUBLIC OF IRELAND: The privately held company
Nielsen
UNITED STATES: In the United States, the privately held company R.R. Bowker issues ISBNs. There is a charge that varies depending upon the number of ISBNs purchased, with prices starting at $125 for a single number. Access is immediate when requested via their website. Publishers and authors in other countries obtain ISBNs from their
respective national ISBN registration agency. A directory of ISBN
agencies is available on the
REGISTRATION GROUP IDENTIFIER The registration group identifier is a 1- to 5-digit number that is
valid within a single prefix element (i.e. one of 978 or 979).
Registration group identifiers have primarily been allocated within
the 978 prefix element. The single-digit group identifiers within the
978 prefix element are: 0 or 1 for English-speaking countries; 2 for
French-speaking countries; 3 for German-speaking countries; 4 for
Japan; 5 for Russian-speaking countries; and 7 for People's Republic
of China. An example 5-digit group identifier is 99936, for
Within the 979 prefix element, the registration group identifier 0 is reserved for compatibility with International Standard Music Numbers (ISMNs), but such material is not actually assigned an ISBN. The registration group identifiers within prefix element 979 that have been assigned are 10 for France, 11 for the Republic of Korea, and 12 for Italy. The original 9-digit standard book number (SBN) had no registration group identifier, but prefixing a zero (0) to a 9-digit SBN creates a valid 10-digit ISBN. REGISTRANT ELEMENT The national ISBN agency assigns the registrant element (cf. Category:ISBN agencies ) and an accompanying series of ISBNs within that registrant element to the publisher; the publisher then allocates one of the ISBNs to each of its books. In most countries, a book publisher is not required by law to assign an ISBN; however, most bookstores only handle ISBN bearing publications. A listing of more than 900,000 assigned publisher codes is published, and can be ordered in book form (€ 1399, US$ 1959). The web site of the ISBN agency does not offer any free method of looking up publisher codes. Partial lists have been compiled (from library catalogs) for the English-language groups: identifier 0 and identifier 1 . Publishers receive blocks of ISBNs, with larger blocks allotted to publishers expecting to need them; a small publisher may receive ISBNs of one or more digits for the registration group identifier, several digits for the registrant, and a single digit for the publication element. Once that block of ISBNs is used, the publisher may receive another block of ISBNs, with a different registrant element. Consequently, a publisher may have different allotted registrant elements. There also may be more than one registration group identifier used in a country. This might occur once all the registrant elements from a particular registration group have been allocated to publishers. By using variable block lengths, registration agencies are able to customise the allocations of ISBNs that they make to publishers. For example, a large publisher may be given a block of ISBNs where fewer digits are allocated for the registrant element and many digits are allocated for the publication element; likewise, countries publishing many titles have few allocated digits for the registration group identifier and many for the registrant and publication elements. Here are some sample ISBN-10 codes, illustrating block length variations. ISBN COUNTRY OR AREA PUBLISHER 99921-58-10-7 Qatar NCCAH, Doha 9971-5-0210-0 Singapore World Scientific 960-425-059-0 Greece Sigma Publications 80-902734-1-6 Czech Republic; Slovakia Taita Publishers 85-359-0277-5 Brazil Companhia das Letras 1-84356-028-3 English-speaking area Simon Wallenberg Press 0-684-84328-5 English-speaking area Scribner 0-8044-2957-X English-speaking area Frederick Ungar 0-85131-041-9 English-speaking area J. A. Allen "> s = ( 0 10 ) + ( 3 9 ) + ( 0 8 ) + ( 6 7 ) + ( 4 6 ) + ( 0 5 ) + ( 6 4 ) + ( 1 3 ) + ( 5 2 ) + ( 2 1 ) = 0 + 27 + 0 + 42 + 24 + 0 + 24 + 3 + 10 + 2 = 132 = 12 11 {displaystyle {begin{aligned}s&=(0times 10)+(3times 9)+(0times 8)+(6times 7)+(4times 6)+(0times 5)+(6times 4)+(1times 3)+(5times 2)+(2times 1)\&=0+27+0+42+24+0+24+3+10+2\ width:101.412ex; height:8.843ex;" alt="{begin{aligned}s&=(0times 10)+(3times 9)+(0times 8)+(6times 7)+(4times 6)+(0times 5)+(6times 4)+(1times 3)+(5times 2)+(2times 1)\&=0+27+0+42+24+0+24+3+10+2\"> ( 10 x 1 + 9 x 2 + 8 x 3 + 7 x 4 + 6 x 5 + 5 x 6 + 4 x 7 + 3 x 8 + 2 x 9 + x 10 ) 0 ( mod 11 ) . {displaystyle (10x_{1}+9x_{2}+8x_{3}+7x_{4}+6x_{5}+5x_{6}+4x_{7}+3x_{8}+2x_{9}+x_{10})equiv 0{pmod {11}}.} It is also true for ISBN-10's that the sum of all the ten digits, each multiplied by its weight in ascending order from 1 to 10, is a multiple of 11. For this example: s = ( 0 1 ) + ( 3 2 ) + ( 0 3 ) + ( 6 4 ) + ( 4 5 ) + ( 0 6 ) + ( 6 7 ) + ( 1 8 ) + ( 5 9 ) + ( 2 10 ) = 0 + 6 + 0 + 24 + 20 + 0 + 42 + 8 + 45 + 20 = 165 = 15 11 {displaystyle {begin{aligned}s&=(0times 1)+(3times 2)+(0times 3)+(6times 4)+(4times 5)+(0times 6)+(6times 7)+(1times 8)+(5times 9)+(2times 10)\&=0+6+0+24+20+0+42+8+45+20\ width:101.412ex; height:8.843ex;" alt="{begin{aligned}s&=(0times 1)+(3times 2)+(0times 3)+(6times 4)+(4times 5)+(0times 6)+(6times 7)+(1times 8)+(5times 9)+(2times 10)\&=0+6+0+24+20+0+42+8+45+20\"> ( x 1 + 2 x 2 + 3 x 3 + 4 x 4 + 5 x 5 + 6 x 6 + 7 x 7 + 8 x 8 + 9 x 9 + 10 x 10 ) 0 ( mod 11 ) . {displaystyle (x_{1}+2x_{2}+3x_{3}+4x_{4}+5x_{5}+6x_{6}+7x_{7}+8x_{8}+9x_{9}+10x_{10})equiv 0{pmod {11}}.} The two most common errors in handling an ISBN (e.g., typing or writing it) are a single altered digit or the transposition of adjacent digits. It can be proved that all possible valid ISBN-10's have at least two digits different from each other. It can also be proved that there are no pairs of valid ISBN-10's with eight identical digits and two transposed digits. (These are true only because the ISBN is less than 11 digits long, and because 11 is a prime number .) The ISBN check digit method therefore ensures that it will always be possible to detect these two most common types of error, i.e. if either of these types of error has occurred, the result will never be a valid ISBN – the sum of the digits multiplied by their weights will never be a multiple of 11. However, if the error occurs in the publishing house and goes undetected, the book will be issued with an invalid ISBN. In contrast, it is possible for other types of error, such as two altered non-transposed digits, or three altered digits, to result in a valid ISBN (although it is still unlikely). ISBN-10 CHECK DIGIT CALCULATION Each of the first nine digits of the ten-digit ISBN—excluding the check digit itself—is multiplied by its (integer) weight, descending from 10 to 2, and the sum of these nine products found. The value of the check digit is simply the one number between 0 and 10 which, when added to this sum, means the total is a multiple of 11. For example, the check digit for an ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows: s = ( 0 10 ) + ( 3 9 ) + ( 0 8 ) + ( 6 7 ) + ( 4 6 ) + ( 0 5 ) + ( 6 4 ) + ( 1 3 ) + ( 5 2 ) = 130 {displaystyle {begin{aligned}s&=(0times 10)+(3times 9)+(0times 8)+(6times 7)+(4times 6)+(0times 5)+(6times 4)+(1times 3)+(5times 2)\ width:91.597ex; height:5.843ex;" alt="{displaystyle {begin{aligned}s&=(0times 10)+(3times 9)+(0times 8)+(6times 7)+(4times 6)+(0times 5)+(6times 4)+(1times 3)+(5times 2)\"> x 10 {displaystyle x_{10}} required to satisfy this condition might be 10; if so, an 'X' should be used. Alternatively, modular arithmetic is convenient for calculating the check digit using modulus 11. The remainder of this sum when it is divided by 11 (i.e. its value modulo 11), is computed. This remainder plus the check digit must equal either 0 or 11. Therefore, the check digit is (11 minus the remainder of the sum of the products modulo 11) modulo 11. Taking the remainder modulo 11 a second time accounts for the possibility that the first remainder is 0. Without the second modulo operation the calculation could end up with 11 – 0 = 11 which is invalid. (Strictly speaking the first "modulo 11" is unneeded, but it may be considered to simplify the calculation.) For example, the check digit for the ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows: s = ( 11 ( ( ( 0 10 ) + ( 3 9 ) + ( 0 8 ) + ( 6 7 ) + ( 4 6 ) + ( 0 5 ) + ( 6 4 ) + ( 1 3 ) + ( 5 2 ) ) mod 11 ) mod 11 = ( 11 ( 0 + 27 + 0 + 42 + 24 + 0 + 24 + 3 + 10 ) mod 11 ) mod 11 = ( 11 ( 130 mod 11 ) ) mod 11 = ( 11 ( 9 ) ) mod 11 = ( 2 ) mod 11 = 2 {displaystyle {begin{aligned}s&=(11-(((0times 10)+(3times 9)+(0times 8)+(6times 7)+(4times 6)+(0times 5)+(6times 4)+(1times 3)+(5times 2)),{bmod {,}}11),{bmod {,}}11\&=(11-(0+27+0+42+24+0+24+3+10),{bmod {,}}11),{bmod {,}}11\&=(11-(130,{bmod {,}}11)),{bmod {,}}11\&=(11-(9)),{bmod {,}}11\&=(2),{bmod {,}}11\ width:118.847ex; height:18.509ex;" alt="{displaystyle {begin{aligned}s&=(11-(((0times 10)+(3times 9)+(0times 8)+(6times 7)+(4times 6)+(0times 5)+(6times 4)+(1times 3)+(5times 2)),{bmod {,}}11),{bmod {,}}11\&=(11-(0+27+0+42+24+0+24+3+10),{bmod {,}}11),{bmod {,}}11\&=(11-(130,{bmod {,}}11)),{bmod {,}}11\&=(11-(9)),{bmod {,}}11\&=(2),{bmod {,}}11\ for (i = 0; i Links: ------ /#cite_note-1 |