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Building of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in Taipei. David Lee , the incumbent Minister of Foreign Affairs.

The foreign relations of the REPUBLIC OF CHINA (ROC), known informally and referred to by many states as TAIWAN, are the relations between the Republic of China
China
and other countries. The Republic of China
China
is recognized by 19 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states , as well as the Holy See . These diplomatic relations do not constitute an acceptance by these nations of Taiwan
Taiwan
as a state but rather represent a recognition of the ROC government as the representative of all of China, including the Chinese mainland. In addition to these relations, the ROC maintains unofficial relations with 57 UN member states via its representative offices and consulates .

The Republic of China
China
government participated in the 1943 Moscow Conference , the Dumbarton Oaks Conference , and the United Nations Conference on International Organization and was a charter member of the United Nations
United Nations
after taking part in the alliance that won World War II . In 1949, the Nationalists lost the Chinese Civil War in mainland China
China
and retreated to Taiwan
Taiwan
. Despite the major loss of territory, the ROC continued to be recognized as the legitimate government of China
China
by the UN and by many non-Communist states. In 1971, the UN expelled the ROC and transferred China's seat to the People\'s Republic of China
China
(PRC). In addition to the ad tempus recognition of the ROC by a majority of countries before UN Resolution 2758 , the Republic of China
China
lost its membership in all the intergovernmental organizations related to the UN. As the UN and related organizations like International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
are the most common venues for effective execution of international law and serve as the international community for states in the post-World War II period, a majority of the countries aligned with the West in the Cold War terminated diplomatic relations with the ROC and exchanged diplomatic relations with the PRC instead.

The United Nations
United Nations
Charter 's Articles 23 and 110, in its Chapter II , explicitly refer to the Republic of China, but the seat of China
China
is currently occupied by the People's Republic of China. The ROC continues to maintain de facto relations, including with most of the non-governmental organizations at the United Nations
United Nations
, in addition with the concern from UNESCO
UNESCO
. Exclusively, the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations , which is entitled by the founding of the United Nations
United Nations
as the cornerstone of modern-day diplomacy since the Vienna Congress
Vienna Congress
, was signed and ratified by the Republic of China on 18 April 1961 and 19 December 1969 including Optional Protocol concerning the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes. Article 35th of 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
also applies to the ROC after 1971. Due to the ROC's insecurity and intolerance in the 1970s and 1980s after being expelled by the UN and the termination of official US–ROC diplomatic relations, but by the American persuasion (when influential James R. Lilley was the Director of American Institute in Taiwan
Taiwan
at the time) Taiwan
Taiwan
has been gradually democratized and adopting universal suffrage from the one-party military rule under the leadership of President Chiang Ching-kuo . The first direct presidential election was held in 1996 and the incumbent President Lee Teng-hui was elected. As of 4 May 2015, ROC nationals are eligible for preferential visa treatment from 142 countries and areas. In the context of superpower and influential diplomacy, the ROC's traditional and stable allies includes United States
United States
of America , Canada
Canada
, Japan
Japan
, Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
. The ROC's cultural diplomacy includes the establishment of the Taiwan
Taiwan
Resource Center for Chinese Studies in 2012 in major Universities around the world.

The ROC is one of the main supporters of official development assistance . International Cooperation and Development Fund manages ROC's Foreign Assistance and International Cooperation projects. As of 2010, along with other US security allies including Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and South Korea
South Korea
in the Asia-Pacific region with Taiwan Relations Act , officials of the ROC have gained quasi-official level visits to the United States
United States
both in the governmental and political level, including the US– Taiwan
Taiwan
cooperative military guidance in the annual Han Kuang joint-force exercises. The Common Strategic Objectives of Joint Statement of the U.S.- Japan
Japan
Security Consultative Committee of 2005 and 2011 (and reiterated in 2013) included to encourage the peaceful resolution of issues concerning the Taiwan Strait through dialogue and encourage China’s responsible and constructive role in regional stability and prosperity, its cooperation on global issues, and its adherence to international norms of behavior, while building trust among the United States, Japan, and China. Improve openness and transparency with respect to China’s military modernization and activities and, strengthen confidence building measures, with China's rapid expanding military investments. Taiwan's GDP
GDP
by nominal means is ahead of several G20
G20
economies of global financial governance. In the context of international norm of tabula rasa , there is a variety of forms for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the ROC as a de facto state in readiness to join the international community, and (if applicable) as a sui generis entity of international law abiding by the reference of ex factis jus oritur principle and a priori and a posteriori of the Republic of China, to participate in the international organizations as defined by the international organizational norms and Union of International Associations.

As a Non-member state of United Nations, by participating as members in one or more UN specialized agencies and involving in a two parallel political system with Chinese Communist Party as in the case of Germany
Germany
and Korea, ROC may grant UN Permanent Observer status, such as member participation in the IMF
IMF
and World Bank .

Involvement and participation in the Asia
Asia
Pacific Innovation Conference allows interaction with Director of Economics and Statistics Division of WIPO
WIPO
, who directly reports to the Director-General.

Due to "the absence of a cross-strait understanding" (1992 consensus ), Republic of China
China
encounters International isolation under the pro- Taiwan
Taiwan
Independence administration of Democratic Progressive Party and ROC is forbidden to attend World Health Assembly , Interpol
Interpol
, International Civil Aviation Organization , United Nation
United Nation
's Kimberley Process Certification Scheme meetings and UNFCCC .

With Xi Jinping
Xi Jinping
assuming General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
China
, ROC's (multi-sector) Civil Society currently participates in 11 projects of United Nations
United Nations
Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Development Goals
. ROC ranks 31st of 176 countries and territories in the 2016 Transparency International 's Corruption Perception Index and placed in Band B in the Government Defense Corruption Index.

CONTENTS

* 1 Historical background * 2 International disputes

* 3 Types of relations

* 3.1 Entities with full diplomatic relations with Taiwan
Taiwan
* 3.2 Entities with non-diplomatic representation in Taiwan
Taiwan
* 3.3 Entities with no representation in Taiwan
Taiwan
* 3.4 Entities with no relations with either ROC or PRC * 3.5 Entities that have switched recognition from the ROC to the PRC * 3.6 Entities that have never recognized the ROC but do recognize the PRC * 3.7 Recent changes

* 4 Cross-Strait relations

* 5 Bilateral relations

* 5.1 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* 5.2 Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
* 5.3 South Korea
South Korea
* 5.4 United States
United States
* 5.5 Egypt, Kuwait, Libya, and Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* 5.6 India
India
* 5.7 Iran
Iran
* 5.8 Japan
Japan
* 5.9 Malaysia
Malaysia
* 5.10 Mongolia
Mongolia
* 5.11 Paraguay
Paraguay
* 5.12 Philippines
Philippines
* 5.13 Russia
Russia
* 5.14 Singapore
Singapore
* 5.15 Swaziland
Swaziland
* 5.16 Vanuatu
Vanuatu
* 5.17 Venezuela
Venezuela
* 5.18 Vietnam
Vietnam

* 5.19 Oceania
Oceania

* 5.19.1 Australia
Australia
* 5.19.2 Fiji
Fiji
* 5.19.3 Kiribati
Kiribati
* 5.19.4 Marshall Islands * 5.19.5 Nauru
Nauru
* 5.19.6 Palau
Palau
* 5.19.7 Papua New Guinea * 5.19.8 Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
* 5.19.9 Tuvalu
Tuvalu

* 5.20 Relations with Europe
Europe

* 6 Relations with international organizations * 7 International treaties * 8 Territorial disputes

* 9 Transport and communications

* 9.1 Air links * 9.2 Telecommunications

* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

See also: History of the Republic of China
China

Taiwan
Taiwan
was annexed from China
China
by Japan
Japan
in 1895 after the First Sino-Japanese War . In the Northern Expedition , the Nationalists defeated the warlords of the Beiyang clique and established a unified government for China
China
in Nanjing. The United States
United States
recognized Nationalist China
China
on 25 July 1928, the first government to do so. The Japanese occupied much of China
China
during World War II
World War II
. After Japan's defeat in 1945, Taiwan
Taiwan
was returned to the Republic of China
China
but a civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists soon followed. The Communists gained control of the mainland in 1949 and proclaimed the People's Republic of China, while the Nationalists fled to Taiwan. In 1952, Taiwan
Taiwan
was ceded by Japan
Japan
in the Treaty of San Francisco .

In 1916, A. P. Winston, the author of Chinese Finance under the Republic, said, "chief sources of information on those matters of discussion which have been subjects of diplomacy" were official publications from the United Kingdom. Winston explained that few official reports from the Chinese government aside from the maritime customs sector had appeared at that point, and that the government of the Republic of China
China
was "too poor, perhaps still too secretive, to make regular and full publication of statistics."

In September 2016, the MOFA planned to reduce less than 10 ROC diplomatic missions due to the needs to meet the demand of the strategic and diplomatic needs for Taiwan.

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION with: Second World War operations in Burma, Yalta Conference, Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Nationalists fleeing into exile in Taiwan
Taiwan
in 1949, the 1952 San Francisco Peace Treaty and Treaty of Taipei, UN, Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Incidents, Korean War, Tachen retreat. You can help by adding to it . (August 2008)

INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES

See also: China
China
and the United Nations
United Nations
The vote in the UN General Assembly on Resolution 2758 (1971). GREEN = in favour, RED = against, BLUE = abstain, YELLOW = non-voting

The 1970s saw a switch in diplomatic recognition from the ROC to the PRC, with countries like the United States, Japan, and Canada
Canada
making the switch during that decade. In October 1971, Resolution 2758 was passed by the UN General Assembly , expelling "the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek" and transferred China's seat on the Security Council to the PRC. The resolution declared that "the representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of China
China
are the only lawful representatives of China
China
to the United Nations." However, the eo ipso nature of Taiwan
Taiwan
and weapons of mass destruction has remained as a contentious ipso facto issue.

Many attempts by the ROC to rejoin the UN, in recent years, have not made it past committee, under fierce opposition and threatened vetoes by the PRC. Attempts under President Chen Shui-bian attempted the argument that Resolution 2758, replacing the ROC with the PRC in 1971, only addressed the question of who should have China's seat in the UN, rather than whether an additional seat for the Taiwan
Taiwan
Area can be created to represent the 23 million people on Taiwan
Taiwan
and other islands . The argument, however, has not been accepted by the UN because the issue of Taiwan
Taiwan
Independence was not raised in UN.

Since the 1970s, the PRC and ROC have competed for diplomatic recognition from nations across the world, often by offering financial aid to poorer countries as an inducement. As a precondition of establishing diplomatic relations, the PRC requires that the other country renounce any recognition of the ROC. Since the introduction of the "pragmatic diplomacy" (務實外交 Wùshí wàijiāo) policy in 1991, the ROC has not insisted on being considered the sole representative of China, and does not require nations that recognize it to end their relations with the PRC. For example, when St Lucia recognized the ROC in 2007, its leader expressed his hope that St Lucia's relations with the PRC would continue. However, the PRC responds to recognitions of the ROC by suspending relations with the other country. As of 13 June 2017, 19 UN member states and the Holy See officially recognize the ROC.

On less official terms, Taiwan
Taiwan
is involved in a complex dispute for control over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia
Malaysia
, the Philippines
Philippines
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, and possibly Brunei ; and over the Paracel Islands , occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam
Vietnam
and by Taiwan. Taiwan
Taiwan
claims the Japanese -administered Senkaku Islands , which are called the Diaoyu Islands in Taiwan
Taiwan
and China.

TYPES OF RELATIONS

ENTITIES WITH FULL DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH TAIWAN

The ROC embassy in Swaziland
Swaziland
. Foreign relations of Taiwan
Taiwan
diplomatic relations non-diplomatic unofficial relations

In the following list, the dates indicate establishment or duration of relations. Among all, only Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
has not established an embassy in Taipei
Taipei
.

AFRICA (2 STATES)

* Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
(1961–1973, 1994) * Swaziland
Swaziland
(1968)

EUROPE (1 STATE)

* Holy See (1942)

OCEANIA (6 STATES)

* Kiribati
Kiribati
(2003) * Marshall Islands (1998) * Nauru
Nauru
(1980–2002, 2005) * Palau
Palau
(1999) * Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(1983) * Tuvalu
Tuvalu
(1979)

CARIBBEAN (5 STATES)

* Dominican Republic (1957) * Haiti
Haiti
(1956) * Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
(1983) * Saint Lucia (1984–1997, 2007) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(1981)

CENTRAL AMERICA (5 STATES)

* Belize (1989) * El Salvador
El Salvador
(1961) * Guatemala
Guatemala
(1933) * Honduras
Honduras
(1941) * Nicaragua
Nicaragua
(1962–1985, 1990)

SOUTH AMERICA (1 STATE)

* Paraguay
Paraguay
(1957)

Due to the limited size of Vatican City, all embassies accredited to the Holy See are located in Rome
Rome
, outside the borders of Vatican City. Hence, the Republic of China's embassy to the Holy See is located in a country that does not officially recognize the ROC. President Chen Shui-bian (far left) attended the funeral of Pope John Paul II , and as the Holy See's recognized head of state of China, was seated in the first row in alphabetical order beside the first lady and president of Brazil.

ENTITIES WITH NON-DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATION IN TAIWAN

See also: Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office

Taiwan
Taiwan
has non-diplomatic, unofficial governmental relations with the European Union
European Union
and at least 47 states , recognizing the People's Republic of China, that maintain "Economic, Trade and/or Cultural" (or similar) offices in Taiwan. These relations are not inter-governmental nor are they officially diplomatic or political. However, they have many of the functions usually assigned to actual embassies, including the processing of visas, cultural exchanges and to some extent, unofficial diplomatic and governmental exchanges.

For example, the American Institute in Taiwan
Taiwan
functions as the United States' de facto embassy with the chairman and staff acting as unofficial government consulate officers who nevertheless perform duties that official embassies would undertake. Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with Taiwan
Taiwan
and the Taipei Representative Office in Dublin
Dublin
has no diplomatic or political status, referring to UN Resolution 2758.

OCEANIA (3 STATES)

* Australia
Australia
* New Zealand
New Zealand
* Papua New Guinea

ASIA (12 STATES AND 2 TERRITORIES)

* Brunei * Hong Kong
Hong Kong
* India
India
* Indonesia
Indonesia
* Japan
Japan
* South Korea
South Korea
* Macau
Macau
* Malaysia
Malaysia
* Mongolia
Mongolia
* Myanmar
Myanmar
* Papua New Guinea * Philippines
Philippines
* Singapore
Singapore
* Thailand
Thailand
* Vietnam
Vietnam

MIDDLE EAST (8 STATES)

* Bahrain
Bahrain
* Israel
Israel
* Jordan
Jordan
* Kuwait
Kuwait
* Oman
Oman
* Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* Turkey
Turkey
* United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates

AFRICA (2 STATES)

* Nigeria
Nigeria
* South Africa
Africa

EUROPE (22 STATES)

* Austria
Austria
* Belgium
Belgium
* Czech Republic
Czech Republic
* Denmark
Denmark
* Finland
Finland
* France
France
* Germany
Germany
* Greece
Greece
* Hungary
Hungary
* Ireland * Italy
Italy
* Latvia
Latvia
* Netherlands
Netherlands
* Norway
Norway
* Poland
Poland
* Portugal
Portugal
* Russia
Russia
* Slovakia
Slovakia
* Spain
Spain
* Sweden
Sweden
* Switzerland
Switzerland
* United Kingdom
United Kingdom

NORTH AMERICA (3 STATES)

* Canada
Canada
* Mexico
Mexico
* United States
United States

SOUTH AMERICA (6 STATES)

* Argentina
Argentina
* Brazil
Brazil
* Chile
Chile
* Colombia
Colombia
* Ecuador
Ecuador
* Peru
Peru

ENTITIES WITH NO REPRESENTATION IN TAIWAN

The following states, recognizing Beijing, do not maintain any representation in Taiwan
Taiwan
(including any non-political, non-diplomatic, non inter-governmental representation):

* Africa
Africa
: Algeria
Algeria
, Angola
Angola
, Benin
Benin
, Botswana
Botswana
, Burundi
Burundi
, Cameroon , the Central African Republic
Central African Republic
, Chad
Chad
, Comoros
Comoros
, Congo-Brazzaville
Congo-Brazzaville
, the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
, Djibouti
Djibouti
, Egypt
Egypt
, Equatorial Guinea
Guinea
, Eritrea
Eritrea
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, Gabon
Gabon
, Gambia
Gambia
, Ghana
Ghana
, Guinea
Guinea
, Guinea-Bissau , Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
, Kenya
Kenya
, Lesotho
Lesotho
, Liberia
Liberia
, Libya
Libya
, Madagascar
Madagascar
, Malawi
Malawi
, Mali
Mali
, Mauritania
Mauritania
, Mauritius
Mauritius
, Morocco
Morocco
, Mozambique
Mozambique
, Namibia
Namibia
, Niger
Niger
, Rwanda
Rwanda
, Sao Tome "> Former French Embassy to the Republic of China
China
in Nanjing
Nanjing
. Former Mexican Embassy to the Republic of China
China
in Nanjing. Former Soviet Union Embassy to the Republic of China
China
in Nanjing. Former United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Embassy to the Republic of China
China
in Nanjing. Former United States
United States
Embassy to the Republic of China
China
in Nanjing.

The ROC has publicly feared that if any one state should switch its recognition to the PRC, it would create a domino effect , encouraging other states to do so as well. The Holy See (Vatican), the only European state that recognizes the ROC as the representative of China, made efforts in 2007 to create formal ties with the PRC. High-ranking bishops in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
have implied that such a diplomatic move was possible, predicated on the PRC's granting more freedom of religion and interfering less in the hierarchy of the Chinese Catholic church .

ENTITY PERIOD OF RECOGNITION OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA

Albania
Albania
to 1949

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to 1955

Argentina
Argentina
1945 to 1972

Australia
Australia
1941 to 1972

Austria
Austria
1928 to 1971

Bahamas
Bahamas
1989 to 1997

Byelorussian SSR 1929 to 1949

Belgium
Belgium
1928 to 1971

Bolivia
Bolivia
to 1985

Botswana
Botswana
1966 to 1975

Brazil
Brazil
1928 to 1974

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
1947 to 1949

Burma 1948 to 1950

Cameroon
Cameroon
1960 to 1971

Canada
Canada
1941 to 1970

Central African Republic
Central African Republic
1962 to 1964, 1968 to 1976, 1991 to 1998

Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
1963 to 1983

Chad
Chad
1962 to 1972, 1997 to 2006

Chile
Chile
1931 to 1970

Colombia
Colombia
1941 to 1979

Congo-Brazzaville
Congo-Brazzaville
1960 to 1964

DR Congo 1960 to 1961, 1961 to 1972

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
1944 to 2007

Cuba
Cuba
1929 to 1960

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
1931 to 1949

Dahomey 1960 to 1964, 1966 to 1972

Denmark
Denmark
1928 to 1950

Dominica 1983 to 2004

Egypt
Egypt
to 1956

Ecuador
Ecuador
1947 to 1980

Equatorial Guinea to 1970

Estonia
Estonia
1921 to 1940

Finland
Finland
1919 to 1944

France
France
1928 to 1964

Gabon
Gabon
1960 to 1974

Gambia
Gambia
1968 to 1974, 1995 to 2013

Greece
Greece
1947 to 1972

Grenada 1989 to 2005

Guinea
Guinea
to 1959

Guinea-Bissau 1990 to 1998

Hungary
Hungary
to 1949

Iceland
Iceland
to 1971

India
India
1947 to 1950

Indonesia
Indonesia
1945 to 1950

Iran
Iran
to 1971

Iraq
Iraq
1942 to 1958

Israel
Israel
1949 to 1950

Italy
Italy
1928 to 1970

Jamaica
Jamaica
to 1972

Japan
Japan
1930 to 1937, 1952 to 1972

Jordan
Jordan
1947 to 1977

Kuwait
Kuwait
1963 to 1971

Laos
Laos
1953 to 1962

Latvia
Latvia
1923 to 1940

Lebanon
Lebanon
to 1971

Lesotho
Lesotho
1966 to 1983, 1990 to 1994

Liberia
Liberia
1957 to 1977, 1989 to 1993, 1997 to 2003

Libya
Libya
to 1971

Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to 1950

Lithuania
Lithuania
1923 to 1940

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
1949 to 1972

Macedonia 1999 to 2001

Madagascar
Madagascar
to 1972

Malawi
Malawi
1966 to 2008

Malaysia
Malaysia
1957 to 1974

Mexico
Mexico
1928 to 1972

Mongolia
Mongolia
1946 to 1949

Monaco
Monaco
1934 to 1995

Morocco
Morocco
1956 to 1958

Netherlands
Netherlands
1928 to 1950

Nepal
Nepal
to 1955

New Zealand
New Zealand
to 1972

Niger
Niger
1963 to 1974, 1992 to 1996

Nigeria
Nigeria
1960 to 1971

Norway
Norway
1928 to 1950

Pakistan
Pakistan
1947 to 1951

Panama
Panama
1922 to 2017

Peru
Peru
1931 to 1971

Philippines
Philippines
1948 to 1975

Poland
Poland
1930 to 1949

Portugal
Portugal
1928 to 1975

Romania
Romania
1939 to 1949

San Marino
San Marino
to 1971

São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
1997 to 2016

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
1946 to 1990

Senegal
Senegal
1969 to 1972, 1996 to 2005

Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
to 1971

South Africa
Africa
1976 to 1998

Spain
Spain
1928 to 1973

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
1929 to 1949

South Korea
South Korea
1949 to 1992

South Vietnam
Vietnam
1955 to 1975

Sudan
Sudan
1956 to 1959

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
1948 to 1950

Sweden
Sweden
1928 to 1950

Switzerland
Switzerland
to 1950

Syria
Syria
to 1956

Thailand
Thailand
1945 to 1975

Togo
Togo
1960 to 1972

Tonga
Tonga
1972 to 1998

Turkey
Turkey
1934 to 1971

Uganda
Uganda
to 1962

Ukrainian SSR 1929 to 1949

United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
1973 to 1984

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
1928 to 1950

United States
United States
1928 to 1979

Uruguay
Uruguay
1966 to 1988

Vanuatu
Vanuatu
2004-11-03 to 2004-11-10

Venezuela
Venezuela
1944 to 1974

West Germany
Germany
1955 to 1972

Yemen
Yemen
to 1956

Yugoslavia 1945 to 1955

ENTITIES THAT HAVE NEVER RECOGNIZED THE ROC BUT DO RECOGNIZE THE PRC

Main articles: Timeline of diplomatic relations of the Republic of China
China
and Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People\'s Republic of China
China

COUNTRY YEAR RECOGNISED THE PRC

Algeria
Algeria
1958

Andorra
Andorra
1994

Angola
Angola
1983

Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
1983

Armenia
Armenia
1992

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
1992

Bahrain
Bahrain
1989

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
1975

Barbados
Barbados
1977

Bosnia-Herzegovina 1995

Brunei 1991

Burundi
Burundi
1963

Cambodia
Cambodia
1958

Cape Verde
Cape Verde
1976

Comoros
Comoros
1975

Cook Islands 1997

Croatia
Croatia
1992

Cyprus
Cyprus
1971

Djibouti
Djibouti
1979

East Germany
Germany
1949

Timor-Leste
Timor-Leste
2002

Eritrea
Eritrea
1993

Ethiopia
Ethiopia
1970

Fiji
Fiji
1975

Georgia 1992

Ghana
Ghana
1960

Grenada 1985

Guyana 1972

Ireland 1979

Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
1992

Kenya
Kenya
1963

Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
1992

Macedonia 1993

Maldives
Maldives
1972

Mali
Mali
1960

Malta
Malta
1972

Mauritania
Mauritania
1965

Mauritius
Mauritius
1972

Micronesia 1989

Moldova
Moldova
1992

Montenegro
Montenegro
2006

Mozambique
Mozambique
1975

Namibia
Namibia
1990

Niue 2007

North Korea
North Korea
1949

Oman
Oman
1978

Palestine 1988

Papua New Guinea 1976

Qatar
Qatar
1988

Rwanda
Rwanda
1971

Samoa
Samoa
1975

Senegal
Senegal
1971

Seychelles 1976

Singapore
Singapore
1990

Slovenia
Slovenia
1992

Somalia
Somalia
1960

South Sudan
South Sudan
2011

South Yemen
Yemen
1968

Suriname 1976

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
1992

Tanzania
Tanzania
1964

Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
1974

Tunisia
Tunisia
1964

Turkmenistan 1992

Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
1992

Vietnam
Vietnam
1950

Zambia
Zambia
1964

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
1980

RECENT CHANGES

Number of countries recognizing ROC and PRC YEAR RECOGNITION OF ROC RECOGNITION OF PRC

1969 71 48

1971 68 53

1973 31 89

1978 21 112

1986 23 134

1990 28 139

2012 23 172

2013 22 172

2016 21 174

2017 20 175

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
ended its diplomatic relations with the ROC in 1990. South Korea
South Korea
was the last country in Asia
Asia
which had official diplomatic relations with the ROC, but also ended its diplomatic relations in 1992.

South Africa
Africa
switched recognition to the PRC in 1998. Liberia recognized the ROC in 1989, and switched back to the PRC in October 2003. On 31 March 2004, Dominica ended its recognition, which began in 1983, because of offers from the PRC to provide $117 million over six years. The Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
recognized the ROC in 1999 but switched diplomatic recognition in 2001 after the PRC imposed economic sanctions and used a rare veto on the UN Security Council to block peacekeeping efforts.

The Gambia
Gambia
recognized Taiwan
Taiwan
from 1968 until 1974, and then once more from 1995 until 14 November 2013, when President Yahya Jammeh
Yahya Jammeh
's office announced it had cut diplomatic ties with immediate effect. The PRC recognized The Gambia
Gambia
on 17 March 2016.

On 7 November 2003, diplomatic ties were established with Kiribati
Kiribati
. However, the ROC did not demand that ties be broken with the PRC, and ROC Foreign Minister Eugene Chien
Eugene Chien
said that he would not reject having both sides of the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait recognized simultaneously. The PRC spent three weeks lobbying for Kiribati
Kiribati
President Anote Tong to reverse his decision, before cutting ties. The decision to hold off for weeks was possibly due to the strategic importance of China's satellite tracking base on Kiribati, which had been used for Shenzhou V and thought to have been used to spy on a U.S. missile range in the Marshall Islands .

On March 18, 2014 Guatemalan former President Alfonso Portillo pleaded guilty in the Federal District Court in Manhattan, United States to a charge that he accepted bribes in exchange for diplomatic recognition of Taiwan. President Pérez Molina said that Guatemala's relations with Taiwan
Taiwan
were and are strong and that the Portillo confession will not affect the diplomatic relations between the two nations. On Wednesday March 19, 2014 Taiwan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs declined to comment on the matter.

In December 2016, the government of São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
elected to cease its recognition of Taiwan, and instead recognized the PRC. In June 2017, the government of Panama
Panama
ended ties with Taiwan, and chose to recognise the PRC instead.

CROSS-STRAIT RELATIONS

Main article: Cross-Strait relations

Relations between Taiwan
Taiwan
and mainland China
China
, or the argument between ROC and PRC on the legal ground of status quo ante , as referring to the Double Tenth Agreement signed on 10 October 1945 as the only existing legal document between the two belligerents to this date, with the following Political Consultative Conference (zh-tw), having been engulfed by Cold War
Cold War
history and the American foreign policy of containment in East Asia
Asia
after the Korean War
Korean War
broke out by not "letting the dust settles of the Chinese Nationalist on Formosa". Before the Korean War
Korean War
broke out, United States
United States
was preparing for a concerted coup d\'état in mid-1950 to replace Chiang Kai-shek for Hu Shih and Sun Li-jen and neutralize Taiwan's legal status under UN Trusteeship to block any legal claim of the PRC on Taiwan, as proposed by United States
United States
Department of State official Dean Rusk
Dean Rusk
at the time. In 1955, Formosa Resolution of 1955 was passed unanimously by the United States
United States
Congress . Taiwan
Taiwan
would take whatever it can to put aside the unification issue indefinitely, but China
China
is not. Resolving the cross-Strait relationship will take a very long time and will also probably require both sides to rethink definitions of basic concepts such as sovereignty, "one China" and unification.

In modern days, the two polities of accession have resulted in the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries of People's Republic of China
China
in Mainland China, the lifting of martial law (Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion ) by the Republic of China
China
on the territory of the People's Republic of China, and more recently the enactment of Anti-Secession Law
Anti-Secession Law
by People's Republic of China
China
towards the Republic of China. The two sides have no cross-strait military confidence-building measures (CBM) "to improve military-to-military relations in ways that reduce fears of attack and the potential for military miscalculation." Nuclear tensions have risen since the PRC promulgated the Anti-Secession Law against military intervention from the United States
United States
on Taiwan independence.

Neither Taipei
Taipei
nor Beijing sees their relations as foreign relations. The government position that both Taiwan
Taiwan
and mainland China
China
are parts of the same state is not universally accepted in Taiwan. In particular, the pro-independence Pan-Green Coalition considers Taiwan and China
China
to be different countries. By contrast, the pro-reunification Pan-Blue Coalition take the view that both Taiwan and mainland China
China
are parts of the same state, the Republic of China. Former president Lee Tung-hui
Lee Tung-hui
described these relations as "Special State-to-State Relations ". The subsequent administrations of President Chen Shui-bian described Taiwan
Taiwan
and China
China
by saying "...with Taiwan
Taiwan
and China
China
on each side of the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait, each side is a country. ". Former President Ma Ying-jeou returned to the government position of the early 1990s, calling relations with Beijing special relations between two areas within one state . That state according to Taiwan
Taiwan
is the Republic of China, and due to constitutional reasons, neither Taipei
Taipei
nor Beijing recognises each other as a legitimate government.

The term preferred by Taiwanese and Chinese governments is "cross-strait relations ", referring to the geographical separator, the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait . The constitutional position of Taipei
Taipei
is that the territory of the Republic of China
China
is divided into the "Mainland Area" and the "Free Area " (also known as " Taiwan
Taiwan
Area"). Administratively, cross-strait relations are not conducted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Taiwan, but by the Mainland Affairs Council , an instrumental of the Executive Yuan . The relations with Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau
are also conducted by the Mainland Affairs Council, although not all regulations applicable to mainland China
China
are automatically applied to those territories.

Consistently with the policies of both governments, Taiwanese and Chinese governments do not directly interact. Talks are conducted by China's Association for Relations Across the Taiwan
Taiwan
Straits (ARATS) and Taiwan's Straits Exchange Foundation (SEF), privately constituted bodies that are controlled and directly answerable to the executive branch of their respective governments.

Until the late 1990s Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau
were British and Portuguese colonies respectively. They provided neutral detour points for people and goods moving from one side of the strait to the other. They and Singapore
Singapore
also served as venues for talks between the two sides at that time. One modus vivendi outcome of such talks in neutral venues was the 1992 Consensus , arising from a meeting in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
in 1992. Under this consensus, the two sides agree that both Taiwan
Taiwan
and mainland China
China
are under the same single sovereignty of China, but the two sides agree to disagree on which side is the legitimate representative of that sovereignty. Setting aside that disagreement, the two sides agreed to co-operate on practical matters, such as recognising certifications authenticated by the other side.

Relations between Taipei
Taipei
and Beijing have warmed since the election of President Ma Ying-jeou of the Kuomintang in 2008 as 2008 presidential election , with the promotion of cross-strait links and increased economic and social interchanges between the two sides, but with new implications from 2014 local elections will diverge the cross-strait relations. Official high-level meeting was held on 11 February 2014 in Nanjing
Nanjing
that marked the first time China
China
recognized Taiwan's top government officials on matters across the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait. The thawed tensions across the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait is not welcomed by the Pan-Green Coalition in Taiwan
Taiwan
for the Taiwan
Taiwan
independence movement after 2000 presidential election and to the ex injuria jus non oritur basis of PRC's Anti-Secession Law
Anti-Secession Law
to Taiwan. 2015 Ma–Xi meeting was held on 7 November 2015 to affirm the 1992 Consensus before 2016 general election and in the midst of U.S. Navy tests China's two governments (PRC and ROC) over sea claims. Beijing said it had cut off contact with the main Taiwan
Taiwan
liaison body because of President Tsai Ing-wen
Tsai Ing-wen
's refusal to endorse the concept of a single Chinese nation, ratcheting up pressure on the new Taiwanese leader.

BILATERAL RELATIONS

BANGLADESH

Main article: Bangladesh– Taiwan
Taiwan
relations

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
has had limited bilateral exchanges with Taiwan
Taiwan
since it declared independence in 1971, from China's ally Pakistan. Bangladesh is located at a pivotal position on the South Asian subcontinent between East India
India
and Myanmar. Bangladesh, which is the second largest South Asian partner of Taiwan, witnessed bilateral trade jumped by 38% last year in spite of a global slump. Bangladesh
Bangladesh
mainly exports garments, knit wear, jutes, leathers and handicrafts to Taiwan and buy an assortment of textiles, machines, electronics, steels, plastics from the same. Trade with Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is expected to expand in the coming years as more Taiwanese companies set up manufacturing bases there.

BURKINA FASO

Main article: Burkina Faso– Taiwan
Taiwan
relations

Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
has recognized Taiwan
Taiwan
since 1994.

SOUTH KOREA

Main article: South Korea– Taiwan
Taiwan
relations See also: Republic of China– South Korea
South Korea
relations

The Republic of Korea
Republic of Korea
was the last Asian country that had an official diplomatic relations with Taiwan. The Republic of China
China
recognized the formal establishment of the First Republic of the Republic of Korea
Republic of Korea
in 1948. On 4 January 1949 the ROC set up an embassy in Myeongdong
Myeongdong
, Seoul
Seoul
the Republic of Korea. However, on 23 August 1992 South Korea severed diplomatic relations with Taiwan
Taiwan
in advance of their formal recognition and establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China. The two East Asian neighbors have similar historical background but South Korea
South Korea
decided to break official relations with Taiwan
Taiwan
for the sake of Nordpolitik policy.

UNITED STATES

See also: Taiwan–United States relations U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and President Chiang Kai-shek of Republic of China
China
in Taiwan. 1960. Chiang Kai-shek and Eisenhower wave to crowd during visit to Taiwan
Taiwan
in June 1960.

Commercial (such as Trade and Investment Framework Agreement signed in 1994, TIFA ), cultural, and other substantial relations of the existence of Taiwan
Taiwan
between "the people of the United States" and "the people on Taiwan" are currently governed, inter alia , by the Taiwan Relations Act . The Act does not recognize the terminology of "Republic of China" after 1 January 1979 as US recognizes People's Republic of China
China
instead of Republic of China.

In July 2002, Minister of Justice Chen Ding-nan (陳定南) became the first Taiwanese government official to be invited into the White House after the US had de-recognized Taiwan. Main article: Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) 9-13 July 2002 state visit to the United States
United States
of America

With de-recognition of ROC, and acknowledging PRC's One China
China
Policy, but not accepting PRC's claim on Taiwan, and consistent in relieving tension in East Asia
Asia
, the unofficial name of Taiwan
Taiwan
has been mentioned in the Three Communiqués between the United States
United States
and China. Consistent with the United States' One China
China
policy , Taiwan
Taiwan
is not allowed to raise its national flag in the US soil, unless otherwise certain legal approval could be taken into consideration based on international law . Taiwanese passport holders are included in the US Visa Waiver Program for the stay of 90 days that commences on 1 November 2012. The United States
United States
of America does not support Taiwan
Taiwan
Independence. After 1979, US- Taiwan
Taiwan
Business Council continues to provide the commercial avenue (mostly semiconductor technology related) and arms sales service from United States
United States
of America to Republic of China. The United States
United States
House of Representatives added an amendment to the fiscal year 2016 US defence budget that includes a clause urging Taiwan's participation in the biennial Rim of the Pacific ( RIMPAC ) exercise. The United States
United States
State Department has close bilateral cooperation with Taiwan
Taiwan
through Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs ' Fulbright Program . Recent disputes between the US and Taiwan
Taiwan
include Taiwan's ban on the import of US beef and US pork, but it was resolved nevertheless after Taiwan relented Codex Alimentarius Commission , in which Taiwan
Taiwan
is not a member of, adopted by the new standard of a narrow margin a maximum residue limit for ractopamine in both beef and pork.

Similar positions on Taiwan
Taiwan
are taken by a majority of countries. Twenty-three states recognize the ROC only. During the 1990s, the ROC actively encouraged such recognition through generous grants of foreign aid. In the 2000s, this strategy was abandoned because the PRC could outbid the ROC with foreign aid, and the spending of large sums of money to buy recognition became quite unpopular in Taiwan.

In the 2000s, the diplomatic strategy of the ROC appears to have shifted to encourage "democratic solidarity" with major powers, such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. President Tsai Ing-wen meets with U.S. Senate delegation led by John McCain , June 2016

In 2007, a measure was introduced into the United States
United States
Congress that would dramatically strengthen U.S. ties with Taiwan. The United States House of Representatives passed a resolution calling for the lift of United States
United States
government curbs on visits by high-ranking or top ROC officials. The Resolution noted that "whenever high-level visitors from Taiwan, including the President, seek to come to the United States, their requests result in a period of complex, lengthy and humiliating negotiations." In an additional note on the resolution, it said: "Lifting these restrictions will help bring a friend and ally of the United States
United States
out of its isolation, which will be beneficial to peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific Region."

A bill was also introduced by U.S. lawmakers to back the UN bid by Taiwan. The bill stated that Taiwan
Taiwan
and its 23 million people "deserve membership in the United Nations" and that the United States
United States
should fulfill a commitment "to more actively support Taiwan's membership in appropriate international organizations." The bill was introduced on 8 November 2007, at the House Foreign Affairs Committee by 18 Republican legislators and one Democrat. Congressional records show that the move was led by New Jersey Republican Representative Scott Garrett.

There have been no official diplomatic relations since the United States ended them in 1979 as a prerequisite for establishing ties with the PRC. Unofficial diplomatic relations are nevertheless maintained on both sides by means of de facto embassies , which are technically "private organizations" staffed by career diplomats who are formally "on leave". The ROC's de facto embassy network is the Taipei
Taipei
Economic and Cultural Representative Office (TECRO) with offices in Washington, D.C. , 12 other U.S. cities, and many other countries without official ties to the ROC. The Americans' analogous organization is the American Institute in Taiwan
Taiwan
(AIT). As of 2010, officials of the ROC have gained quasi-official level visits to the United States
United States
in the governmental and political level.

EGYPT, KUWAIT, LIBYA, AND SAUDI ARABIA

President Muhammad Naguib with Chinese Muslim Kuomintang National Revolutionary Army General Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
Republic of China
China
Chinese Muslim National Revolutionary Army General Ma Bufang with the Kuomintang ambassador to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
in 1955. Ma Bufang and family in Egypt
Egypt
in 1954.

Egypt
Egypt
maintained relations until 1956, when Gamal Abdel Nasser cut off relations and established them with the People's Republic of China instead. Ma Bufang, who was then living in Egypt, then was ordered to move to Saudi Arabia, and became the ROC ambassador to Saudi Arabia. Ambassador Wang Shi-ming was a Chinese Muslim, and the ROC ambassador to Kuwait
Kuwait
. The ROC also maintained relations with Libya
Libya
, and Saudi Arabia .

INDIA

Main article: India– Taiwan
Taiwan
relations

Leadership meetings between Republic of China
China
and India
India
were carried out even before Indian independence from Great Britain in the early 1940s. Taiwan
Taiwan
is included in the Look East policy by India. The bilateral relations between India
India
and Taiwan
Taiwan
have improved since the 1990s despite both nations not maintaining official diplomatic relations . India
India
recognizes only the People's Republic of China. However, India's economic and commercial links as well as people-to-people contacts with Taiwan
Taiwan
have expanded in recent years. Like the People\'s Republic of China
China
, Taiwan
Taiwan
has border disputes with India
India
over Arunachal Pradesh . The Constitution of the Republic of China
China
declares this area a part of South Tibet , and disputes the validity of the McMahon Line based on which Arunachal Pradesh is presently a state of India.

IRAN

Main article: China- Iran
Iran
relations

On 1 June 1920, a friendship agreement was signed between the governments of China
China
and Iran
Iran
. Ratifications were exchanged on 6 February 1922, and the agreement went into effect on the same day. These relations came to an end in 1971, and Tehran
Tehran
recognized Beijing.

JAPAN

Main article: Japan– Taiwan
Taiwan
relations Member of the House of Representative of Japan
Japan
Keiji Furuya and President Tsai Ing-wen
Tsai Ing-wen
in Taiwan
Taiwan
on May 20, 2016.

Japan- Taiwan
Taiwan
relations are guided by the 1972 Japan-PRC Joint Communique . Japan
Japan
has maintained non-governmental, working-level relations with Taiwan
Taiwan
ever since.

MALAYSIA

Main article: Malaysia– Taiwan
Taiwan
relations

The relations are conducted on an unofficial level as Kuala Lumpur has changed to a one- China
China
policy in 1974 and only recognised the People's Republic of China. However, economic and cultural relations are still maintained with Malaysia
Malaysia
has a trade centre office in Taipei, and Taiwan
Taiwan
has an economic and cultural office in Kuala Lumpur .

MONGOLIA

Main article: Mongolia– Taiwan
Taiwan
relations

Until 1945 Nationalist China
China
claimed sovereignty over Mongolia, but under Soviet pressure and as part of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance of August 1945, it recognized Mongolian independence. In 1953, due to the deterioration of diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, it revoked this recognition and kept considering it a part of mainland China.

On 3 October 2002 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that Taiwan
Taiwan
recognizes Mongolia
Mongolia
as an independent country, although no legislative actions were taken to address concerns over its constitutional claims to Mongolia. A Taipei
Taipei
Economic and Cultural Representative Office was opened in Ulaanbaatar, and Taipei
Taipei
excluded Mongolia
Mongolia
from the definition of the "mainland area " for administrative purposes. In 2006, old laws regulating the formation of banners and monasteries in Outer Mongolia
Mongolia
were repealed. Offices established to support Taipei's claims over Outer Mongolia, such as the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission , lie dormant. However, the official borders of the Republic of China
China
have not been changed via a vote of the National Assembly (as required by the Constitution prior to 2005) or via a referendum (as required by the Constitution after amendments made in 2005). The official status of recognition is currently ambiguous, though in practice Mongolia
Mongolia
is treated as an ordinary foreign power.

PARAGUAY

Main article: Paraguay– Taiwan
Taiwan
relations Paraguay
Paraguay
President Horacio Cartes and President Tsai Ing-wen
Tsai Ing-wen
in Taiwan
Taiwan
.

The partnership between the anti-communist governments of General Alfredo Stroessner and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek was quite natural. Many Paraguayan officers went for training in Fu Hsing Kang College in Taiwan.

The ousting of Stroessner in 1989, and his successor Andrés Rodríguez 's reinventing himself as a democratically elected president, were immediately followed by invitations from Beijing to switch diplomatic recognition. However, the Taiwanese ambassador, Wang Sheng , and his diplomats were able to convince the Paraguayans that continuing the relationship with Taiwan, and thus keeping Taiwan's development assistance and access to Taiwan's markets, would be more advantageous for Paraguay.

PHILIPPINES

The Philippines
Philippines
recognizes the One China
China
Policy but has relations with Taiwan
Taiwan
through the Manila
Manila
Economic and Cultural Office in Taipei and the Taipei
Taipei
Economic and Cultural Office in Manila
Manila
. Both offices were established in 1975 and were organized as non-profit and non-stock private corporations. The Philippines
Philippines
is the focal country for Taiwan's 2016-2020 Southbound Policy, where Taiwan
Taiwan
plans to push for greater ties with the Philippines. The push was initially welcomed by the Aquino Administration, however, the Duterte Administration was elected in May 2016, complicating the issue as President Duterte was seen as 'pro-China', and thus would prefer having better ties with the mainland instead of Taiwan. Political analysts during a forum in Manila
Manila
said that ties between the Philippines
Philippines
and Taiwan
Taiwan
would have been the best coalition in the Far East, if the South China
China
Sea territorial disputes between the two nations do not exist. The Philippines
Philippines
supports Taiwan's membership in UNESCO
UNESCO
.

RUSSIA

Main article: Russia– Taiwan
Taiwan
relations

In the Chinese Civil War , the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had a tumultuous yet strategic relations with the Kuomintang -led Nationalist China
China
until 1949 with the proclamation of the People\'s Republic of China
China
and the subsequent military takeover of Mainland China
China
by the Chinese Communist Party . In the Second Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Crisis , the Soviet Union under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev recommended the internationalization of the Taiwan
Taiwan
Question and appealed to the United Nations and other multilateral organizations to erase the crisis, further, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
called for the Ten Nations Summit in New Delhi
New Delhi
to discuss the issue and eradicate the military tension on 27 September 1958 and undermined as one of the precursors of the latter Sino-Soviet split . Since the formation of the Russian Federation , Taiwan
Taiwan
has exported many ferric materials to Russia
Russia
in 2004–2005. In 2005, the total amount of the trade between the two economies was $2,188,944,473. Russia
Russia
also has a representative office in Taipei, and Republic of China
China
has a representative office in Moscow
Moscow
. According to the data, Russia
Russia
keeps a positive balance in its trade relations with Taiwan
Taiwan
mainly from crude oil, cast iron and steel, nonferrous metals, petrochemical products, ferroalloys, coking coal, timber, and chemical fertilizers. Russia
Russia
imports mostly electronics and electronic parts, computers and computer parts, and home appliances. The two countries cooperate closely and intensely by establishing unofficial diplomatic relations since 1993~1996. Taipei is targeting Russia
Russia
for exporting opportunities and marketing potentials and this mutually-beneficial relationship is effective, especially under the framework of APEC .

SINGAPORE

Main article: Singapore– Taiwan
Taiwan
relations

Singapore
Singapore
had maintained unofficial relations with both the ROC and the PRC until 1992. It was decided in the Second Ministerial Meeting of APEC as chaired by Singapore
Singapore
in 1990 for the inclusion of the ROC commencing from the Third Ministerial Meeting in Seoul. After the establishment of diplomatic ties between Singapore
Singapore
and PRC on 3 October 1992, it continues to maintain close economic and military ties with Taiwan
Taiwan
as part of its attempt to position itself as a neutral party to both sides. This is, however, a diplomatically delicate situation which has flared up occasionally. A severe diplomatic row broke out between China
China
and Singapore
Singapore
when Lee Hsien Loong visited Taiwan
Taiwan
a month before being sworn-in as the Prime Minister of Singapore
Singapore
on 12 August 2004. Singapore's Ministry of Defence took great pains to correct an erroneous report in the Liberty Times on a joint military exercise between the Singapore
Singapore
and Taiwan
Taiwan
in March 2005. Still, Singapore
Singapore
is the only foreign country to maintain military training camps in Taiwan, and continues to regularly send infantry, artillery, and armoured personnel there for training annually. There has been talk in recent years, however, of the possibility of moving some or all of these facilities to Hainan following an offer by the PRC, although this may not be taken up due to sensitivities in diplomatic relations between Singapore
Singapore
and its defence ally, USA. On the issue of United Nations
United Nations
participation for Taiwan, there was a heated exchange of views between George Yeo and Mark Chen
Mark Chen
in 2004 between the two Foreign Ministers of the two countries. On the economic front, with Beijing's insistence that FTA can only be concluded among sovereign states, under a different name by the Ma Administration of ROC, Singapore
Singapore
and Taiwan
Taiwan
signed the Agreement between Singapore
Singapore
and the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen
Kinmen
and Matsu on Economic Partnership (ASTEP) on November 2013.

SWAZILAND

Swaziland
Swaziland
Queen Mother Ntombi Tfwala and President Tsai Ing-wen in Taiwan.

Taiwan
Taiwan
has an embassy in Mbabane. On 7 June 2016, the National Police Agency and Royal Swaziland
Swaziland
Police Service signed a joint cross-border crime fighting pact, which included the stepping up of intelligence exchanges, probe, personnel visits, professional skills enhancement, law enforcement and technical assistance.

VANUATU

Vanuatu
Vanuatu
recognises the People's Republic of China. In November 2004, Prime Minister Serge Vohor
Serge Vohor
briefly established diplomatic relations with Taiwan, before being ousted for that reason in a vote of no confidence the following month.

VENEZUELA

Main article: Republic of China– Venezuela
Venezuela
relations

In 2007 Venezuela
Venezuela
decided not to renew visas for five members of the ROC commercial representation in Caracas. Relations with Venezuela have worsened because of the increasing partnership between the government of Venezuela
Venezuela
and China.

VIETNAM

Main article: Republic of China– Vietnam
Vietnam
relations

ROC– Vietnam
Vietnam
relations are conducted on an unofficial level, as Hanoi adheres to a one- China
China
policy and officially recognises the People\'s Republic of China
China
only. However, this has not stopped bilateral visits and significant flows of migrants and investment capital between the ROC and Vietnam. The ROC is an important foreign direct investment partner to Vietnam.

Vietnam
Vietnam
is the only communist country - with the People's Republic of China
China
- that has an unofficial foreign relationship with the ROC.

OCEANIA

Main article: Sino-Pacific relations

The ROC maintains diplomatic relations with six countries in Oceania : Kiribati
Kiribati
, the Marshall Islands , Nauru
Nauru
, Palau
Palau
, the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu
Tuvalu
. China
China
has relations with eight others (including Australia
Australia
, Papua New Guinea , New Zealand
New Zealand
and Fiji
Fiji
). The Pacific is an area of intense and continuous diplomatic competition between Beijing and Taipei, with several countries (Nauru, Kiribati, Vanuatu
Vanuatu
) having switched diplomatic support from one to the other at least once. Both the PRC and the ROC provide development aid to their respective allies. In exchange, ROC allies support its membership bid in the United Nations
United Nations
. The ROC is one of Tuvalu
Tuvalu
and Nauru's most important economic partners.

In May 2008, ROC Foreign Minister James Huang resigned, along with two other top officials of the out-going Chen Shui-bian Administration, after wasting over €19 million in a failed attempt to win diplomatic recognition for the ROC from Papua New Guinea . The misuse of the money caused public outrage, forcing Huang's resignation. Papua New Guinea's foreign minister Sam Abal subsequently confirmed that his country had no intention of recognising the ROC.

In September 2006, the first regional summit of all Taiwan's Pacific Island allies took place, and was hosted by Palau, in Koror
Koror
. The meeting brought together ROC President Chen Shui-bian and delegates from the Marshall Islands, Tuvalu, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
and Kiribati. It was to become a regular event, known as the Taiwan-Pacific Allies Summit. A second regional meeting was hosted by the Marshall Islands in October, and President Chen attended. This resulted in the Majuro Declaration, in which Taiwan's six Pacific allies re-stated their recognition of the ROC's sovereignty, and promised to support the ROC's attempts to join the United Nations.

Also in June 2007, the ROC donated an aid package of € 700,000, distributed among eight Pacific regional organisations.

In January 2008, following the victory of the Kuomintang in the ROC's elections, Kuomintang MP Yang Li-huan stated that under the new government Taiwan's interest in the Pacific could decrease. Three days later, however, it was confirmed that ROC Vice-President Annette Lu would lead a diplomatic visit to the Marshall Islands, Nauru
Nauru
and Solomon Islands.

In March 2008, new President-elect Ma Ying-jeou was reported as saying that his government would put an end to Taiwanese "cheque-book diplomacy" in the Pacific (or more specifically, similar to the condition of cestui que use diplomacy). In May of that same year, Ma called for what he referred to as a "cease-fire" in the competition between the Republic of China
China
and the People's Republic of China
China
for diplomatic allies. This followed a scandal due to allegations that Taiwan's Foreign Minister James Huang had attempted to buy Papua New Guinea's diplomatic allegiance. In October, Taiwan
Taiwan
cancelled a scheduled summit between itself and its Pacific Island allies. Although the authorities cited "preparation problems", Radio Australia commented that "the decision appears to be an attempt by the new administration of President Ma Ying-jeou to keep the island's diplomatic activities low-profile and avoid offending China". Taiwanese authorities later stated that the summit had been "postponed" rather than cancelled. In June 2009, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that President Ma would "attend a leadership summit between Taiwan
Taiwan
and its South Pacific allies" in autumn. The summit, hosted by Solomon Islands, would be attended by the "heads of state of Taiwan’s six allies in the region" and would focus on "countering the current economic contraction , climate change and how to strengthen the fisheries industry". Upon announcing the summit, the Ministry added that Ma had "developed a fondness for the Pacific region during his previous visit to Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
when he saw a handful of children at a market selling betel nuts and watermelons while wearing shirts donated by the people of Taiwan".

In July 2009, the ROC donated over €40,000 in a scholarship scheme benefiting students from a number of Pacific countries, including those -such as Fiji
Fiji
or Papua New Guinea- which do not grant it diplomatic recognition. It also donated €288,000 for regional development assistance programmes, to be used notably on access to water, sanitation and hygiene, renewable energy, solar photovoltaic assessments, fisheries management, education and youth training.

Taiwan
Taiwan
has asked to be recognised as an official dialogue partner of the Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
. That status is currently awarded to the PRC.

Ma Ying-jeou , the President of the Republic of China
China
is calling for what he referred to as a "cease-fire" in the competition between ROC and PRC for diplomatic allies. On 10 July 2013, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) signed a bilateral Economic Cooperation Agreement.

Australia

In February 2008, Australia
Australia
reportedly "chastised Taiwan
Taiwan
for its renewed push for independence" and "reiterated its support for a one- China
China
policy". Australia- Taiwan
Taiwan
relations is steadily growing in non-political areas including an annual Bilateral Economic Consultation and both sides also established Joint Energy, Mineral, Trade and Investment Cooperation Consultation (JEMTIC) as well as an Agriculture Working Group meeting. Australia
Australia
does not object Taiwan's participation in international organization where such consensus has already achieved, and Australia- Taiwan
Taiwan
relations are commercially and unofficially-driven, such as the Australia- Taiwan
Taiwan
Business Council, which is based in Sydney
Sydney
, and with the understanding of people-to-people contacts in areas of education, science, sports and arts, see.

Taiwan
Taiwan
is unofficially represented in Australia
Australia
by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Canberra
Canberra
(which also has branches in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane) while Australia
Australia
is similarly represented by the Australian Office in Taipei. Taiwan
Taiwan
also has an official, government co-sponsored branch office of Taiwan
Taiwan
External Trade Development Council in Sydney. The Australian Consulate-General in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
is responsible for Visa and Citizenship matters for applicants in Taiwan. Perth has sister city relations with Taipei City and Brisbane has sister city relations with Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City.

Fiji

The ROC set up a trade mission in Fiji
Fiji
in 1971. In 1975, PRC established diplomatic relation with Fiji. Subsequently, ROC trade mission in Fuji was renamed to East Asia
Asia
Trade Center in 1976. The center was again renamed to Trade Mission of the Republic of China (Taiwan) to the Republic of Fiji
Fiji
in 1988. In 1996, ROC and Fiji
Fiji
signed a 'mutual recognition' communique and Fiji
Fiji
set up its representative office named Fiji
Fiji
Trade and Tourism Representative Office in 1997 in Taipei. The Fiji
Fiji
office was then closed on 10 May 2017.

Kiribati

Kiribati
Kiribati
President Taneti Mamau and President Tsai Ing-wen
Tsai Ing-wen
in Taiwan.

Kiribati
Kiribati
, under the current government of President Taneti Mamau , recognises the Republic of China.

From 1980 to 2003, Kiribati
Kiribati
recognised the PRC. Relations between China
China
and Kiribati
Kiribati
then became a contentious political issue within Kiribati. I- Kiribati
Kiribati
President Teburoro Tito was ousted in a parliamentary vote of no confidence in 2003, over his refusal to clarify the details of a land lease which had enabled Beijing to maintain a satellite-tracking station in the country since 1997, and over Chinese ambassador Ma Shuxue's acknowledged monetary donation to "a cooperative society linked to Tito". In the ensuing election , Anote Tong won the presidency after "stirring suspicions that the station was being used to spy on US installations in the Pacific". Tong had previously pledged to "review" the lease.

In November 2003, Tarawa
Tarawa
established diplomatic relations with Taipei -a decision which The Age referred to as "play the Taiwan
Taiwan
card" -, and Beijing severed its relations with the country. For the PRC, the presence of the satellite-tracking station had made relations with Kiribati
Kiribati
relatively important; the station had, in particular, been used to track Yang Liwei
Yang Liwei
's spaceflight . Therefore, for three weeks the PRC called upon I- Kiribati
Kiribati
President Anote Tong to break off relations with Taiwan
Taiwan
and re-affirm his support for the "One China" policy. Only after those three weeks did the PRC sever relations, thereby losing the right to maintain its satellite-tracking base in Kiribati. The Republic of China
China
began providing economic aid to Kiribati, while Kiribati
Kiribati
began supporting Taiwan
Taiwan
in the United Nations .

In 2004, President Tong said he believed the PRC was still trying to exert influence over his country. The comment was mainly due to the PRC's refusal to remove all its personnel from its closed embassy. Tong stated that the Chinese personnel, who remained in Kiribati against his wishes, were handing out anti-government pamphlets; he told New Zealand
New Zealand
journalist Michael Field: "I am sure if we did this in Beijing we would be in jail in half a second". Tong's brother and main political opponent, Harry Tong , responded by accusing Taiwan
Taiwan
of having too much influence on Kiribati, and notably of influencing the country's clergy.

In 2008, Taiwan
Taiwan
settled Kiribati's unpaid bills to Air Pacific , enabling the airline to maintain its services from Tarawa
Tarawa
to Kiritimati
Kiritimati
.

In November 2010, despite their lack of diplomatic relations, the People's Republic of China
China
was one of fifteen countries to attend the Tarawa
Tarawa
Climate Change Conference in Kiribati, and one of twelve to sign the Ambo Declaration on climate change issued from the conference.

Marshall Islands

The Marshall Islands recognise the Republic of China
China
and maintain an embassy in Taipei
Taipei
. The magazine Islands Business reported that President Litokwa Tomeing
Litokwa Tomeing
, elected in January 2008, might break off his country's diplomatic relations with Taiwan, and turn instead to the PRC. However, in office Tomeing expressed continued support for ties with Taiwan
Taiwan
and met with the Vice President of the ROC, Annette Lu , when she visited the Marshall Islands on 29 January 2008.

Nauru

Nauru
Nauru
President Baron Waqa
Baron Waqa
and President Tsai Ing-wen
Tsai Ing-wen
in Taiwan.

Nauru
Nauru
, under the current government of President Baron Waqa
Baron Waqa
, recognises the Republic of China.

In 1980, established official relations with the Republic of China. In 2002, however, the government of Rene Harris established relations with the PRC, which entailed a solemn recognition of the "One China" policy by Nauru. Consequently, Taiwan
Taiwan
severed its relations with Nauru, and accused the PRC of having bought Nauru's allegiance with a financial aid gift of over €90,000,000. A reporter for The Age agreed, stating that "Beijing recently bought off a threat by Nauru
Nauru
to revert to Taiwan
Taiwan
only six months after opening ties with the mainland, offering a large loan to Nauru's near-destitute Government".

In 2003, however, Nauru
Nauru
closed its newly established embassy in Beijing. Two years later, ROC President Chen Shui-bian met Nauruan President Ludwig Scotty in the Marshall Islands. In May 2005, the ROC and Nauru
Nauru
re-established diplomatic relations, and opened embassies in each other's capitals. The PRC consequently severed its relations with Nauru.

The Republic of China
China
is one of Nauru's two foremost economic aid partners (the other being Australia). In return, Nauru
Nauru
uses its seat in the United Nations
United Nations
to support the ROC's admittance bid. Taiwan
Taiwan
also provides regular medical assistance to Nauru, sending specialised doctors to the tiny country's only hospital.

In 2007, Scotty was re-elected President of Nauru, amidst claims that his electoral campaign had been funded by Taiwan. Scotty's opponents claimed that the ROC wanted to ensure that a pro- Taiwan
Taiwan
government remained in power. Scotty was replaced by Marcus Stephen in December 2007. Following Stephen's election, ROC President Chen Shui-bian telephoned him to congratulate him, assure him of the ROC's continued assistance for Nauru, request Nauru's continued support in return, and invite him to visit Taiwan. Nauru
Nauru
has retained its relations with the ROC under the new government.

Given that it has already changed its foreign policy twice, Nauru remains the focus of diplomatic competition between Beijing and Taipei. In 2006, according to the New Statesman, President Scotty "was allegedly accosted by a horde of screaming Chinese officials who tried to drag him on to a plane to Beijing just as he was boarding one bound for Taipei".

In 2008, Nauru
Nauru
co-submitted a proposal to the United Nations, requesting that the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly consider enabling "Taiwan's participation in the activities of UN specialized agencies". The proposal was rejected.

In 2011 it was revealed via Wikileaks
Wikileaks
that Taiwan
Taiwan
had been paying a "monthly stipend" to Nauruan government ministers in exchange for their continued support, as well as a smaller sum to other Members of Parliament, as "project funding that requires minimal accounting". Reporting on the story, the Brisbane Times
Brisbane Times
wrote: "One MP reportedly used his Taiwanese stipend to buy daily breakfast for all schoolchildren in his district, while others were happy to just pocket the cash". A "former Australian diplomat with close knowledge of politics in Nauru" stated that Nauruan President Marcus Stephen, Foreign Minister Kieren Keke and former President Ludwig Scotty, among others, had all accepted "under the counter" funding from Taiwan. The leaks revealed that "Chinese agents had also sought to influence Nauru's elections through cash payments to voters, with at least $40,000 distributed in one instance in 2007".

Wikileaks
Wikileaks
also revealed that Australia
Australia
had, at one time, been "pushing" Nauru
Nauru
to break its relations with Taiwan
Taiwan
and establish relations with the PRC instead. Then President Ludwig Scotty had reportedly resisted on the grounds that it was "none of Australia's business".

In late 2011, Taiwan
Taiwan
"doubled it health aid" to Nauru, notably providing a resident medical team on a five-year appointment.

Palau

Palau
Palau
President Tommy Remengesau and President Tsai Ing-wen
Tsai Ing-wen
in Taiwan
Taiwan
.

Palau
Palau
recognises the Republic of China, and is one of the few countries to maintain an embassy in Taipei. ROC maintains an embassy in Koror
Koror
. The ROC provides scholarships to Palauan students, as well as computers for Palauan schools. In 2008, Mario Katosang, Palau’s Minister of Education, stated:

We were given 100 Windows-based computers by Taiwan. The education sector uses predominately Apple Macintosh computers, so I mentioned that we may also need software. Taiwan
Taiwan
immediately delivered 100 brand new copies of Windows XP, and offered to train our computer technicians.

Papua New Guinea

In 1999, the government of Prime Minister Bill Skate recognised Taiwan. Skate lost power less than a week later, and Papua New Guinea's diplomatic recognition reverted to China.

In 2005, Papua New Guinea, along with Fiji, supported Taiwan's wish to join the World Health Organization .

In May 2008, Taiwan's Foreign Minister James Huang resigned, along with two other top officials, after wasting over €19 million in a failed attempt to win diplomatic recognition for the Republic of China from Papua New Guinea. The misuse of the money caused public outrage, forcing Huang's resignation. Papua New Guinea's foreign minister Sam Abal subsequently confirmed that his country had no intention of recognising Taiwan.

Solomon Islands

Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
recognises the Republic of China, and is one of the few countries to maintain an embassy in Taipei. The two countries established diplomatic relations on 23 May 1983. A Republic of China consulate general was set up in Honiara
Honiara
, and upgraded to an embassy two years later. Since 2011, the Republic of China's ambassador to the Solomons is Laurie Chan , a Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
national of Chinese ethnic background, and a former Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Minister of Foreign Affairs who supported his country's continued relations with Taiwan.

Despite a lack of diplomatic recognition, however, Solomon Islands trades more with the People's Republic than with Taiwan. In 2009, over half the country's exports went to the People's Republic of China, and Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
maintained a trade surplus of A$ 161m in its trade relations with that country. In 2010, that surplus increased to a record A$258.

In 2006, Honiara's Chinatown suffered extensive damage as it was looted and burned by rioters, following a contested election result. It had been alleged that ethnic Chinese businessmen had bribed members of Solomon Islands' Parliament. Joses Tuhanuku, President of the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Labour Party , stated that the election "has been corrupted by Taiwan
Taiwan
and business houses owned by Solomon Islanders of Chinese origin". Many Chinese-Solomon Islanders left the country.

After pro- Taiwan
Taiwan
Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare was ousted in a vote of no confidence in December 2007, and replaced by Derek Sikua , ROC President Chen Shui-bian telephoned Prime Minister Sikua, offering his congratulations and Taiwan's continued aid, and requested the Sikua government's continued diplomatic support. Chen also invited Sikua to visit Taiwan, which he did in March 2008. Sikua was welcomed with military honours by Chen, who stated: " Taiwan
Taiwan
is the Solomon Islands' most loyal ally. Taiwan
Taiwan
will never forsake the people or government of the Solomon Islands." Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
has continued to recognise the Republic of China
China
under Sikua's leadership.

Later that same month, Taiwan's president-elect Dr. Ma Ying-Jeou met Australia's former Foreign Minister Alexander Downer, and reportedly promised to put an end to Taiwanese "cheque book diplomacy" in the Solomons. This led Downer to comment: "Under the Chen Shui-bian regime there has been a lot of Taiwanese cheque book diplomacy in Solomon Islands. So I'm glad to hear that's coming to an end." Sikua, however, criticised Downer for interfering in relations between Honiara
Honiara
and Taipei: “The Government of Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
will continue to work closely with the Government of Taiwan
Taiwan
and other development partners as it strives to provide a better quality of life for its people. I hope that Mr Downer will find something more appropriate to comment on than on issues that are within the sovereign jurisdiction of independent states and governments to deal with and decide on.”

The editor of the Solomon Star reacted irritably to Downer's comments: "Just when we thought he’s gone and good riddance, he’s back. Alexander Downer is now in Taipei
Taipei
and telling the Taiwanese how to run their relations with the Solomon Islands. Just who does Mr Downer think he is? Relations between Taiwan
Taiwan
and the Solomon Islands are none of this yesterday man’s business. Taipei
Taipei
should tell Mr Downer to butt out."

The Taiwanese government subsequently stated, through its deputy director-general of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' Department of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Victor Yu, that Downer had "misunderstood" Ma: "Cooperation and development programs are an obligation and the responsibility of every advanced nation in the international community. They should not be described as 'checkbook diplomacy'. All the resources that the nation has contributed are project-oriented and have generated substantial positive effects on the local economy and on society. Downer distorted what Ma actually meant."

On 17 April 2008, the editorial of the Solomon Star was devoted to the Solomons' relationship with Taiwan, which it described as follows: "First, thanks to Taiwan, for all the support it is providing to help bring better health services here. There’s always suspicion about Taiwan’s aid in this country despite the fine sounding intentions under which it is given. Our politicians undoubtedly exploit Taiwan’s need to keep Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
as one of the nations recognising it as a country in its own right. But there should be no doubts about this week’s launch of the Taiwan
Taiwan
Medical Centre at the National Referral Hospital. This is tangible, beneficial and transparent help. It underscores Taiwan’s role as a true, democratic friend of Solomon Islands. May there be more such help given this way."

In July, it was announced that Taiwanese doctors would be providing free medical care to Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
villagers, and that unskilled Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
workers would be granted access to the Taiwanese labour market. At the same time, Taiwan
Taiwan
was funding rural development projects in the Solomons. Taiwan
Taiwan
has also pledged to provide SI$ 10 million to Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
in 2009 and 2010, to enable the government to abolish school fees paid by parents and provide free primary and secondary education to Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
children.

During the campaign for the 2010 general election , candidate and former Prime Minister Francis Billy Hilly announced that, if elected, he would break off relations with the ROC and establish them with the PRC. Dr Tarcisius Tara Kabutaulaka, of the University of Hawaii, commented that Taiwan
Taiwan
funded constituency development programmes in the Solomons, and that Members of Parliament were thus unlikely to support any severing of diplomatic relations with the ROC. Billy Hilly was unsuccessful in regaining a seat in Parliament.

Tuvalu

Tuvalu
Tuvalu
recognises the Republic of China
China
(ROC). Taiwan
Taiwan
maintains the only resident foreign embassy in Tuvalu. This is located in Funafuti
Funafuti
.

Tuvalu
Tuvalu
supports the ROC's bid to join the United Nations, and Taiwan has provided Tuvalu
Tuvalu
with "several mobile medical missions".

In 2006, Taiwan
Taiwan
reacted to reports that the People's Republic of China
China
was attempting to draw Tuvalu
Tuvalu
away from the Republic of China. Taiwan
Taiwan
consequently strengthened its weakening diplomatic relations with Tuvalu.

RELATIONS WITH EUROPE

The European Union
European Union
has earnestly emphasized human rights in its relations with ROC. European Union
European Union
is the largest source of foreign direct investment to Taiwan. The European Union
European Union
has unofficial relations with Taiwan
Taiwan
through European Economic and Trade Office which was opened on 10 March 2003. Taipei
Taipei
is one of the major trading partners with European Free Trade Association , and in sum a potential trading partner with the Eurozone
Eurozone
. The European Parliament voted 559 votes to 40 with 13 abstentions and approved Taiwanese passport holders with identity card number are exempted and do not require Schengen visa whilst visiting the Schengen Area on 11 November 2010 with similar Schengen granting to Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, South Korea and Singapore, and reciprocally the ROC exempted visa for individuals from the Schengen Area . For the debate concerning EU- Taiwan
Taiwan
relations in the European Parliament , see. Sixteen member states of the European Union
European Union
have established offices in Taipei, and several functional offices have been established by different member states. Taipei
Taipei
Representative Office in the EU and Belgium
Belgium
is the unofficial diplomatic representation of Taiwan
Taiwan
in the EU. British relations with Taiwan
Taiwan
with the formality of British Trade and Cultural Office and the British Council in Taipei
Taipei
of United Kingdom are represented in Republic of China. Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei
is an observer in the OECD
OECD
, which is headquartered in Paris
Paris
, France
France
. ROC's Civil Service Protection and Training Commission (CSPTC) and the Belgian Training Institute of the Federal Administration (TIFA) signed Memorandum of Understanding on 7 November 2014 for workshop attendance of public servants that highlighted leadership, innovation and conflict management, as well as global competitiveness strategies in Brussels
Brussels
. The EU rejects granting Mainland China
China
market economy status for embracing Socialist economy .

RELATIONS WITH INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Flag of Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei
in the official Olympics games

Under pressure from the People's Republic of China, the ROC has been excluded from, or downgraded in, many international organizations. In other cases, ROC may retain full participation, due to the usage of names such as " Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei
" or "Taiwan, China
China
". The ROC is blocked in all UNESCO
UNESCO
by the PRC, however, its membership application is backed by Burkina Faso, Swaziland, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay,The Philippines, Vietnam, and Japan.

Below is a list of such international organizations and the names by which Taiwan
Taiwan
is known:

* Academic Council of the United Nations
United Nations
System (ACUNS) (participates as " Taipei
Taipei
Economic and Cultural Office in New York") * Association of Asia
Asia
Pacific Airlines (AAPA) (included as Member Airlines) * Afro-Asian Rural Development Organization (AARDO) (participates as "Republic of China
China
(Taiwan)") * Agency for international trade information and cooperation (AITIC) (participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu") * Amnesty International (AI) (participates as "Taiwan", ROC's Legislative Yuan debated and ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on 31 March 2009. ) * Asia
Asia
Council (covered as "Taiwan") * Asian Federation of Biotechnology (AFOB) (participates as Biochemical Engineering Society of Taiwan
Taiwan
(BEST)) * Asia
Asia
Indigenous Peoples Pact (AIPP) (NGO in Special
Special
Consultative Status with the United Nations
United Nations
Economic and Social Council , participates as Taiwan) * Asia
Asia
News Network (ANN) (participates as The China
China
Post ) * Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions (APAARI) (participates by Council of Agriculture (Republic of China) ) * Asia
Asia
Pacific Forum (APF) (monitored as Taiwan
Taiwan
(Republic of China)) * Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering
Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering
(APG) (participates as Chinese Taipei) * Asia
Asia
Pacific Regional Internet Conference on Operational Technologies (APRICOT)(participates as the economy of Taiwan) * Asian and Oceanian Stock Exchanges Federation
Asian and Oceanian Stock Exchanges Federation
(AOSEF) (participates as " Taiwan
Taiwan
Stock Exchange Corp.") * Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development
Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development
(FORUM-ASIA) (participates by Taiwan
Taiwan
Association for Human Rights) * Asian Network of Major Cities 21
Asian Network of Major Cities 21
(ANMC21) (participates as Taipei City) * Association of Asian Social Science Research Councils (AASSREC)(participates as associate member of Academia Sinica - Taipei) * Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) (presents the Turing Award , participates as "Taiwan") * Association for Financial Professionals (AFP) (provide country-specific information as "Taiwan") * Association of Future Markets (AFM) (participates as "Taiwan Futures Exchange" (TAIFEX)) * Association Montessori Internationale (AMI) (officially participates as "Taiwan/China", according to UN's definition of the territory of Taiwan
Taiwan
and Taiwan, Province of China, which is separated from China) * Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (referred to as " Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC)") * Asian Productivity Organization (APO) (participates as Republic of China) * Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) (on the basis of the Memorandum of Understanding of 1991 and partaking APEC Business Travel Card scheme) (participates as "Chinese Taipei") * Asian Development Bank (ADB) (participates as "Taipei, China") * Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) (located in the Kasumigaseki Building
Kasumigaseki Building
, participates as Taipei, China) * Association for Information Systems (AIS) (participates as "Taiwan") * Association of Asian Election Authorities (AAEA) (participates as "Republic of China
China
(Taiwan)") * Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre
Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre
(APNIC) (participates as the economy of Taiwan
Taiwan
by Taiwan
Taiwan
Network Information Center) * Asian-Pacific Parliamentarians' Union (APPU) (held the 16th and 40th plenary meeting, participates as Republic of China) * Bank for International Settlements
Bank for International Settlements
(BIS) (referred to as "Taiwan")

* Belmont Forum (Belmont Forum is a member of the Science and Technology Alliance for Global Sustainability, engaged by Ministry of Science and Technology (Taiwan) ) * Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) (participates as "Taiwan") * Boao Forum for Asia
Asia
(BFA) (participates as "Cross-Straits Common Market Foundation " ) * Banco Centralamericano de Integración Economico (BCIE or CABEI) (participates as Republic of China) * Caribbean
Caribbean
Community (CARICOM) (with Member States of Belize, Haiti, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines recognizing Republic of China) * Centre for Energy Environment Resources Development (CEERD) (in contact with as "Chinese Taipei") * Conservation International (CI) (listed in the annual Ocean Health Index) * Consumers International (CI) (participates as "Consumers Foundation Chinese Taipei") * Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia
Asia
Pacific (CSCAP) (participates as "participant with individual capacity" in this "Track Two of Asia-Pacific Diplomacy" ) * Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) (participates as Taiwan, China) * Citizen Cyberscience Centre (CCC) (founded by United Nations Institute for Training and Research , participates by Academia Sinica) * Cumulus (Recognized by UNESCO
UNESCO
since 2011, participates as Taiwan(China)) * Education International (EI) (participates as Taiwan) * Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units (participates as "Taiwan") * European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) (has a long-standing cooperation with the EBRD as " Taipei
Taipei
China") * European Patent Office
European Patent Office
(EPO) (included in the Asian Patent Information as Chinese Taipei) * European Organization for Nuclear Research
European Organization for Nuclear Research
(CERN) (has scientific contacts as China
China
(Taipei)) * Food and Fertilizer Technology Center (FFTC) (participates as "Taiwan") * Free Access to Law Movement (FALM) (participates as Taiwan
Taiwan
Legal Information Institute) * European Pharmacopoeia
European Pharmacopoeia
(participates as an observer by Taiwan
Taiwan
Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (Republic of China) ) * European Research Council (ERC) (a member of National Contact Points of ERC funding opportunities, participates as Taiwan) * European Southern Observatory (ESO) (participates the Atacama Large Millimeter Array/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project by Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan, and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) (now ( Ministry of Science and Technology (Republic of China)
Ministry of Science and Technology (Republic of China)
))) * Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) (participates as Fairtrade Taipei
Taipei
City) * Fédération Internationale de Philatélie (FIP) (in partnership with United Nations
United Nations
Postal Administration and Universal Postal Union
Universal Postal Union
, participates as Chinese Taipei) * Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (due to PRC's political pressure, participates in various subsidiary organizations as "China – Taipei", including Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions, International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, Asia
Asia
and Pacific Seed Association) * FIABCI (participates as "Chinese Taiwan") * FreedomInfo.org (links the efforts of freedom of information advocates globally, included as Taiwan) * Institute of International Education
Institute of International Education
(IIE) (participates through the Fulbright program of Council for International Exchange of Scholars as Taiwan
Taiwan
(Republic of China)) * International Basketball Federation (FIBA) (participates as Chinese Taipei) * Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) (participates as Chinese Taipei) * Human Rights Watch (HRW) (involved as "Taiwan") * IFEX (spotlighted as Taiwan) * International Association of Horticultural Producers (AIPH) (participates as Chinese Taipei) * International Association of Public Transport (UITP) (participates as "Taiwan") * International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (signed a trilateral agreement with the United States
United States
and the IAEA in 1971 stating that ROC continue to abide by the terms of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons . While not a member of the IAEA, Taiwan
Taiwan
does continue to subscribe to the IAEA’s safeguards under two agreements, INFCIRC/133 and INFCIRC/158. ) * International Association of Judges (IAJ) (as a professional and non-political international organization, that the association has consultative status with the United Nations
United Nations
(namely the International Labour Office and the U.N. Economic and Social Council) and with the Council of Europe
Europe
, participates as "Republic of China
China
(Taiwan)") * International Air Transport Association
International Air Transport Association
(IATA)(included as Taiwan/Chinese Taipei) * International Association of Universities (UAI) (founded in 1950, is the UNESCO
UNESCO
-based worldwide association of higher education institutions, participates institutionally by Tamkang University
Tamkang University
and officially as "China-Taiwan") * International Bar Association
International Bar Association
(IBA) (participates section-ally as "Taiwan") * International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) (There are 4 IB World Schools in Taiwan
Taiwan
offering one or more of the three IB programmes, and currently there is no university in Taiwan recognizing IB, which is deflecting from the global trend of educational development. ) * International Business Innovation Association (IBIA) (participates by Institute for Information Industry ) * International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) (included as Taiwan CBL) * International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) (ICC participates in the activities of UNCTAD
UNCTAD
, including International Court of Arbitration , participates as Chinese Taipei) * International Commission of Jurists
International Commission of Jurists
(ICJ) (affiliates by the Taipei
Taipei
Bar Association ) * International Competition Network
International Competition Network
(ICN) (participates as Taiwan Fair Trade Commission) * International Congress and Convention Association (ICCA) (participates as Chinese Taipei) * International Council of Museums
International Council of Museums
(ICM) (participates as Taiwan
Taiwan
in the Board of ICM) * International Cospas-Sarsat Programme (Cospas-Sarsat) (participates as International Telecommunication Development Company (Chinese Taipei) (ITDC)) * International Council on Social Welfare (ICSW) (participates as "Taiwan" in the ICSW North East Asia
Asia
Region) * International Council of Women
International Council of Women
(ICW) (participates as Taiwan, Republic of China) * International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) (originally associated from the UNESCO
UNESCO
, participates as "Chinese Taipei".) * International Council for Information Technology in Government Administration (ICA) (participates as "Taiwan") * International Council for Science
International Council for Science
(ICSU) (participates as China: Taipei, Academy of Sciences located in Taipei) * International Council of Graphic Design Associations (Icograda) (with international alliances of ISO , UNESCO
UNESCO
's Global Alliance for Cultural Diversity, UNIDO and WIPO
WIPO
, participates as Taiwan
Taiwan
(Chinese Taipei)) * International Council of Societies of Industrial Design (ICSID) (participates as Taiwan
Taiwan
(Chinese Taipei)) * International Democrat Union (IDU) (participates as "Taiwan") * International Energy Agency (IEA) (included as a non-member country as "Chinese Taipei") * International Federation of Reproduction Rights Organization (IFRRO) (participates as Chinese Oral "Taiwan's" Chunghwa Post continually providing the postal services as a non-recognized postal entity ) * Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) (participates as "Taiwan") * Washington Accord (International Engineering Alliance) (participates as Chinese Taipei) * World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts
World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts
(WAGGGS) (participates as "Taiwan", also note that there is no national member of WAGGGS in PRC) * World Bank (WB) (covered separately in the Private Sector section, included as the economy of Taiwan, China) * World Confederation of Labour (WCL) (participates as "Taiwan") * World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
(WEF) (officially listed as "Taiwan, China") * World Energy Council (WEC) (participates as "Taiwan, China") * World Federation of Exchanges (WFE) (participates as " Taiwan
Taiwan
Stock Exchange " and " Taiwan
Taiwan
Futures Exchange ") Under the umbrella of World Federation of Exchanges, MSCI
MSCI
includes Taiwan
Taiwan
as MSCI
MSCI
Taiwan Index. In addition, London Metal Exchange is participated under London Stock Exchange in association with the World Federation of Exchanges in relation with Taiwan
Taiwan
Future Exchange. * World Health Organization (WHO) (In the outbreak of Severe acute respiratory syndrome and with the concern of Disease surveillance , was invited as "Chinese Taipei" on the case-by-case basis. with its relations with the WHO
WHO
being governed by a Memorandum of Understanding dated 14 May 2005 between the PRC and the WHO. The health insurance scheme in Taiwan
Taiwan
is referenced on the WHOpublication . Chinese Taipei is invited as an observer status in the World Health Assembly on the basis of Resolution 2758 and the condition of Cross-Strait relations .

* Worldwatch Institute (WI) (in partnership as Taiwan
Taiwan
Watch) * World Intellectual Property Organization
World Intellectual Property Organization
(WIPO) (not a signatory of the Patent Cooperation Treaty and Paris
Paris
Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property , referred to as "Taiwan, Province of China") * World Medical Association (WMA) (participates as "Taiwan" by the Taiwan
Taiwan
Medical Association) * World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(WMO) (signed and ratified the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
on 2 March 1951, cited as " Taiwan
Taiwan
region") * World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) (participates as " Taipei
Taipei
(Chinese)") * World Organization of the Scout Movement
World Organization of the Scout Movement
(WOSM) (participates as "Scouts of China
China
") * World Tax (founded by Euromoney Institutional Investor PLC , participates as "Taiwan") * World Trade Centers Association (WTCA) (participates as World Trade Center Taipei, World Trade Center Taichung and World Trade Center Kaohsiung) * World Trade Organization (WTO) (full membership as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu" (Chinese Taipei) and delegated by the Permanent Mission of the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen
Kinmen
and Mastu to the WTO in Geneva
Geneva
. )

* World Veterans Federation (WVF) (participates as "(ROC on) Taiwan")

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it .

Taiwan
Taiwan
has been a party to several major international treaties, including but not limited to:

* Metre Convention (associate as "Chinese Taipei") * Free trade agreements with Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, New Zealand, Singapore * Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement
Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement
with PRC (signed between Straits Exchange Foundation and Association for Relations Across the Taiwan
Taiwan
Straits – for ROC and PRC respectively and included the topic of direct flights, and with the improving relations between Mainland China
China
and Taiwan, Taipei
Taipei
Economic and Cultural Office was officially launched in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Economic, Trade and Cultural Office was opened in Taiwan)

TERRITORIAL DISPUTES

ROC claims islands in the South China
China
Sea on the same basis as its claim to historical Chinese territory. Unlike its claims on the Asian mainland, however, ROC actively pursues and defends some of its claims to these islands. These include all of the Spratly Islands , the Paracel Islands , Macclesfield Bank and Scarborough Shoal
Scarborough Shoal
. These islands are administered by a number of governments around the South China
China
Sea . ROC also claims the Senkaku Islands , which is administered by Japan.

The People's Republic of China, in turn, asserts itself as the sole legitimate government of China, and claims all territories administered by ROC.

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS

AIR LINKS

A China
China
Airlines Boeing 747-400 in old livery, bearing the ROC flag .

The dispute over Taiwan's status has also affected the island's air links with the outside world, particularly Europe, North America
North America
and Australia
Australia
. For many years, Mandarin Airlines , a subsidiary of Taiwan's national airline, China
China
Airlines (CAL), served many international destinations that CAL did not because of political sensitivities. However, in 1995 CAL dropped the national colours from its livery , and now flies to international destinations under its own name.

Many countries' national airlines similarly set up special subsidiaries to operate services to Taipei, with a different name, and livery omitting national symbols. For example, British Airways ' now defunct subsidiary, British Asia
Asia
Airways , operated flights to London , KLM
KLM
's subsidiary, KLM
KLM
Asia
Asia
, operated flights to Amsterdam
Amsterdam
, and Swissair 's subsidiary, Swissair Asia
Asia
, operated flights to Zurich
Zurich
, Air France
France
Asie operated flights to Paris
Paris
while Qantas
Qantas
had a subsidiary called Australia
Australia
Asia
Asia
Airlines , which operated flights to Sydney
Sydney
. Other countries' flag carriers, such as Germany's Lufthansa
Lufthansa
, operated flights to Taipei
Taipei
using an existing subsidiary (in Lufthansa's case, Condor ).

Japan
Japan
Air Lines established a subsidiary called Japan
Japan
Asia
Asia
Airways to operate flights to Tokyo
Tokyo
. Before the completion of the second runway at New Tokyo
Tokyo
International Airport (now Narita International Airport
Narita International Airport
) near Tokyo, Japan, airlines from Taiwan
Taiwan
were required to fly to Tokyo International Airport (commonly known as Haneda Airport) in Ota, Tokyo in order not to offend the airlines from the People's Republic of China
China
that flew to Narita. All Nippon Airways
All Nippon Airways
, however, used an existing subsidiary, Air Nippon . With the implementation of a new Japan- Taiwan
Taiwan
air agreement, JAL and ANA has taken over flight operations between Japan
Japan
and Taiwan
Taiwan
since April 2008.

As of July 2008 , charter flights between mainland China
China
and Taiwan, which were traditionally only allowed on special holidays such as Chinese New Year, were expanded greatly. The opening of these flights may eventually reach a capacity of 3,000 mainland Chinese tourists per day entering Taiwan.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

International dialing codes are assigned by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to its member states and their dependencies. However, as Taiwan
Taiwan
was not an ITU member state, it had to be allocated the code +886 unofficially, with the ITU listing the code as 'reserved' until 2006. However, in that year, it formally allocated the code to "Taiwan, China". Until the late 1970s, Taiwan used the code 866, but the 86 code was reassigned to the People's Republic of China
China
in conformity with the ITU's official membership, forcing Taiwan
Taiwan
to utilize another code for countries that wished to maintain direct dial connections.

Codes in the +86 6 number range have now been allocated to cities in Mainland China; for example, the area code for Yangjiang is 0662. Calls from Mainland China
China
to Taiwan
Taiwan
are still made by using the international prefix 00886.

SEE ALSO

* Taiwan
Taiwan
portal

* China
China
and the United Nations
United Nations
* List of diplomatic missions of Taiwan
Taiwan
* Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Republic of China)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Republic of China)
* Taiwan
Taiwan
passport * Visa policy of Taiwan
Taiwan
* International rankings of Taiwan
Taiwan

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