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The ICAO (/ˌaɪˌkeɪˈoʊ/ , eye-KAY-oh ) AIRPORT CODE or LOCATION INDICATOR is a four-letter code designating aerodromes around the world. These codes are defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization , and published in ICAO Document 7910: Location Indicators are used by air traffic control and airline operations such as flight planning .

ICAO codes are also used to identify other aviation facilities such as weather stations , International Flight Service Stations or Area Control Centers , whether or not they are located at airports. Flight information regions are also identified by a unique ICAO-code.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 ICAO codes vs. IATA codes * 3 Structure * 4 Pseudo ICAO-codes * 5 Prefixes * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

HISTORY

The International Civil Aviation Organization was formed in 1947 under the auspices of the United Nations , and it established Flight Information Regions (FIRs) for controlling air traffic and making airport identification simple and clear.

Code
Code
selections in North America were based on existing radio station identifiers . For example, radio stations in Canada were already starting with "C", so it seemed logical to begin Canadian airport identifiers with a C (Cxxx). The United States had many pre-existing airports with established mnemonic codes. Their ICAO codes were formed simply by prepending a K to the existing codes, as half the radio station identifiers in the US began with K. Most ICAO codes outside the US and Canada have a stronger geographical structure.

Most of the rest of the world was classified in a more planned top-down manner. Thus Uxxx referred to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
with the second letter denoting the specific region within it, and so forth. Europe
Europe
had too many locations for only one starting letter, so it was split into Exxx for northern Europe
Europe
and Lxxx for southern Europe. The second letter was more specific: EGxx was the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(G for Great Britain), EDxx was West Germany (D for Deutschland), ETxx was East Germany (the ETxx code was reassigned to military fields after the reunification), LExx was Spain (E for España), LAxx was Albania, and so on. France was designated LFxx, as the counterpart EFxx was the unambiguously northern Finland
Finland
. (originally OFxx, as the more rigid geographical structure evolved over time; in the beginning, countries usually had "blocks" of codes; for example, Finland
Finland
still has the country identifier OH- in its aircraft registrations).

ICAO CODES VS. IATA CODES

ICAO codes are separate and different from IATA codes , which are generally used for airline timetables , reservations, and baggage tags. For example, the IATA code for London
London
's Heathrow Airport is LHR and its ICAO code is EGLL. ICAO codes are commonly seen by passengers and the general public on flight-tracking services such as FlightAware , though passengers will more often see the IATA codes, on their tickets and their luggage tags. In general IATA codes are usually derived from the name of the airport or the city it serves, while ICAO codes are distributed by region and country. Far more aerodromes (in the broad sense) have ICAO codes than IATA codes, and to add to the confusion IATA codes are sometimes assigned to railway stations.

STRUCTURE

Map of world regions classified according to the first letter of the ICAO airport code. Map of countries classified according to the ICAO airport code prefix. Any correspondence between subnational regions and second letter also indicated. Micronations not labeled individually.

Unlike the IATA codes, the ICAO codes generally have a regional structure and are comprehensive. In general, the first letter is allocated by continent and represents a country or group of countries within that continent. The second letter generally represents a country within that region, and the remaining two are used to identify each airport. The exception to this rule is larger countries that have single-letter country codes, where the remaining three letters identify the airport. In either case, and unlike IATA codes, ICAO codes generally provide geographical context. For example, if one knows that the ICAO code for Heathrow is EGLL, then one can deduce that the airport EGGP is somewhere in the UK (it is Liverpool John Lennon Airport ). On the other hand, knowing that the IATA code for Heathrow is LHR does not enable one to deduce the location of the airport LHV with any greater certainty (it is William T. Piper Memorial Airport in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania in the United States).

There are a few exceptions to the regional structure of the ICAO code made for political or administrative reasons. For example, the RAF Mount Pleasant air base in the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
is assigned the ICAO code EGYP as though it were in the United Kingdom, but a nearby civilian airport such as Port Stanley Airport is assigned SFAL, consistent with South America
South America
. Similarly Saint Pierre and Miquelon is controlled by France, and airports there are assigned LFxx as though they were in Europe. Further, in region L (Southern Europe), all available 2-letter prefixes have been exhausted and thus no additional countries can be added. Thus when Kosovo
Kosovo
declared independence, there was no space in the Lxxx codes to accommodate it, so airports in Kosovo
Kosovo
were assigned BKxx, grouping Kosovo
Kosovo
with Greenland
Greenland
and Iceland .

The letters I, J and X are not currently used as the first letter of any ICAO identifier. In Russia and CIS , Latin letter X (or its Morse /Baudot Cyrillic equivalent Ь ) is used to designate government, military and experimental aviation airfields in internal airfield codes similar in structure and purpose to ICAO codes but not used internationally. Q is reserved for international radiocommunications and other non-geographical special uses (see Q code ).

In the contiguous United States, Canada and some airports in Mexico, most, but not all, airports have been assigned three-letter IATA codes. These are the same as their ICAO code, but without the leading K, C, or M.; e.g., YEG and CYEG both refer to Edmonton International Airport , Edmonton, Alberta ; IAD and KIAD are used for Washington Dulles International Airport , Chantilly, Virginia . These codes are not to be confused with radio or television call signs , even though both countries use four-letter call signs starting with those letters. However, because Alaska, Hawaii, and United States territories have their own 2-letter ICAO prefix, the situation there is similar to other smaller countries and the ICAO code of their airports is typically different from its corresponding 3-letter FAA/IATA identifier. For example, Hilo International Airport (PHTO vs ITO) and Juneau International Airport
Juneau International Airport
(PAJN vs JNU).

ZZZZ is a special code which is used when no ICAO code exists for the airport and is normally used in flight plans .

A list of airports, sorted by ICAO code, is available below.

PSEUDO ICAO-CODES

In small countries like Belgium or the Netherlands, almost all aerodromes have an ICAO code. For bigger countries like the UK or Germany this is not feasible, given the limited number of letter codes. Some countries have addressed this issue by introducing a scheme of sub-ICAO aerodrome codes; France, for example, assigns pseudo-ICAO codes in the style LFddnn, where dd indicates the département while nn is a sequential counter. In the case of France, an amateur organisation, the FFPLUM , was formally named the keeper of these codes.

PREFIXES

PREFIX CODE COUNTRY

A – WESTERN SOUTH PACIFIC

AG Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands

AN Nauru
Nauru

AY Papua New Guinea

B – GREENLAND, ICELAND, AND KOSOVO

BG Greenland
Greenland

BI Iceland
Iceland

BK Kosovo
Kosovo

C – CANADA

C Canada

D – EASTERN PARTS OF WEST AFRICA AND MAGHREB

DA Algeria
Algeria

DB Benin
Benin

DF Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso

DG Ghana
Ghana

DI Côte d\'Ivoire

DN Nigeria
Nigeria

DR Niger
Niger

DT Tunisia
Tunisia

DX Togolese Republic

E – NORTHERN EUROPE

EB Belgium

ED Germany (civil)

EE Estonia
Estonia

EF Finland
Finland

EG United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(and Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
)

EH Netherlands
Netherlands

EI Ireland

EK Denmark and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands

EL Luxembourg
Luxembourg

EN Norway

EP Poland
Poland

ES Sweden

ET Germany (military)

EV Latvia
Latvia

EY Lithuania
Lithuania

F – MOST OF CENTRAL AFRICA AND SOUTHERN AFRICA , AND THE INDIAN OCEAN

FA South Africa
South Africa

FB Botswana
Botswana

FC Republic of the Congo

FD Swaziland

FE Central African Republic
Central African Republic

FG Equatorial Guinea

FH Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

FI Mauritius
Mauritius

FJ British Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Territory

FK Cameroon
Cameroon

FL Zambia

FM Comoros
Comoros
, France ( Mayotte and Réunion ), and Madagascar
Madagascar

FN Angola
Angola

FO Gabon
Gabon

FP São Tomé and Príncipe

FQ Mozambique
Mozambique

FS Seychelles

FT Chad

FV Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe

FW Malawi
Malawi

FX Lesotho
Lesotho

FY Namibia
Namibia

FZ Democratic Republic of the Congo

G – WESTERN PARTS OF WEST AFRICA AND MAGHREB

GA Mali
Mali

GB The Gambia

GC Spain ( Canary Islands )

GE Spain ( Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla )

GF Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone

GG Guinea-Bissau

GL Liberia
Liberia

GM Morocco
Morocco

GO Senegal
Senegal

GQ Mauritania
Mauritania

GS Western Sahara

GU Guinea
Guinea

GV Cape Verde
Cape Verde

H – EAST AFRICA AND NORTHEAST AFRICA

HA Ethiopia
Ethiopia

HB Burundi
Burundi

HC Somalia
Somalia
(including Somaliland )

HD Djibouti
Djibouti

HE Egypt
Egypt

HH Eritrea
Eritrea

HK Kenya
Kenya

HL Libya
Libya

HR Rwanda

HS Sudan
Sudan
and South Sudan
Sudan

HT Tanzania

HU Uganda
Uganda

K – CONTIGUOUS UNITED STATES

K Contiguous United States

L – SOUTHERN EUROPE , ISRAEL AND TURKEY

LA Albania
Albania

LB Bulgaria
Bulgaria

LC Cyprus
Cyprus

LD Croatia
Croatia

LE Spain (mainland section and Balearic Islands )

LF France ( Metropolitan France ; including Saint-Pierre and Miquelon )

LG Greece
Greece

LH Hungary

LI Italy

LJ Slovenia
Slovenia

LK Czech Republic
Czech Republic

LL Israel

LM Malta
Malta

LN Monaco
Monaco

LO Austria

LP Portugal
Portugal
(including the Azores
Azores
and Madeira )

LQ Bosnia and Herzegovina

LR Romania
Romania

LS Switzerland
Switzerland

LT Turkey
Turkey

LU Moldova
Moldova

LV Palestinian territories

LW Macedonia

LX Gibraltar
Gibraltar

LY Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro

LZ Slovakia
Slovakia

M – CENTRAL AMERICA , MEXICO AND NORTHERN/WESTERN PARTS OF THE CARIBBEAN

MB Turks and Caicos Islands

MD Dominican Republic

MG Guatemala
Guatemala

MH Honduras
Honduras

MK Jamaica
Jamaica

MM Mexico
Mexico

MN Nicaragua

MP Panama
Panama

MR Costa Rica
Costa Rica

MS El Salvador
El Salvador

MT Haiti
Haiti

MU Cuba
Cuba

MW Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands

MY Bahamas
Bahamas

MZ Belize
Belize

N – MOST OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC

NC Cook Islands

NF Fiji
Fiji
, Tonga

NG Kiribati ( Gilbert Islands ), Tuvalu

NI Niue

NL France ( Wallis and Futuna )

NS Samoa
Samoa
, United States (American Samoa
Samoa
)

NT France ( French Polynesia )

NV Vanuatu
Vanuatu

NW France ( New Caledonia )

NZ New Zealand
New Zealand
, Antarctica
Antarctica

O – Pakistan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and most of Middle East
Middle East
(excluding Cyprus, Israel, Turkey, and the South Caucasus )

OA Afghanistan
Afghanistan

OB Bahrain
Bahrain

OE Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia

OI Iran
Iran

OJ Jordan
Jordan
and the West Bank
West Bank

OK Kuwait
Kuwait

OL Lebanon
Lebanon

OM United Arab Emirates

OO Oman

OP Pakistan
Pakistan

OR Iraq
Iraq

OS Syria
Syria

OT Qatar
Qatar

OY Yemen
Yemen

P – EASTERN NORTH PACIFIC

PA USA ( Alaska
Alaska
) (also PF, PO and PP)

PB USA ( Baker Island )

PC Kiribati (Canton Airfield, Phoenix Islands )

PF USA (Alaska) (also PA, PO and PP)

PG USA ( Guam
Guam
, Northern Mariana Islands )

PH USA ( Hawaii
Hawaii
)

PJ USA ( Johnston Atoll )

PK Marshall Islands

PL Kiribati ( Line Islands )

PM USA (Midway Island )

PO USA (Alaska) (also PA, PF and PP)

PP USA (Alaska) (also PA, PF and PO)

PT Federated States of Micronesia , Palau
Palau

PW USA ( Wake Island
Wake Island
)

R – TAIWAN /SOUTH KOREA /PHILIPPINES AND JAPAN

RC Republic of China (Taiwan)

RJ Japan (Mainland)

RK Republic of Korea (South Korea)

RO Japan ( Okinawa )

RP Philippines

S – SOUTH AMERICA

SA Argentina
Argentina

SB Brazil
Brazil
(also SD, SI, SJ, SN, SS and SW)

SC Chile
Chile
(including Easter Island
Easter Island
) (also SH)

SD Brazil
Brazil
(also SB, SI, SJ, SN, SS and SW)

SE Ecuador
Ecuador

SF United Kingdom
United Kingdom
( Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
)

SG Paraguay
Paraguay

SH Chile
Chile
(also SC)

SI Brazil
Brazil
(also SB, SD, SJ, SN, SS and SW)

SJ Brazil
Brazil
(also SB, SD, SI, SN, SS and SW)

SK Colombia
Colombia

SL Bolivia
Bolivia

SM Suriname
Suriname

SN Brazil
Brazil
(also SB, SD, SI, SJ, SS and SW)

SO France ( French Guiana
French Guiana
)

SP Peru
Peru

SS Brazil
Brazil
(also SB, SD, SI, SJ, SN and SW)

SU Uruguay
Uruguay

SV Venezuela
Venezuela

SW Brazil
Brazil
(also SB, SD, SI, SJ, SN and SS)

SY Guyana

T – EASTERN AND SOUTHERN PARTS OF THE CARIBBEAN

TA Antigua and Barbuda

TB Barbados
Barbados

TD Dominica
Dominica

TF France ( Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
, Martinique , Saint Barthélemy , Saint Martin )

TG Grenada
Grenada

TI USA ( U.S. Virgin Islands )

TJ USA ( Puerto Rico )

TK Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis

TL Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia

TN Caribbean
Caribbean
Netherlands
Netherlands
, Aruba
Aruba
, Curaçao , Sint Maarten

TQ UK ( Anguilla
Anguilla
)

TR UK ( Montserrat )

TT Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago

TU UK ( British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
)

TV Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

TX UK ( Bermuda
Bermuda
)

U – RUSSIA AND POST-SOVIET STATES , EXCLUDING THE BALTIC STATES AND MOLDOVA

U Russia (except UA, UB, UC, UD, UG, UK, UM and UT)

UA Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan

UB Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan

UC Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan

UD Armenia
Armenia

UG Georgia

UK Ukraine
Ukraine

UM Belarus
Belarus
and Russia ( Kaliningrad Oblast )

UT Tajikistan , Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan

V – South Asia (except Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan), mainland Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau

VA India (also VE, VI and VO)

VC Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka

VD Cambodia
Cambodia

VE India (also VA, VI and VO)

VG Bangladesh
Bangladesh

VH Hong Kong
Hong Kong

VI India (also VA, VE and VO)

VL Laos
Laos

VM Macau
Macau

VN Nepal
Nepal

VO India (also VA, VE and VI)

VQ Bhutan
Bhutan

VR Maldives
Maldives

VT Thailand
Thailand

VV Vietnam
Vietnam

VY Myanmar
Myanmar

W – MARITIME SOUTHEAST ASIA (EXCEPT THE PHILIPPINES)

WA Indonesia
Indonesia
(also WI, WQ and WR)

WB Brunei
Brunei
, Malaysia
Malaysia
(East Malaysia
Malaysia
)

WI Indonesia
Indonesia
(also WA, WQ and WR)

WM Malaysia
Malaysia
(Peninsular Malaysia
Malaysia
)

WP Timor-Leste

WQ Indonesia
Indonesia
(also WA, WI and WR)

WR Indonesia
Indonesia
(also WA, WI and WQ)

WS Singapore
Singapore

Y – AUSTRALIA

Y Australia (including Norfolk Island , Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands )

Z – EAST ASIA (EXCLUDING HONG KONG, JAPAN, MACAU, SOUTH KOREA AND TAIWAN)

Z Mainland China (except ZK and ZM)

ZK North Korea
North Korea

ZM Mongolia
Mongolia

SEE ALSO

* Airspace class * Class A airport * Geocode * IATA airport code * ICAO airline designators – A list of codes * List of airports by IATA and ICAO code * International Board for Research into Air Crash Events

REFERENCES

* ^ Index of four-character airfield codes in Russia * ^ "Accueil". basulm.ffplum.info.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Related websites

* ICAO On-line

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