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International broadcasting
International broadcasting
is broadcasting that is deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience. It usually is broadcast by means of longwave, mediumwave, or (more usually) shortwave radio, but in recent years has also used direct satellite broadcasting and the internet as means of reaching audiences. Although radio and television programs do travel outside national borders, in many cases reception by foreigners is accidental. However, for purposes of propaganda, transmitting religious beliefs, keeping in touch with colonies or expatriates, education, improving trade, increasing national prestige, or promoting tourism and goodwill, broadcasting services have operated external services since the 1920s.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 Expansion 1.3 World War II 1.4 Cold War
Cold War
Era 1.5 Today

2 Reasons for international broadcasting

2.1 Notable networks

3 Means to reach an audience

3.1 Mediumwave
Mediumwave
and longwave broadcasts 3.2 Shortwave
Shortwave
broadcast 3.3 Digital Audio Broadcasting 3.4 Television

3.4.1 Streaming video sites

3.5 RSS feeds and email

4 Listeners 5 Restricting reception 6 See also 7 References

7.1 Sources

8 External links

History[edit] International broadcasting, in a limited extent, began during World War I, when German and British stations broadcast press communiqués using Morse code. With the severing of Germany's undersea cables, the wireless telegraph station in Nauen
Nauen
was the country's sole means of long-distance communication. The US Navy Radio
Radio
Service radio station in New Brunswick, Canada, transmitted the 'Fourteen Points' by wireless to Nauen
Nauen
in 1917.[1] In turn, Nauen
Nauen
station broadcast the news of the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II on November 10, 1918.[2] Origins[edit]

Guglielmo Marconi
Guglielmo Marconi
carried out the first short wave transmissions over a long distance.

Guglielmo Marconi
Guglielmo Marconi
pioneered the use of short wave radio for long distance transmissions in the early 1920s. Using a system of parabolic reflector antennae, Marconi's assistant, Charles Samuel Franklin, rigged up a large antenna at Poldhu
Poldhu
Wireless Station, Cornwall, running on 25 kW of power. In June and July 1923, wireless transmissions were completed during nights on 97 meters from Poldhu
Poldhu
to Marconi's yacht Elettra in the Cape Verde
Cape Verde
Islands.[3] High speed shortwave telegraphy circuits were then installed from London to Australia, India, South Africa
South Africa
and Canada
Canada
as the main element of the Imperial Wireless Chain
Imperial Wireless Chain
from 1926.[3] The Dutch began conducting experiments in the shortwave frequencies in 1925 from Eindhoven. The radio station PCJJ began the first international broadcasting on March 11, 1927 with programmes in Dutch for colonies in the Dutch West Indies
Dutch West Indies
and Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
and in German, Spanish and English for the rest of the world. The popular Happy Station show was inaugurated in 1928.[4] In 1927, Marconi also turned his attention toward long distance broadcasting on shortwave. His first such broadcasts took place to commemorate Armistice Day
Armistice Day
in the same year. He continued running a regular international broadcast that was picked up around the world, with programming from the 2LO
2LO
station, then run by the BBC. The success of this operation caught the BBC's attention, and rented out a shortwave transmitting station in Chelmsford, with the callsign G5SW, to Marconi.[5] The BBC
BBC
Empire Service was finally inaugurated on December 19, 1932, with transmissions aimed towards Australia
Australia
and New Zealand.[6] Expansion[edit] Other notable early international broadcasters included Vatican Radio (February 12, 1931), Radio
Radio
Moscow, the official service of the Soviet Union (this has since been renamed the Voice of Russia, following the collapse of the Soviet Union). Clarence W. Jones started transmitting on Christmas Day, 1931 from Christian missionary radio station HCJB
HCJB
in Quito, Ecuador. Broadcasting
Broadcasting
in South Asia was launched in 1925 in Ceylon
Ceylon
- Radio
Radio
Ceylon, now the Sri Lanka Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation is the oldest in the region.

Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
headed Nazi Germany's Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. International broadcasting
International broadcasting
was an important element in Nazi propaganda.

Shortwave
Shortwave
broadcasting from Nauen
Nauen
in Germany to the USA, Central and South America, and the Far East began in 1926. A second station, Zeesen, was added in 1931.[7] In January 1932, the German Reichspost assumed control of the Nauen
Nauen
station and added to its shortwave and longwave capacity.[8] Once Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
assumed power in 1933, shortwave, under the Auslandsrundfunk (Foreign Radio
Radio
Section), was regarded as a vital element of Nazi propaganda. German shortwave hours were increased from two hours a day to 18 per day, and eventually twelve languages were broadcast on a 24-hour basis, including English. A 100 kilowatt transmitter and antenna complex was built at Zeesen, near Berlin. Specialty target programming to the United States
United States
began in 1933, to South Africa, South America, and East Asia in 1934, and South Asia and Central America in 1938. German propaganda was organized under Joseph Goebbels, and played a key role in the German annexation of Austria
German annexation of Austria
and the Munich Crisis
Munich Crisis
of 1938. In 1936, the International Radio
Radio
Union recognized Vatican Radio
Vatican Radio
as a "special case" and authorized its broadcasting without any geographical limits. On December 25, 1937, a Telefunken
Telefunken
25-kW transmitter and two directional antennas were added. Vatican Radio broadcast over 10 frequencies.[9] During the Spanish Civil War, the Nationalist forces received a powerful Telefunken
Telefunken
transmitter as a gift of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
to aid their propaganda efforts, and until 1943 Radio
Radio
Nacional de España collaborated with the Axis powers to retransmit in Spanish news from the official radio stations of Germany and Italy. World War II[edit] During the Second World War, Russian, German, British, and Italian international broadcasting services expanded. In 1942, the United States initiated its international broadcasting service, the Voice of America. In the Pacific theater, General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
used shortwave radio to keep in touch with the citizens of the Japanese-occupied Philippine Islands. Several announcers who became well known in their countries included British Union of Fascists
British Union of Fascists
member William Joyce, who was one of the two "Lord Haw-Haw"s; Frenchmen Paul Ferdonnet and André Olbrecht, called "the traitors of [Radio] Stuttgart"; and Americans Frederick William Kaltenbach, "Lord Hee-Haw", and Mildred Gillars, one of the two announcers called "Axis Sally". Listeners to German programs often tuned in for curiosity's sake—at one time, German radio had half a million listeners in the U.S.--but most of them soon lost interest. Japan
Japan
had "Tokyo Rose", who broadcast Japanese propaganda in English, along with American music to help ensure listeners. During World War II, Vatican Radio's news broadcasts were banned in Germany. During the war, the radio service operated in four languages.[9] The British launched Radio SEAC from Colombo, Ceylon
Ceylon
(Sri Lanka) during World War II. The station broadcast radio programs to the allied armed forces across the region from their headquarters in Ceylon. Following the war and German partition, each Germany developed its own international broadcasting station: Deutsche Welle, using studios in Cologne, West Germany, and Radio Berlin International
Radio Berlin International
(RBI) in East Germany. RBI's broadcasts ceased shortly before the reunification of Germany on October 3, 1990, and Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
took over its transmitters and frequencies. Cold War
Cold War
Era[edit] The Cold War
Cold War
led to increased international broadcasting (and jamming), as Communist and non-Communist states attempted to influence each other's domestic population. Some of the most prominent Western broadcasters were the Voice of America, the BBC
BBC
World Service, and the (covertly) CIA-backed Radio
Radio
Free Europe/ Radio
Radio
Liberty. The Soviet Union's most prominent service was Radio Moscow
Radio Moscow
(now the Voice of Russia) and China
China
used Radio Peking
Radio Peking
(then Radio
Radio
Beijing, now China Radio
Radio
International). In addition to the U.S.-Soviet cold war, the Chinese-Russian border dispute led to an increase of the numbers of transmitters aimed at the two nations, and the development of new techniques such as playing tapes backwards for reel-to-reel recorders. West Germany
West Germany
resumed regular shortwave broadcasts using Deutsche Welle on May 3, 1953. Its Julich transmitter site began operation in 1956, with eleven 100-kW Telefunken
Telefunken
transmitters. The Wertachtal site was authorized in 1972 and began with four 500-kW transmitters. By 1989, there were 15 transmitters, four of which relayed the Voice of America.[10] Meanwhile, in East Germany, the Nauen
Nauen
site began transmitting Radio
Radio
DDR, later Radio
Radio
Berlin International, on October 15, 1959.[11] In addition to these states, international broadcast services grew in Europe and the Middle East. Under the presidency of Gamal Nasser, Egyptian transmitters covered the Arab world; Israel's service, Kol Yisrael, served both to present the Israeli point of view to the world and to serve the Jewish diaspora, particularly behind the Iron Curtain. Radio
Radio
RSA, as part of the South African Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation, was established in 1966 to promote the image of South Africa internationally and reduce criticism of apartheid.[12] It continued in 1992, when the post-apartheid government renamed it Channel Africa. Ironically, the isolationist Albania
Albania
under Enver Hoxha, virtually a hermit kingdom, became one of the most prolific international broadcasters during the latter decades of the Cold War, with Radio Tirana one of the top five broadcasters in terms of hours of programming produced. Estimated total programme hours per week of some external broadcasters[13]

Country Alignment Broadcaster(s) 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990

 Albania NAM Radio
Radio
Tirana 26 47 63 154 487 490 560 581 451

 Australia West Radio
Radio
Australia 181 226 257 299 350 379 333 352 330

 Bulgaria East Radio
Radio
Sofia 30 60 117 154 164 197 236 290 320

 Canada West Radio
Radio
Canada
Canada
International (RCI) 85 83 80 81 98 159 134 169 195

 China - Radio
Radio
Beijing 66 159 687 1027 1267 1423 1350 1446 1515

 Cuba NAM Radio
Radio
Havana Cuba
Cuba
(RHC) - - - 325 320 311 424 379 352

 Czechoslovakia East Radio
Radio
Prague 119 147 196 189 202 253 255 268 131

 Egypt NAM Radio
Radio
Cairo - 100 301 505 540 635 546 560 605

 France West Radio
Radio
France
France
Internationale (RFI) 198 191 326 183 200 108 125 272 379

 West Germany West Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
(DW), Deutschlandfunk
Deutschlandfunk
(DLF) - 105 315 671 779 767 804 795 848

 East Germany East Radio Berlin International
Radio Berlin International
(RBI) - 9 185 308 274 342 375 413 -

 Hungary East Radio
Radio
Budapest 76 99 120 121 105 127 127 122 102

 India NAM All India
India
Radio
Radio
(AIR) 116 117 157 175 271 326 389 408 456

 Iran NAM Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran 12 10 24 118 155 154 175 310 400

 Israel - Kol Yisrael - 28 91 92 158 198 210 223 253

 Italy West Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) 170 185 205 160 165 170 169 173 181

 Japan - Radio
Radio
Japan - 91 203 249 259 259 259 287 343

 North Korea NAM Radio
Radio
Pyongyang - 53 159 392 330 455 597 535 534

 Netherlands West Radio
Radio
Nederland Wereldomroep (RNW) 127 120 178 235 335 400 289 336 323

 Nigeria NAM Voice of Nigeria - - - 63 62 61 170 322 120

 Poland East Radio
Radio
Polonia 131 359 232 280 334 340 337 320 292

 Portugal West RDP Internacional 46 102 133 273 295 190 214 140 203

 Romania East Radio
Radio
Bukarest 30 109 159 163 185 190 198 212 199

 South Africa - Radio
Radio
RSA - 127 63 84 150 141 183 205 156

 Soviet Union East Radio
Radio
Moscow, Peace & Progress, Republics 533 656 1015 1417 1908 2001 2094 2211 1876

 Spain West Radio Exterior
Radio Exterior
de España (REE) 68 98 202 276 251 312 239 252 403

 Sweden - Radio
Radio
Sweden 28 128 114 142 140 154 155 196 167

 Turkey West Voice of Turkey 40 100 77 91 88 172 199 307 322

 United Kingdom West BBC 643 558 589 667 723 719 719 729 796

 United States West VoA, RFE/RL 497 1690 1495 1832 1907 2029 1901 2339 2611

 Yugoslavia NAM Radio
Radio
Yugoslavia 80 46 70 78 76 82 72 86 96

Today[edit] At the end of the Cold War, many international broadcasters cut back on hours and foreign languages broadcast, or reemphasized other language services. For example, in 1984, Radio
Radio
Canada
Canada
International broadcast in English, French, German, Spanish, Czech/Slovak, Hungarian, Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian. In 2005, RCI broadcast in English, Chinese, Arabic, Russian, and Spanish. There is a bigger trend towards TV (e.g. BBC
BBC
World News, NHK World, CCTV-9) and news websites. Some services, such as Swiss Radio
Radio
International, left shortwave altogether and exist in Internet
Internet
form. In addition, new standards, such as Digital Radio
Radio
Mondiale, are being introduced, as well as sending programs over the Web to be played back later, as "podcasts". International broadcasting
International broadcasting
using the traditional audio-only method will not cease any time soon due to its cost efficiencies. However, international broadcasting via television is considered more strategically important at least since the early 2000s. The BBC
BBC
World Service was the first broadcaster to consider setting up a satellite television news and information channel as far back as 1976, but ceded being the first to CNN
CNN
(that had primary access to Canada
Canada
soon after launch). The defunct BBC
BBC
World Service Antigua
Antigua
Relay Station was built in 1976, but its setup costs were not known to have been part of the BBCWS decision processes at the time. In the early 1990s, many international (as well as domestic) 24-hour news and information channels launched as part of the post-Cold War prosperity bubble. There was another burst of global news channels launching in the late 2000s as part the developing world trying to catch up with the developed world in this area. Reasons for international broadcasting[edit] Broadcasters in one country have several reasons to reach out to an audience in other countries. The examples given below are not meant to be exhaustive, but are illustrative. One clear reason is for ideological, or propaganda reasons. Many government-owned stations portray their nation in a positive, non-threatening way. This could be to encourage business investment and/or tourism to the nation. Another reason is to combat a negative image produced by other nations or internal dissidents, or insurgents. Radio
Radio
RSA, the broadcasting arm of the apartheid South African government, is an example of this. A third reason is to promote the ideology of the broadcaster. For example, a program on Radio
Radio
Moscow from the 1960s to the 1980s was What is Communism? A second reason is to advance a nation's foreign policy interests and agenda by disseminating its views on international affairs or on the events in particular parts of the world. During the Cold War
Cold War
the American Radio Free Europe
Radio Free Europe
and Radio Liberty
Radio Liberty
and Indian Radio
Radio
AIR were founded to broadcast news from "behind the Iron Curtain" that was otherwise being censored and promote dissent and occasionally, to disseminate disinformation. Currently the US operates similar services aimed at Cuba
Cuba
and the People's Republic of China. The BBC
BBC
World Service, the Voice of America, All India
India
Radio
Radio
and other western broadcasters have emphasized news broadcasts, particularly to countries that are experiencing repression or civil unrest and whose populations are unable to obtain news from non-government sources. In the case of emergencies, a nation may broadcast special programs overseas to inform listeners what is occurring. During Iraqi missile strikes on Israel
Israel
during the 1991 Gulf War, Kol Israel
Israel
relayed its domestic service on its shortwave service. Besides ideological reasons, many stations are run by religious broadcasters and are used to provide religious education, religious music, or worship service programs. For example, Vatican Radio, established in 1931, broadcasts such programs. Another station, such as HCJB
HCJB
or Trans World Radio
Trans World Radio
will carry brokered programming from evangelists. In the case of the Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Services of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, both governmental and religious programming is provided. Stations also broadcast to international audiences for cultural reasons. Often a station has an official mandate to keep expatriates in touch with the home country. Many broadcasters often relay their national domestic service on shortwave for that reason. Other reasons include teaching a foreign language, such as Radio Exterior
Radio Exterior
de España's Spanish class, Un idioma sin fronteras, or the Voice of America's broadcasts in Special
Special
English. In the case of major broadcasters such as the BBC
BBC
World Service or Radio
Radio
Australia, there is also an educational outreach. An additional reason for international broadcasting is to maintain contact with a country's citizens travelling abroad or expatriates who have emigrated and share news from home as well as cultural programming. This role of external shortwave broadcasting has declined as advances in communications have allowed expatriates to read news from home and listen and watch to domestic broadcasts in their own language via the internet and satellite. A number of international services such as the original BBC
BBC
Empire Service, Radio
Radio
Netherlands, France's Poste Colonial (now Radio
Radio
France
France
International) and others were founded in part with the goal of helping draw overseas empires closer to the mother country and provide closer cultural and communication connections between the home country and its colonies, a role that became largely obsolete due to decolonization. Notable networks[edit] Main article: International news channels

CNN
CNN
International (English) BBC
BBC
World News (Arabic, English, Persian) BBC
BBC
World Service (Arabic, Azeri, Bengali, Burmese, Cantonese, English, French for Africa, Hausa, Hindi, Indonesian, Kinyarwanda, Kirundi, Kyrgyz, Nepali, Pashto, Perian, Portuguese for Brazil, Russian, Sinhala, Somali, Spanish for Latin America, Swahili, Tamil, Turkish, Ukrainian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese) DD News
DD News
(Hindi, English, Sanskrit, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malawi, Urdu, Bangla, Marathi, Malayalam, Thai, Baloch, Arabic, Fiji Hindi, Bhojpuri, Assami, Nagapure) Asian News International (Hindi, English, Tamil, Telghu, Bangla) Sky News
Sky News
(English, Arabic) France24
France24
(French, English, Arabic, Spanish) TV Globo (Portuguese, English) Rede Record
Rede Record
(Portuguese, English, Spanish) Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
(English, Arabic) teleSUR (Spanish, Portuguese, English) Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
(German, English, Arabic, Hindi, Spanish, and 27 other languages) TRT (Turkish, English, Arabic and 39 other languages) PTI (Hindi and 98 other languages) Press TV
Press TV
(English, French[14]) TV5MONDE
TV5MONDE
(French) Zee News
Zee News
(Hindi) RT (Russian, English, French, Arabic, Spanish) ZL (Hindi, Thai, English, Tamil, Telghu, and 126 other local languages) Voice of Indonesia (English, Spanish, German, French, Indonesian, Japanese, Arabic, Chinese, Hindi) Australia
Australia
Network (English) i24news (English, French, Arabic) SUN TV (Tamil) NHK World
NHK World
(English, Japanese) CGTN
CGTN
(English, Spanish, French, Russian, Arabic) Arirang TV
Arirang TV
(English, Korean) World is One News (English) SMNI (English, Filipino) RAE (Spanish, German, French, English, Italian, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese, and formerly Arabic) Republic (English, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Bangla, Russian, French, Italian, Spanish, Nepali, Panama, Arabic, Hebrew) UNI (Hindi, English)

Means to reach an audience[edit] Because of this many broadcasters are discovering they can reach a wider audience through other methods (particularly the internet and satellite television) and are cutting back on (or even entirely dropping) shortwave. An international broadcaster has several options for reaching a foreign audience:

If the foreign audience is near the broadcaster, high-power longwave and mediumwave stations can provide reliable coverage. If the foreign audience is more than 1,000 kilometers away from the broadcaster, shortwave radio is reliable, but subject to interruption by adverse solar/geomagnetic conditions. An international broadcaster may use a local mediumwave or FM radio or television relay station in the target country or countries. An international broadcaster may use a local shortwave broadcaster as a relay station. Neighboring states, such as Israel
Israel
and Jordan, may broadcast television programs to each other's viewing public.

An international broadcaster such as the BBC, Radio
Radio
France International or Germany's Deutsche Welle, may use all the above methods. Several international broadcasters, such as Swiss Radio International, have abandoned shortwave broadcasting altogether, relying on Internet
Internet
transmissions only. Others, such as the BBC
BBC
World Service, have abandoned shortwave transmissions to North America, relying on local relays, the Internet, and satellite transmissions Mediumwave
Mediumwave
and longwave broadcasts[edit] Most radio receivers in the world receive the mediumwave band (530 kHz to 1710 kHz), which at night is capable of reliable reception from 150 to 2,500 km distance from a transmitter. Mediumwave
Mediumwave
is used heavily all over the world for international broadcasting on a formal and informal basis. In addition, many receivers used in Europe and Russia can receive the longwave broadcast band (150 to 280 kHz), which provides reliable long-distance communications over continental distances. Shortwave
Shortwave
broadcast[edit] Shortwave
Shortwave
receivers are capable of receiving shortwave transmissions (2,000 to 30,000 kHz or 2 to 30 MHz). Depending on time of day, season of year, solar weather and Earth's geomagnetic field, a signal might reach around the world.

This sort of map is used by radio engineers to determine the best frequencies to reach international audiences on shortwave bands. In this case, a transmitter is sited in the Southern Vancouver Island, using a frequency of 12095 kHz and transmitting at the 500 kW power level. The picture shows a good signal over the Southern Pacific. The signal fades out as it approaches the East Coast of Australia.

In previous decades shortwave (and sometimes high-powered mediumwave) transmission was regarded as the main (and often the only) way in which broadcasters could reach an international audience. In recent years the proliferation of technologies such as satellite broadcasting, the Internet, and rebroadcasts of programming on AM and FM within target nations has meant that this is no longer necessarily the case. Transmitter output power has increased since 1920. Higher transmitter powers do guarantee better reception in the target area. Higher transmitter power in most cases counteracts the lesser effects of jamming.

1950s : 100 kW 1960s : 200 kW, early 1960s (2 x 100 kW 'twinned') 1970s : 300 kW, but many 250 kW transmitters sold 1980s : 500 kW sometimes transmitters were "doubled up" to produce 1000 kW output 1980s-present: 600 kW single, 1200 kW from twinned transmitters.

International stations generally use special directional antennas to aim the signal toward the intended audience and increase the effective power in that direction. Use of such antennas for international broadcasting began in the mid-1930s and became prominent by the 1950s. By using antennas which focus most of their energy in one direction, a modern station may achieve the equivalent, in that direction, of tens of millions of watts of radio power. Digital Audio Broadcasting[edit] Some international broadcasters have become available via Digital Audio Broadcasting
Broadcasting
(DAB) in Europe in the 1990s, and in a similar limited way in the Americas via in-band FM (IBOC) DAB systems in the US in the 2000s. This is a popular method to reach listeners in cars that would otherwise not be accessible during that part of the day. However, in terms of the global international broadcasting audience the DAB listener base is very small—one can assume that it is less than 2% of the listener base globally. Television[edit] International broadcasting
International broadcasting
via 24 hour TV news channels has its origins in North America in the early 1980s. CNN
CNN
technically was the first 24-hour international news channel as it was made available in Canada
Canada
soon after launch. The BBC
BBC
World Service considered setting up a global TV news channel as far back as 1975, but abandoned the idea for internal reasons. Notwithstanding a large number of international 24-hour television news and information broadcasters, the television percentage of viewers is still fairly small when compared to global radio listener numbers. The rural populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (as well as East Asia) have radio listener bases that are far larger than the largest international TV broadcaster could hope for, yet they could be considered underserved since the end of the Cold War
Cold War
(when these regions had more radio broadcasts targeted at them). Streaming video sites[edit] Many international television broadcasters (as well as domestic television broadcasters) have set up accounts on streaming video sites like YouTube
YouTube
to allow their news and information broadcasts to be globally distributed. The viewer numbers for these sites may seem huge. Cable, TVRO and terrestrial television broadcasters probably have 100 to 1,000 times larger audiences for their international broadcasting content. International broadcasters known to maintain their own streaming video sites (not authoritative):

Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
English BBC
BBC
World News CNN
CNN
International DD News DW France
France
24 i24NEWS RT (formerly known as “Russia Today”) Sky News WION (World is One News)

RSS feeds and email[edit] Many international broadcasters (television or radio) can reach "unreachable" audiences via email and RSS feeds. This is not at all unusual, as the first commonly agreed international broadcast was a Morse Code telegram transmitted from US President Wilson to the German Kaiser (mid-1918) via a high powered longwave transmitter on the US East Coast (this important event in international broadcasting history was described in depth in the IEEE "The History of International Broadcasting" first volume). As Morse Code is considered to be a data format, with email and RSS merely being refinements of the technology it can be said that international broadcasting has a deep relationship with modern-day datacasting. The reach of RSS and email for international broadcasters is not really known that well, especially considering that emails get forwarded. The numbers for active RSS and email audiences are probably 5 to 20 times larger than for streaming video. It may take into the 2010s to get meaningful numbers with respect to the size of these audiences for assorted technical reasons related to the RSS and email technologies. Email and RSS feeds can traverse telecommunications barriers that streaming video cannot, thus the larger expected audience numbers. The global economic downturn of 2008-2009 will probably increase the email and RSS audience sizes as fewer people will be able to afford high speed internet connections in North America, Western Europe and the Asia-Pacific regions. Listeners[edit] An international broadcaster may have the technical means of reaching a foreign audience, but unless the foreign audience has a reason to listen, the effectiveness of the broadcaster is in question. One of the most common foreign audiences consists of expatriates, who cannot listen to radio or watch television programs from home. Another common audience is radio hobbyists, who attempt to listen to as many countries as possible and obtain verification cards or letters (QSLs). These audiences send letters and in response few radio stations write them back. These kind of Listeners often take part in weekly and monthly quizzes and contests started by many radio stations. A third audience consists of journalists, government officials, and key businesspersons, who exert a disproportionate influence on a state's foreign or economic policy. A fourth, but less publicized audience, consists of intelligence officers and agents who monitor broadcasts for both open-source intelligence clues to the broadcasting state's policies and for hidden messages to foreign agents operating in the receiving country. The BBC started its monitoring service in Caversham, Reading in 1936 (now BBC Monitoring). In the United States, the DNI Open Source Center (formerly the Central Intelligence Agency's Foreign Broadcast Information Service) provides the same service. Copies of OSC/FBIS reports can be found in many U.S. libraries that serve as government depositories. In addition, a number of hobbyists listen and report "spook" transmissions. Without these four audiences, international broadcasters face difficulty in getting funding. In 2001, for example, the BBC
BBC
World Service stopped transmitting shortwave broadcasts to North America, and other international broadcasters, such as YLE Radio
Radio
Finland, stopped certain foreign-language programs. However, international broadcasting has been successful when a country does not provide programming wanted by a wide segment of the population. In the 1960s, when there was no BBC
BBC
service playing rock and roll, Radio
Radio
Television Luxembourg (RTL) broadcast rock and roll, including bands such as the Beatles, into the United Kingdom. Similar programming came from an unlicensed, or "pirate" station, Radio Caroline, which broadcast from a ship in the international waters of the North Sea. Restricting reception[edit] In many cases, governments do not want their citizens listening to international broadcasters. In Nazi Germany, a major propaganda campaign, backed by law and prison sentences, attempted to discourage Germans from listening to such stations. The practice was made illegal in 1939.[15] In addition, the German government sold a cheap, 76- Reichsmark
Reichsmark
"People's Receiver", as well as an even cheaper 35- Reichsmark
Reichsmark
receiver,[15] that could not pick up distant signals well.[16] The idea was copied by Stalin's Soviet Union, which had a nearly identical copy manufactured in the Tesla factory in Czechoslovakia.[16] In North Korea, all receivers are sold with fixed frequencies, tuned to local stations. The most common method of preventing reception is jamming, or broadcasting a signal on the same frequencies as the international broadcaster. Germany jammed the BBC
BBC
European service during the Second World War. Russian and Eastern European jammers were aimed against Radio
Radio
Free Europe, other Western broadcasters, and against Chinese broadcasters during the nadir of Sino-Soviet relations. In 2002, the Cuban government jammed the Voice of America's Radio Martí
Radio Martí
program and the Chinese government jammed Radio
Radio
Free Asia, Voice of America, Radio Taiwan International
Radio Taiwan International
as well broadcasts made by adherents of Falun Gong. North Korea
North Korea
restricts most people to a single fixed frequency mediumwave receiver; those who met political requirements and whose work absolutely required familiarity with events abroad were allowed shortwave receivers.[17] Another method of reaching people with government radio programming, but not foreign programming, is the use of radio broadcasting by direct broadcasting to loudspeakers.[18] David Jackson, director of the Voice of America, noted "The North Korean government doesn't jam us, but they try to keep people from listening through intimidation or worse. But people figure out ways to listen despite the odds. They're very resourceful."[19] Yet another method of preventing reception involves moving a domestic station to the frequency used by the international broadcaster. During the Batista government of Cuba, and during the Castro years, Cuban medium-wave stations broadcast on the frequencies of popular South Florida stations. In October 2002, Iraq changed frequencies of two stations to block the Voice of America's Radio Sawa program. Jamming can be defeated by using very efficient transmitting antennas, carefully choosing the transmitted frequency, changing transmitted frequency often, using single sideband, and properly aiming the receiving antenna. For a list of international broadcasters, see List of international broadcasters. See also[edit]

List of shortwave radio broadcasters Shortwave Shortwave
Shortwave
bands FTA receiver Medium wave
Medium wave
– MW broadcasts generally don't travel as far as shortwave broadcasts, but MW is still used for international broadcasting, particularly to neighboring countries Radio
Radio
y Televisión Martí Euronews

References[edit]

^ Wood 2000: 56 ^ U.S. Government Printing Office. International Law Documents: Neutrality, Conduct and Conclusion of Hostilities. 1919, p. 55 ^ a b John Bray (2002). Innovation and the Communications Revolution: From the Victorian Pioneers to Broadband Internet. IET. pp. 73–75.  ^ History of Radio
Radio
Netherlands
Netherlands
Archived 2009-02-28 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Daventry Calling - 2: Station G5SW Chelmsford".  ^ BBC
BBC
World Service. World Service timeline. ^ Wood 2000: 49 ^ Wood 2000:57 ^ a b Levillain 2002: 1600 ^ Wood 2000: 51 ^ Wood 2000: 58 ^ Horwitz 2001: 287 ^ BBC
BBC
Handbook ^ "presstv.com". Retrieved 19 March 2018.  ^ a b Hughes and Mann 2002: 93 ^ a b Graef 2005: 36 ^ Martin 2006: 495 ^ Goetz, Philip W. The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 1991 edition, ISBN 0-85229-400-X, p 315 ^ Jackson, David. "The Future of Radio
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II". World Radio
Radio
TV Handbook, 2007 edition. 2007, Billboard Books. ISBN 0-8230-5997-9. p 38.

Sources[edit] Graef 2005 Graef, Robert. Bicycling to Amersfoort: A World War II Memoir. 2005, iUniverse. ISBN 0-595-34621-9 Horwitz 2001 Horwitz, Robert Britt. Communication and Democratic Reform in South Africa. 2001, Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-79166-9. Hughes and Mann 2002 Hughes, Matthew, and Chris Mann. Inside Hitler's Germany: Life Under the Third Reich. 2002, Brassey's. ISBN 1-57488-503-0 Levillain 2002 Levillain, Philippe. The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. Translated by John O'Malley. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-92228-3 Martin 2006 Martin, Bradley K. Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty. 2006, Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-32221-6 Wood 2000 Wood, James. History of International Broadcasting. 2000, IET. ISBN 0-85296-920-1 External links[edit]

Hard-Core-DX – serious information about shortwave/AM radio stations American Radio
Radio
Relay League (ARRL), Newington, Connecticut. englishradio.co.uk Cataloguing and reviewing every English-language radio station Easy-to-construct "interference-reducing" antennas for shortwave portables: U.S. International Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Bureau and K3MT (the "Villard antenna") World Radio
Radio
TV Handbook The bible of international broadcasting RCI Action Committee Union group created to protect Radio
Radio
Canada International's international broadcasting mandate and funding. AIB Association for International Broadcasting
Broadcasting
The non-governmental, not-for-profit industry association for international TV and radio

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