INTERLINGUA (/ɪntərˈlɪŋɡwə/ ;
ISO 639language codes _ia_,
_ina_) is an Italic international auxiliary language (IAL), developed
between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language
Association (IALA). It ranks among the top most widely used IALs
Esperantoand Ido ), and is the most widely used
naturalistic IAL: in other words, its vocabulary, grammar and other
characteristics are derived from natural languages rather than a
centrally planned grammar and vocabulary.
Interlinguawas developed to
combine a simple, mostly regular grammar with a vocabulary common to
the widest possible range of western European languages, making it
unusually easy to learn, at least for those whose native languages
were sources of Interlingua's vocabulary and grammar. Conversely, it
is used as a rapid introduction to many natural languages.
Interlingualiterature maintains that (written)
comprehensible to the hundreds of millions of people who speak Romance
languages , though it is actively spoken by only a few hundred.
Interlinguacomes from the
Latinwords _inter_, meaning
between, and _lingua_, meaning tongue or language. These morphemes are
identical in Interlingua. Thus, "Interlingua" would mean "between
* 1 Rationale
* 2 History
International Auxiliary Language Association
* 2.2 Development of a new language
* 2.3 Success, decline, and resurgence
* 2.4 In the
* 3 Community
* 4 Orthography
* 4.2 Collateral orthography
* 4.3 Spelling of loanwords
* 5 Phonology
* 5.1 Pronunciation
* 5.2 Stress
* 5.4 Loanwords
* 6.1 Eligibility
* 6.2 Form
* 6.3 An illustration
* 6.4 Notes on
* 7 Grammar
* 8 Criticisms and controversies
* 9 Samples
* 10 Flags and symbols
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 Sources
* 14 External links
The expansive movements of science, technology, trade, diplomacy, and
the arts, combined with the historical dominance of the Greek and
Latinlanguages have resulted in a large common vocabulary among
European languages. With Interlingua, an objective procedure is used
to extract and standardize the most widespread word or words for a
concept found in a set of _control languages_: English , French ,
Italian , Spanish and Portuguese , with German and Russian as
secondary references. Words from any language are eligible for
inclusion, so long as their internationality is shown by their
presence in these control languages. Hence,
diverse word forms as Japanese _geisha_ and _samurai_, Arabic
_califa_, Guugu Yimithirr _gangurru_ (Interlingua: kanguru), and
Interlinguacombines this pre-existing vocabulary with a minimal
grammar based on the control languages. People with a good knowledge
of a Romance language, or a smattering of a
Romance languageplus a
good knowledge of the _international scientific vocabulary _ can
frequently understand it immediately on reading or hearing it. The
immediate comprehension of Interlingua, in turn, makes it unusually
easy to learn. Speakers of other languages can also learn to speak and
Interlinguain a short time, thanks to its simple grammar and
regular word formation using a small number of roots and affixes .
Interlinguacan be used to learn other related
languages quickly and easily, and in some studies, even to understand
them immediately. Research with Swedish students has shown that, after
learning Interlingua, they can translate elementary texts from
Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish. In one 1974 study, an Interlingua
class translated a Spanish text that students who had taken 150 hours
of Spanish found too difficult to understand. Gopsill has suggested
that Interlingua's freedom from irregularities allowed the students to
grasp the mechanisms of language quickly.
Interlinguaretain their original form from the source
language; they are altered as little as possible to fit Interlingua's
phonotactics . Each word retains its original spelling, pronunciation,
and meanings. For this reason,
Interlinguais frequently termed a
When compared to natural languages,
History of Interlingua
The American heiress
Alice Vanderbilt Morris
Alice Vanderbilt Morris(1874–1950) became
interested in linguistics and the international auxiliary language
movement in the early 1920s, and in 1924, Morris and her husband, Dave
Hennen Morris , established the non-profit International Auxiliary
LanguageAssociation (IALA) in
New York City
New York City. Their aim was to place
the study of IALs on a scientific basis. Morris developed the research
program of IALA in consultation with
Edward Sapir, William Edward
Collinson , and
INTERNATIONAL AUXILIARY LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION
The IALA became a major supporter of mainstream American linguistics,
funding, for example, numerous studies by Sapir, Collinson, and Morris
Swadesh in the 1930s and 1940s. Alice Morris edited several of these
studies and provided much of IALA's financial support. IALA also
received support from such prestigious groups as the Carnegie
Corporation , the
Ford Foundation, the
Research Corporation, and the
In its early years, IALA concerned itself with three tasks: finding
other organizations around the world with similar goals; building a
library of books about languages and interlinguistics ; and comparing
extant IALs, including
EsperantoII , Ido , Peano’s
Interlingua(Latino sine flexione),
Novial, and Interlingue
(Occidental). In pursuit of the last goal, it conducted parallel
studies of these languages, with comparative studies of national
languages, under the direction of scholars at American and European
universities. It also arranged conferences with proponents of these
IALs, who debated features and goals of their respective languages.
With a "concession rule" that required participants to make a certain
number of concessions, early debates at IALA sometimes grew from
heated to explosive.
At the Second International
InterlanguageCongress, held in
1931, IALA began to break new ground; 27 recognized linguists signed a
testimonial of support for IALA's research program. An additional
eight added their signatures at the third congress, convened in Rome
in 1933. That same year, Professor
Herbert N. Shentonand Dr. Edward
L. Thorndike became influential in IALA's work by authoring key
studies in the interlinguistic field.
The first steps towards the finalization of
Interlinguawere taken in
1937, when a committee of 24 eminent linguists from 19 universities
published _Some Criteria for an International
Commentary_. However, the outbreak of
World War II
World War IIin 1939 cut short
the intended biannual meetings of the committee.
DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW LANGUAGE
Originally, the association had not set out to create its own
language. Its goal was to identify which auxiliary language already
available was best suited for international communication, and how to
promote it most effectively. However, after ten years of research,
more and more members of IALA concluded that none of the existing
interlanguages were up to the task. By 1937, the members had made the
decision to create a new language, to the surprise of the world's
To that point, much of the debate had been equivocal on the decision
to use naturalistic (e.g., Peano’s
Occidental ) or systematic (e.g.,
Esperantoand Ido ) words. During
the war years, proponents of a naturalistic interlanguage won out. The
first support was Dr. Thorndike's paper; the second was a concession
by proponents of the systematic languages that thousands of words were
already present in many – or even a majority – of the European
languages. Their argument was that systematic derivation of words was
a Procrustean bed , forcing the learner to unlearn and re-memorize a
new derivation scheme when a usable vocabulary was already available.
This finally convinced supporters of the systematic languages, and
IALA from that point assumed the position that a naturalistic language
would be best.
At the outbreak of
World War II
World War II, IALA's research activities were
moved from Liverpool to New York, where E. Clark Stillman established
a new research staff. Stillman, with the assistance of Dr. Alexander
Gode , developed a _prototyping_ technique – an objective
methodology for selecting and standardizing vocabulary based on a
comparison of _control languages_.
In 1943 Stillman left for war work and Gode became Acting Director of
Research. IALA began to develop models of the proposed language, the
first of which were presented in Morris's _General Report_ in 1945.
From 1946 to 1948, renowned French linguist
Director of Research. During this period IALA continued to develop
models and conducted polling to determine the optimal form of the
final language. In 1946, IALA sent an extensive survey to more than
3,000 language teachers and related professionals on three continents.
Four models were canvassed:
highly naturalistic, with word forms unchanged from the prototypes
moderately naturalistic, similar to Occidental
slightly schematic, along the lines of Novial
moderately schematic, similar to Ido (less schematic than
The results of the survey were striking. The two more schematic
models were rejected – K overwhelmingly. Of the two naturalistic
models, M received somewhat more support than P. IALA decided on a
compromise between P and M, with certain elements of C.
Martinet took up a position at
Columbia Universityin 1948, and Gode
took on the last phase of Interlingua's development. The vocabulary
and grammar of
Interlinguawere first presented in 1951, when IALA
published the finalized _
InterlinguaGrammar _ and the 27,000-word
_Interlingua–English Dictionary _ (IED). In 1954, IALA published an
introductory manual entitled _
Interlinguaa Prime Vista _
Interlinguaat First Sight").
Interlinguaas presented by the IALA is very close to Peano’s
Interlingua(Latino sine flexione), both in its grammar and especially
in its vocabulary. Accordingly, the very name "Interlingua" was kept,
yet a distinct abbreviation was adopted: IA instead of IL.
SUCCESS, DECLINE, AND RESURGENCE
An early practical application of
Interlinguawas the scientific
newsletter _Spectroscopia Molecular_, published from 1952 to 1980. In
Interlinguawas used at the Second World Cardiological Congress
Washington, D.C.for both written summaries and oral
interpretation. Within a few years, it found similar use at nine
further medical congresses. Between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s,
some thirty scientific and especially medical journals provided
article summaries in Interlingua. Science Service , the publisher of
_Science Newsletter_ at the time, published a monthly column in
Interlinguafrom the early 1950s until Gode's death in 1970. In 1967,
International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization, which normalizes
terminology, voted almost unanimously to adopt
basis for its dictionaries.
The IALA closed its doors in 1953 but was not formally dissolved
until 1956 or later. Its role in promoting
taken on by Science Service, which hired Gode as head of its newly
Hugh E. Blair, Gode's close friend and
colleague, became his assistant. A successor organization, the
InterlinguaInstitute, was founded in 1970 to promote
the US and Canada. The new institute supported the work of other
linguistic organizations, made considerable scholarly contributions
Interlinguasummaries for scholarly and medical
publications. One of its largest achievements was two immense volumes
on phytopathology produced by the American Phytopathological Society
in 1976 and 1977.
Interlinguahad attracted many former adherents of other
international-language projects, notably Occidental and Ido. The
former Occidentalist Ric Berger founded The Union Mundial pro
Interlingua(UMI ) in 1955, and by the late 1950s, interest in
Interlinguain Europe had already begun to overtake that in North
Beginning in the 1980s, UMI has held international conferences every
two years (typical attendance at the earlier meetings was 50 to 100)
and launched a publishing programme that eventually produced over 100
volumes. Other Interlingua-language works were published by university
Italy, and in the 1990s,
. Several Scandinavian schools undertook projects that used
Interlinguaas a means of teaching the international scientific and
In 2000, the
InterlinguaInstitute was dissolved amid funding
disputes with the UMI; the American
the following year, succeeded the institute and responded to new
interest emerging in
IN THE SOVIET BLOC
Interlinguawas spoken and promoted in the
Soviet bloc, despite
attempts to suppress the language. In the
German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic,
government officials confiscated the letters and magazines that the
UMI sent to Walter Rädler, the
Czechoslovakia, Július Tomin published his first article on
Interlinguain the Slovak magazine _Príroda a spoločnosť_ (Nature
and Society) in 1971, after which he received several anonymous
threatening letters. He went on to become the Czech Interlingua
Interlinguain the school system, and publish a
series of articles and books.
_See also: Community , below_
Today, interest in
Interlinguahas expanded from the scientific
community to the general public. Individuals, governments, and private
Interlinguafor learning and instruction, travel, online
publishing, and communication across language barriers. Interlingua
is promoted internationally by the Union Mundial pro
Periodicals and books are produced by many national organizations,
such as the Societate American pro
Interlingua, the Svenska
Interlingua, and the Union Brazilian pro Interlingua
It is not certain how many people have an active knowledge of
Interlingua. As noted above,
Interlinguais the most widely spoken
naturalistic auxiliary language .
Interlingua's greatest advantage is that it is the most widely
_understood_ international auxiliary language by virtue of its
naturalistic (as opposed to schematic) grammar and vocabulary,
allowing those familiar with a Romance language, and educated speakers
of English, to read and understand it without prior study.
Interlinguahas active speakers on all continents, especially in
South Americaand in Eastern and
Northern Europe, most notably
Scandinavia; also in
official representation in the
Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo. There are
Interlinguaweb pages, including editions of
Wiktionary, and a number of periodicals, including _Panorama in
Interlingua_ from the Union Mundial pro
magazines of the national societies allied with it. There are several
active mailing lists, and
Interlinguais also in use in certain Usenet
newsgroups, particularly in the europa.* hierarchy.
presented on CDs, radio, and television. In recent years, samples of
Interlinguahave also been seen in music and anime.
Interlinguais taught in many high schools and universities,
sometimes as a means of teaching other languages quickly, presenting
interlinguistics , or introducing the international vocabulary. The
University of Granadain
Spain, for example, offers an Interlingua
course in collaboration with the Centro de Formación Continua.
Every two years, the UMI organizes an international conference in a
different country. In the year between, the Scandinavian Interlingua
societies co-organize a conference in Sweden. National organizations
such as the Union Brazilian pro
Interlinguaalso organize regular
Interlinguahas a largely phonemic orthography .
Interlinguauses the 26 letters of the ISO basic
no diacritics . The alphabet, pronunciation in
Unassimilated foreign loanwords , or borrowed words, are pronounced
as in their language of origin.
See also: Free word-building in
Interlinguamay be taken from any language, as long as
their internationality is verified by their presence in seven
_control_ languages: Spanish , Portuguese , Italian , French , and
English , with German and Russian acting as secondary controls. These
are the most widely spoken Romance , Germanic , and Slavic languages ,
respectively. Because of their close relationship, Spanish and
Portuguese are treated as one unit. The largest number of Interlingua
words are of
Latinorigin, with the Greek and Germanic languages
providing the second and third largest number. The remainder of the
vocabulary originates in Slavic and non-
Interlinguaand eligibility of international words
A word, that is a form with meaning, is eligible for the Interlingua
vocabulary if it is verified by at least three of the four primary
control languages. Either secondary control language can substitute
for a primary language. Any word of Indo-European origin found in a
control language can contribute to the eligibility of an international
word. In some cases, the archaic or _potential_ presence of a word
can contribute to its eligibility.
A word can be potentially present in a language when a derivative is
present, but the word itself is not. English _proximity_, for example,
gives support to
Interlingua_proxime_, meaning 'near, close'. This
counts as long as one or more control languages actually have this
basic root word, which the
Romance languagesall do. Potentiality also
occurs when a concept is represented as a compound or derivative in a
control language, the morphemes that make it up are themselves
international, and the combination adequately conveys the meaning of
the larger word. An example is Italian _fiammifero_ (lit.
flamebearer), meaning "match, lucifer", which leads to Interlingua
_flammifero_, or "match". This word is thus said to be potentially
present in the other languages although they may represent the meaning
with a single morpheme.
Words do not enter the
Interlinguavocabulary solely because cognates
exist in a sufficient number of languages. If their meanings have
become different over time , they are considered different words for
the purpose of
Interlinguaeligibility. If they still have one or more
meanings in common, however, the word can enter
smaller set of meanings.
If this procedure did not produce an international word, the word for
a concept was originally taken from
Latin(see below). This only
occurred with a few grammatical particles .
The form of an
Interlinguaword is considered an _international
prototype_ with respect to the other words. On the one hand, it should
be neutral, free from characteristics peculiar to one language. On the
other hand, it should maximally capture the characteristics common to
all contributing languages. As a result, it can be transformed into
any of the contributing variants using only these language-specific
characteristics. If the word has any derivatives that occur in the
source languages with appropriate parallel meanings, then their
morphological connection must remain intact; for example, the
Interlinguaword for 'time' is spelled _tempore_ and not _*tempus_ or
_*tempo_ in order to match it with its derived adjectives, such as
The language-specific characteristics are closely related to the
sound laws of the individual languages; the resulting words are often
close or even identical to the most recent form common to the
contributing words. This sometimes corresponds with that of Vulgar
Latin. At other times, it is much more recent or even contemporary.
It is never older than the classical period.
The French _œil_, Italian _occhio_, Spanish _ojo_, and Portuguese
_olho_ appear quite different, but they descend from a historical form
_oculus_. German _Auge_, Dutch _oog_ and English _eye_ (cf. Czech and
Polish _oko_, Ukrainian _око_ _(óko)_) are related to this form in
that all three descend from Proto-Indo-European _*okʷ_. In addition,
international derivatives like _ocular_ and _oculista_ occur in all of
Interlingua's control languages. Each of these forms contributes to
the eligibility of the
Interlinguaword. German and English base
words do not influence the form of the
Interlinguaword, because their
Indo-European connection is considered too remote. Instead, the
remaining base words and especially the derivatives determine the form
_oculo_ found in Interlingua.
NOTES ON INTERLINGUA VOCABULARY
New words can be derived internally – that is, from existing
Interlinguawords – or extracted from the control languages in the
manner of the original vocabulary. Internal word-building, though
freer than in the control languages, is more limited than in schematic
Originally, a word was taken from
Latinif the usual procedure did
not produce a sufficiently international word. More recently, modern
alternatives have become generally accepted. For example, the southern
Romance _comprar_, meaning 'to buy', has replaced _emer_, because the
latter occurs only in derivatives in the control languages. Similarly,
the modern form _troppo_, 'too' or 'too much', has replaced _nimis_,
and _ma_ 'but' has largely replaced _sed_.
Interlinguahas been developed to omit any grammatical feature that
is absent from any one primary control language. Thus,
no noun–adjective agreement by gender, case, or number (cf. Spanish
and Portuguese _gatas negras_ or Italian _gatte nere_, 'black female
cats'), because this is absent from English, and it has no progressive
verb tenses (English _I am reading_), because they are absent from
Interlinguadistinguishes singular nouns from
plural nouns because all the control languages do. With respect to
the secondary control languages,
Interlinguahas articles, unlike
The definite article _le_ is invariable, as in English. Nouns have no
grammatical gender . Plurals are formed by adding _-s_, or _-es_
after a final consonant.
Personal pronounstake one form for the
subject and one for the direct object and reflexive. In the third
person, the reflexive is always _se_. Most adverbs are derived
regularly from adjectives by adding _-mente_, or _-amente_ after a
_-c_. An adverb can be formed from any adjective in this way.
Verbs take the same form for all persons (_io vive, tu vive, illa
vive_, 'I live', 'you live', 'she lives'). The indicative (_pare_,
'appear', 'appears') is the same as the imperative (_pare!_
'appear!'), and there is no subjunctive . Three common verbs usually
take short forms in the present tense: _es_ for 'is', 'am', 'are;'
_ha_ for 'has', 'have;' and _va_ for 'go', 'goes'. A few irregular
verb forms are available, but rarely used.
There are four simple tenses (present, past, future, and
conditional), three compound tenses (past, future, and conditional),
and the passive voice. The compound structures employ an auxiliary
plus the infinitive or the past participle (e.g., _Ille ha arrivate_,
'He has arrived'). Simple and compound tenses can be combined in
various ways to express more complex tenses (e.g., _Nos haberea
morite_, 'We would have died').
Word order is subject–verb–object , except that a direct object
pronoun or reflexive pronoun comes before the verb (_Io les vide_, 'I
see them'). Adjectives may precede or follow the nouns they modify,
but they most often follow it. The position of adverbs is flexible,
though constrained by common sense.
The grammar of
Interlinguahas been described as similar to that of
the Romance languages, but greatly simplified, primarily under the
influence of English. More recently, Interlingua's grammar has been
likened to the simple grammars of Japanese and particularly Chinese.
CRITICISMS AND CONTROVERSIES
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Some opponents argue that, being based on a few European languages ,
Interlinguais best suited for speakers of European languages. Others
Interlinguahas spelling irregularities that, while
internationally recognizable in written form, increase the time needed
to fully learn the language, especially for those unfamiliar with
Indo-European languages. A related point of criticism is that
Interlingua's credential as being
Standard Average Europeanis too
weak outside the Romance languages. Some opponents see the Germanic ,
Slavic , and Celtic languages , in particular, as having little
Proponents argue that Interlingua's source languages include not only
Romance languagesbut English, German, and Russian as well. Moreover,
the source languages are widely spoken internationally, and large
numbers of their words also appear in other languages – still more
when derivative forms and loan translations are included. Tests had
shown that if a larger number of source languages were used, the
results would be about the same. So, IALA selected a much simpler
extraction procedure for
Interlinguawith little adverse effect on its
From an essay by Alexander Gode: _
Interlinguase ha distachate ab le
movimento pro le disveloppamento e le introduction de un lingua
universal pro tote le humanitate. Si o non on crede que un lingua pro
tote le humanitate es possibile, si o non on crede que interlingua va
devenir un tal lingua es totalmente indifferente ab le puncto de vista
de interlingua mesme. Le sol facto que importa (ab le puncto de vista
de interlingua mesme) es que interlingua, gratias a su ambition de
reflecter le homogeneitate cultural e ergo linguistic del occidente,
es capace de render servicios tangibile a iste precise momento del
historia del mundo. Il es per su contributiones actual e non per le
promissas de su adherentes que interlingua vole esser judicate._
Interlinguahas detached itself from the movement for the development
and introduction of a universal language for all humanity. Whether or
not one believes that a language for all humanity is possible, whether
or not one believes that
Interlinguawill become such a language is
totally irrelevant from the point of view of
only fact that matters (from the point of view of
is that Interlingua, thanks to its ambition of reflecting the cultural
and thus linguistic homogeneity of the West, is capable of rendering
tangible services at this precise moment in the history of the world.
It is by its present contributions and not by the promises of its
Interlinguawishes to be judged.
The Lord\'s Prayer
Lingua Franca Nova
Lingua Franca Nova
Latino sine flexione
Patre nostre, qui es in le celos,
que tu nomine sia sanctificate;
que tu regno veni;
que tu voluntate sia facite
como in le celo, etiam super le terra.
Nos Padre, ce es en sielo,
sante es tu nome;
tu renia va veni;
tu vole va es fada
en tera como en sielo.
Patre nostro, qui es in celos,
que tuo nomine fi sanctificato;
que tuo regno adveni;
que tuo voluntate es facto
sicut in celo et in terra.
Patro nia, Kiu estas en la ĉielo,
sanktigata estu Via nomo.
Venu Via regno,
fariĝu Via volo,
kiel en la ĉielo tiel ankaŭ sur la tero.
Patro nia, qua esas en la cielo,
tua nomo santigesez;
tua regno advenez;
tua volo facesez quale en la cielo
tale anke sur la tero.
Pater noster, qui es in caelis,
sanctificetur nomen tuum.
Adveniat regnum tuum.
Fiat voluntas tua,
sicut in caelo, et in terra.
Padre nuestro, que estás en los cielos,
santificado sea tu Nombre;
venga a nosotros tu Reino;
hágase tu Voluntad
así en la tierra como en el cielo.
Padre nostro che sei nei cieli,
sia santificato il tuo Nome,
venga il tuo Regno,
sia fatta la tua Volontà
come in cielo così in terra.
Our Father, who art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name;
thy kingdom come,
thy will be done.
on earth, as it is in heaven.
Da nos hodie nostre pan quotidian,
e pardona a nos nostre debitas
como etiam nos los pardona a nostre debitores.
E non induce nos in tentation,
sed libera nos del mal.
Dona nos pan dial a nos,
pardona nos pecas,
como nos pardona los ci peca a nos.
No condui nos a tentia,
ma proteje nos de mal.
Da hodie ad nos nostro pane quotidiano,
et remitte ad nos nostro debitos,
sicut et nos remitte ad nostro debitores.
Et non induce nos in tentatione,
sed libera nos ab malo.
Nian panon ĉiutagan donu al ni hodiaŭ
kaj pardonu al ni niajn ŝuldojn,
kiel ankaŭ ni pardonas al niaj ŝuldantoj.
Kaj ne konduku nin en tenton,
sed liberigu nin de la malbono.
Donez a ni cadie la omnadiala pano,
e pardonez a ni nia ofensi,
quale anke ni pardonas a nia ofensanti,
e ne duktez ni aden la tento,
ma liberigez ni del malajo.
Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie,
et dimitte nobis debita nostra,
sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris.
Et ne nos inducas in tentationem,
sed libera nos a malo.
Y el pan nuestro de cada día dánosle hoy;
Perdónanos nuestras deudas,
así como nosotros hemos perdonado a nuestros deudores;
y no nos dejes caer en la tentación,
mas líbranos del mal.
Dacci oggi il nostro pane quotidiano,
e rimetti a noi i nostri debiti
come noi li rimettiamo ai nostri debitori,
e non ci indurre in tentazione,
ma liberaci dal male.
Give us this day our daily bread;
and forgive us our debts
as we have forgiven our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil.
FLAGS AND SYMBOLS
Interlinguaby Karel Podrazil Another flag of
As with Esperanto, there have been proposals for a flag of
Interlingua; the proposal by Czech translator Karel Podrazil is
recognized by multilingual sites. It consists of a white four-pointed
star extending to the edges of the flag and dividing it into an upper
blue and lower red half. The star is symbolic of the four cardinal
directions, and the two halves symbolize Romance and non-Romance
Interlinguawho understand each other.
Another symbol of
Interlinguais a globe surrounded by twelve stars
on a black or blue background, echoing the twelve stars of the Flag of
Europe (because the source languages of
Interlinguawith the Flag of Europe
* Comparison between
* Comparison between Ido and
* _Grammatica de
Interlingua, Instrumento Moderne de Communication International_
Interlinguaand eligibility of international words
* Irregularities and exceptions in
* ^ _A_ _B_ Sabine Fiedler, 1999, "Phraseology in planned
LanguagePlanning,_ vol. 23 no. 2
* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank,
Sebastian, eds. (2016). "
Interlingua(International Auxiliary Language
Glottolog2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the
Science of Human History.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ Gopsill, F.
P. (1990). _International languages: a matter for Interlingua_.
InterlinguaSociety. ISBN 0-9511695-6-4
* ^ See Gopsill, F. P. _Interlingua: A course for beginners._ Part
1. Sheffield, England: British
InterlinguaSociety, 1987. Gopsill,
here and elsewhere, characterizes
Interlinguaas having a simple
grammar and no irregularities.
* ^ The
InterlinguaGrammar suggests that
Interlinguahas a small
number of irregularities. See Gode (1955).
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Gode, Alexander, "Introduction",
_Interlingua-English: A dictionary of the international language_,
Revised Edition, New York: Continuum International Publishing Group,
* ^ Breinstrup, Thomas, Preface, _
beginners_, Bilthoven, Netherlands: Union Mundial pro Interlingua,
* ^ Yeager, Leland B., "Le linguistica como reclamo pro
Linguisticsas an advertisement for Interlingua),
_Interlinguistica e Interlingua: Discursos public_, Beekbergen,
Netherlands: Servicio de Libros UMI, 1991.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Morris, Alice Vanderbilt , _General Report_, New York:
* ^ Falk, Julia S. "Words without grammar: Linguists and the
international language movement in the United States, _
Communication_, 15(3): pp. 241–259. Pergamon, 1995.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Bray, Mary Connell (1971), "Foreword",
_Interlingua-English: A dictionary of the international Language_,
Second Edition, New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company. ISBN
OCLC162319. Retrieved on 2010-04-18.
* ^ Gopsill, F. P., and Sexton, Brian, "Le historia antenatal de
interlingua" , _Historia de interlingua_, 2001, revised 2006.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Gopsill, F. P., and Sexton, Brian, "Profunde recerca
duce a un lingua", _Historia de interlingua_, 2001, revised 2006.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Gopsill, F. P., and Sexton, Brian, "Le natura, si
– un schema, no", _Historia de interlingua_, 2001, revised 2006.
* ^ Breinstrup, Thomas, "Un revolution in le mundo scientific" (A
revolution in the scientific world). Accessed January 16, 2007.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Esterhill, Frank, _
InterlinguaInstitute: A History_.
* ^ Biographias: Alexander Gottfried Friedrich Gode-von Aesch.
Accessed January 16, 2007
* ^ Biographias: Hugh Edward Blair. Accessed January 16, 2007
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Portrait del organisationes de interlingua.
Access January 16, 2007.
* ^ Bibliographia de Interlingua. Accessed January 16, 2007.
* ^ Biographias: Ingvar Stenström. Accessed January 16, 2007
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Breinstrup, Thomas, "Interlingua: Forte,
Fructuose, Futur", Historia de Interlingua, 2001, Revised 2006.
* ^ "
Interlinguausate in le posta". Historia de Interlingua, 2001,
* ^ Breinstrup, Thomas. "Persecutate pro parlar Interlingua."
Interlingua_, 1995, Issue 5.
* ^ Biographias: Július Tomin. Historia de Interlingua, 2001.
* ^ Breinstrup, Thomas, "Contactos directe con touristas e le gente
local", Historia de Interlingua, 2001, Revised 2006.
* ^ Stenström, Ingvar, "Experientias del inseniamento del
vocabulario international in le nove gymnasio svedese" (Experiences
with the teaching of the international vocabulary in the new Swedish
gymnasium), _Interlinguistica e Interlingua: Discursos public per
Ingvar Stenström e Leland B. Yeager_, Beekbergen, Netherlands:
Servicio de Libros UMI, 1991. (High school in Europe is often called
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Blandino, Giovanni, "Le problema del linguas
international auxiliari", _Philosophia del Cognoscentia e del
Scientia_, Rome, Italy: Pontificia Universitas Lateranensis,
Pontificia Universitas Urbaniana, 1989.
* ^ "AROCHO LAW OFFICE - Benvenite-Washington DC Advocato-servir
organisationes sinscopo lucrative & interprisas US Virgin Islands -
Interlingua". _arocholaw.com_. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
* ^ "Radioemissiones in e re Interlingua," _Panorama in Interlingua
_, Issue 3, 2006.
* ^ Stenström, Ingvar, “The
Interlinguaof IALA: From ‘the
linguists’ project’ of 1951 to the working ‘tool of
international scientific communication’ of 1981”,
_Interlinguistica e Interlingua: Discursos public per Ingvar
Stenström e Leland B. Yeager_, Beekbergen, Netherlands: Servicio de
Libros UMI, 1991.
* ^ Stenström, Ingvar, “Utilisation de
inseniamento de linguas” (Utilization of
Interlinguain the teaching
of languages), _Interlinguistica e Interlingua: Discursos public per
Ingvar Stenström e Leland B. Yeager_, Beekbergen, Netherlands:
Servicio de Libros UMI, 1991.
* ^ "A notar," _Panorama in
Interlingua,_ Issue 4, 2006.
InterlinguaAlphabet on Omniglot
* ^ Gopsill, F. P., _
Interlinguatoday: A course for beginners_,
Sheffield, UK: British
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ Gode, Alexander ; Hugh
E. Blair (1955) . _Interlingua; a grammar of the international
language_ (Second ed.). New York : Frederick Ungar Publishing. ISBN
OCLC147452 . Retrieved 2007-03-05.
* ^ Morris, Alice Vanderbilt, "IALA\'s system: Underlying facts and
reasoning", _General report_, New York: International Auxiliary
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Stillman, E. Clark, and Gode, Alexander,
_Interlinguistic standardization_, New York: International Auxiliary
LanguageAssociation, 1943. Articles 82–100 translated by Stanley
Mulaik . Revised 2006.
* ^ Gode, Alexander, "Introduction", _Interlingua-English: A
dictionary of the international language_, Revised Edition, New York:
Continuum International Publishing Group, 1971. See "Forms of
international words in derivational series".
* ^ Gode, Alexander, "Introduction", _Interlingua-English: A
dictionary of the international language_, Revised Edition, New York:
Continuum International Publishing Group, 1971. See "Methods and
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Wilgenhof, Karel. _Grammatica de
Interlingua_. Union Mundial pro Interlingua, Beekbergen, Netherlands,
* ^ Brauers, Karl. _Grammatica synoptic de Interlingua_. Morges,
Switzerland: Editiones Interlingua, 1975.
* ^ These are optional short forms for _esser_, 'to be'. They are
found in Wilgenhof, who stops short of calling them irregular verb
forms. Two such forms appear in Gode and Blair, and one is labeled
irregular; none are in Brauers.
* ^ See for example Gode (1955), §115, "Table of Conjugation", pp.
* ^ Yeager, Leland B., "Artificialitate, ethnocentrismo, e le
linguas oriental: Le caso de Interlingua", _Interlinguistica e
Interlingua: Discursos public per Ingvar Stenstrom e Leland B.
Yeager_, Beekbergen, Netherlands: Servicio de Libros UMI, 1991.
* ^ _Novas de Interlingua_, May/June 1958.
* ^ Flags of
Interlingua(IALA) from fotw.net (archived URL)
* ^ "Toto super le airbag jachetta e gilet / jachetta e gilet con
airbag (invento hungaro) - interlingua - All about Airbag Jacket and
Airbag Vest". _Airbagjacket.eu_. Retrieved 2016-06-23.
* Falk, Julia S. _Women,