INTERLINGUA (/ɪntərˈlɪŋɡwə/ ;
ISO 639 language codes ia, ina)
is an Italic international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between
1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary
(IALA). It ranks among the top most widely used IALs (along with
Esperanto and Ido ), and is the most widely used naturalistic IAL: in
other words, its vocabulary, grammar and other characteristics are
derived from natural languages rather than a centrally planned grammar
Interlingua was developed to combine a simple, mostly
regular grammar with a vocabulary common to the widest possible
range of western European languages, making it unusually easy to
learn, at least for those whose native languages were sources of
Interlingua's vocabulary and grammar. Conversely, it is used as a
rapid introduction to many natural languages.
Interlingua literature maintains that (written)
comprehensible to the hundreds of millions of people who speak Romance
languages , though it is actively spoken by only a few hundred.
Interlingua comes from the
Latin words inter, meaning
between, and lingua, meaning tongue or language. These morphemes are
identical in Interlingua. Thus, "Interlingua" would mean "between
* 1 Rationale
* 2 History
International Auxiliary Language Association
* 2.2 Development of a new language
* 2.3 Success, decline, and resurgence
* 2.4 In the
* 3 Community
* 4 Orthography
* 4.2 Collateral orthography
* 4.3 Spelling of loanwords
* 5 Phonology
* 5.1 Pronunciation
* 5.2 Stress
* 5.4 Loanwords
* 6.1 Eligibility
* 6.2 Form
* 6.3 An illustration
* 6.4 Notes on
* 7 Grammar
* 8 Criticisms and controversies
* 9 Samples
* 10 Flags and symbols
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 Sources
* 14 External links
The expansive movements of science, technology, trade, diplomacy, and
the arts, combined with the historical dominance of the Greek and
Latin languages have resulted in a large common vocabulary among
European languages. With Interlingua, an objective procedure is used
to extract and standardize the most widespread word or words for a
concept found in a set of control languages: English , French ,
Italian , Spanish and Portuguese , with German and Russian as
secondary references. Words from any language are eligible for
inclusion, so long as their internationality is shown by their
presence in these control languages. Hence,
Interlingua includes such
diverse word forms as Japanese geisha and samurai, Arabic califa,
Guugu Yimithirr gangurru (Interlingua: kanguru), and Finnish sauna.
Interlingua combines this pre-existing vocabulary with a minimal
grammar based on the control languages. People with a good knowledge
of a Romance language, or a smattering of a
Romance language plus a
good knowledge of the international scientific vocabulary can
frequently understand it immediately on reading or hearing it. The
immediate comprehension of Interlingua, in turn, makes it unusually
easy to learn. Speakers of other languages can also learn to speak and
Interlingua in a short time, thanks to its simple grammar and
regular word formation using a small number of roots and affixes .
Interlingua can be used to learn other related
languages quickly and easily, and in some studies, even to understand
them immediately. Research with Swedish students has shown that, after
learning Interlingua, they can translate elementary texts from
Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish. In one 1974 study, an Interlingua
class translated a Spanish text that students who had taken 150 hours
of Spanish found too difficult to understand. Gopsill has suggested
that Interlingua's freedom from irregularities allowed the students to
grasp the mechanisms of language quickly.
Interlingua retain their original form from the source
language; they are altered as little as possible to fit Interlingua's
phonotactics . Each word retains its original spelling, pronunciation,
and meanings. For this reason,
Interlingua is frequently termed a
When compared to natural languages,
Interlingua most resembles
History of Interlingua
The American heiress
Alice Vanderbilt Morris (1874–1950) became
interested in linguistics and the international auxiliary language
movement in the early 1920s, and in 1924, Morris and her husband, Dave
Hennen Morris , established the non-profit International Auxiliary
Language Association (IALA) in
New York City
New York City . Their aim was to place
the study of IALs on a scientific basis. Morris developed the research
program of IALA in consultation with
Edward Sapir , William Edward
Collinson , and
Otto Jespersen .
INTERNATIONAL AUXILIARY LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION
The IALA became a major supporter of mainstream American linguistics,
funding, for example, numerous studies by Sapir, Collinson, and Morris
Swadesh in the 1930s and 1940s. Alice Morris edited several of these
studies and provided much of IALA's financial support. IALA also
received support from such prestigious groups as the Carnegie
Corporation , the
Ford Foundation , the
Research Corporation , and the
Rockefeller Foundation .
In its early years, IALA concerned itself with three tasks: finding
other organizations around the world with similar goals; building a
library of books about languages and interlinguistics ; and comparing
extant IALs, including
Esperanto II , Ido , Peano’s
Interlingua (Latino sine flexione),
Novial , and Interlingue
(Occidental). In pursuit of the last goal, it conducted parallel
studies of these languages, with comparative studies of national
languages, under the direction of scholars at American and European
universities. It also arranged conferences with proponents of these
IALs, who debated features and goals of their respective languages.
With a "concession rule" that required participants to make a certain
number of concessions, early debates at IALA sometimes grew from
heated to explosive.
At the Second International
Interlanguage Congress, held in
1931, IALA began to break new ground; 27 recognized linguists signed a
testimonial of support for IALA's research program. An additional
eight added their signatures at the third congress, convened in Rome
in 1933. That same year,
Herbert N. Shenton and Edward L. Thorndike
became influential in IALA's work by authoring key studies in the
The first steps towards the finalization of
Interlingua were taken in
1937, when a committee of 24 eminent linguists from 19 universities
published Some Criteria for an International
Language and Commentary.
However, the outbreak of
World War II
World War II in 1939 cut short the intended
biannual meetings of the committee.
DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW LANGUAGE
Originally, the association had not set out to create its own
language. Its goal was to identify which auxiliary language already
available was best suited for international communication, and how to
promote it most effectively. However, after ten years of research,
more and more members of IALA concluded that none of the existing
interlanguages were up to the task. By 1937, the members had made the
decision to create a new language, to the surprise of the world's
To that point, much of the debate had been equivocal on the decision
to use naturalistic (e.g., Peano’s
Occidental ) or systematic (e.g.,
Esperanto and Ido ) words. During
the war years, proponents of a naturalistic interlanguage won out. The
first support was Thorndike's paper; the second was a concession by
proponents of the systematic languages that thousands of words were
already present in many, or even a majority, of the European
languages. Their argument was that systematic derivation of words was
a Procrustean bed , forcing the learner to unlearn and re-memorize a
new derivation scheme when a usable vocabulary was already available.
This finally convinced supporters of the systematic languages, and
IALA from that point assumed the position that a naturalistic language
would be best.
At the outbreak of
World War II
World War II , IALA's research activities were
moved from Liverpool to New York, where E. Clark Stillman established
a new research staff. Stillman, with the assistance of Alexander Gode
, developed a prototyping technique – an objective methodology for
selecting and standardizing vocabulary based on a comparison of
In 1943 Stillman left for war work and Gode became Acting Director of
Research. IALA began to develop models of the proposed language, the
first of which were presented in Morris's General Report in 1945.
From 1946 to 1948, French linguist
André Martinet was Director of
Research. During this period IALA continued to develop models and
conducted polling to determine the optimal form of the final language.
In 1946, IALA sent an extensive survey to more than 3,000 language
teachers and related professionals on three continents.
Four models were canvassed:
highly naturalistic, with word forms unchanged from the prototypes
moderately naturalistic, similar to Occidental
slightly schematic, along the lines of Novial
moderately schematic, similar to Ido (less schematic than
The results of the survey were striking. The two more schematic
models were rejected – K overwhelmingly. Of the two naturalistic
models, M received somewhat more support than P. IALA decided on a
compromise between P and M, with certain elements of C.
Martinet took up a position at
Columbia University in 1948, and Gode
took on the last phase of Interlingua's development. The vocabulary
and grammar of
Interlingua were first presented in 1951, when IALA
published the finalized
Interlingua Grammar and the 27,000-word
Interlingua–English Dictionary (IED). In 1954, IALA published an
introductory manual entitled
Interlingua a Prime Vista ("Interlingua
at First Sight").
Interlingua as presented by the IALA is very close to Peano’s
Interlingua (Latino sine flexione), both in its grammar and especially
in its vocabulary. Accordingly, the very name "Interlingua" was kept,
yet a distinct abbreviation was adopted: IA instead of IL.
SUCCESS, DECLINE, AND RESURGENCE
An early practical application of
Interlingua was the scientific
newsletter Spectroscopia Molecular, published from 1952 to 1980. In
Interlingua was used at the Second World Cardiological Congress
Washington, D.C. for both written summaries and oral
interpretation. Within a few years, it found similar use at nine
further medical congresses. Between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s,
some thirty scientific and especially medical journals provided
article summaries in Interlingua. Science Service , the publisher of
Science Newsletter at the time, published a monthly column in
Interlingua from the early 1950s until Gode's death in 1970. In 1967,
International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization , which normalizes
terminology, voted almost unanimously to adopt
Interlingua as the
basis for its dictionaries.
The IALA closed its doors in 1953 but was not formally dissolved
until 1956 or later. Its role in promoting
Interlingua was largely
taken on by Science Service, which hired Gode as head of its newly
Interlingua Division .
Hugh E. Blair , Gode's close friend and
colleague, became his assistant. A successor organization, the
Interlingua Institute, was founded in 1970 to promote
the US and Canada. The new institute supported the work of other
linguistic organizations, made considerable scholarly contributions
Interlingua summaries for scholarly and medical
publications. One of its largest achievements was two immense volumes
on phytopathology produced by the American Phytopathological Society
in 1976 and 1977.
Interlingua had attracted many former adherents of other
international-language projects, notably Occidental and Ido. The
former Occidentalist Ric Berger founded The Union Mundial pro
Interlingua (UMI ) in 1955, and by the late 1950s, interest in
Interlingua in Europe had already begun to overtake that in North
Beginning in the 1980s, UMI has held international conferences every
two years (typical attendance at the earlier meetings was 50 to 100)
and launched a publishing programme that eventually produced over 100
volumes. Other Interlingua-language works were published by university
Italy , and in the 1990s,
Brazil and Switzerland
. Several Scandinavian schools undertook projects that used
Interlingua as a means of teaching the international scientific and
In 2000, the
Interlingua Institute was dissolved amid funding
disputes with the UMI; the American
Interlingua Society, established
the following year, succeeded the institute and responded to new
interest emerging in
IN THE SOVIET BLOC
Interlingua was spoken and promoted in the
Soviet bloc , despite
attempts to suppress the language. In the
German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic ,
government officials confiscated the letters and magazines that the
UMI sent to Walter Rädler, the
Interlingua representative there.
Czechoslovakia , Július Tomin published his first article on
Interlingua in the Slovak magazine Príroda a spoločnosť (Nature and
Society) in 1971, after which he received several anonymous
threatening letters. He went on to become the Czech Interlingua
Interlingua in the school system, and publish a
series of articles and books.
See also: Community , below
Today, interest in
Interlingua has expanded from the scientific
community to the general public. Individuals, governments, and private
Interlingua for learning and instruction, travel, online
publishing, and communication across language barriers. Interlingua
is promoted internationally by the Union Mundial pro
Periodicals and books are produced by many national organizations,
such as the Societate American pro
Interlingua , the Svenska
Interlingua , and the Union Brazilian pro Interlingua
It is not certain how many people have an active knowledge of
Interlingua. As noted above,
Interlingua is claimed to be the most
widely spoken naturalistic auxiliary language .
Interlingua's greatest advantage is that it is the most widely
understood international auxiliary language besides
de A.p.I. by virtue of its naturalistic (as opposed to schematic)
grammar and vocabulary, allowing those familiar with a Romance
language, and educated speakers of English, to read and understand it
without prior study.
Interlingua has active speakers on all continents, especially in
South America and in Eastern and
Northern Europe , most notably
Scandinavia ; also in
Ukraine . In
official representation in the
Republic of the Congo . There are
Interlingua web pages, including editions of and
Wiktionary , and a number of periodicals, including Panorama in
Interlingua from the Union Mundial pro
Interlingua (UMI) and magazines
of the national societies allied with it. There are several active
mailing lists, and
Interlingua is also in use in certain Usenet
newsgroups, particularly in the europa.* hierarchy.
presented on CDs, radio, and television. In recent years, samples of
Interlingua have also been seen in music and anime.
Interlingua is taught in many high schools and universities,
sometimes as a means of teaching other languages quickly, presenting
interlinguistics , or introducing the international vocabulary. The
University of Granada
University of Granada in
Spain , for example, offers an Interlingua
course in collaboration with the Centro de Formación Continua.
Every two years, the UMI organizes an international conference in a
different country. In the year between, the Scandinavian Interlingua
societies co-organize a conference in Sweden. National organizations
such as the Union Brazilian pro
Interlingua also organize regular
Interlingua has a largely phonemic orthography .
Interlingua uses the 26 letters of the ISO basic
Latin alphabet with
no diacritics . The alphabet, pronunciation in
Unassimilated foreign loanwords , or borrowed words, are pronounced
as in their language of origin.
See also: Free word-building in
Interlingua may be taken from any language, as long as
their internationality is verified by their presence in seven control
languages: Spanish , Portuguese , Italian , French , and English ,
with German and Russian acting as secondary controls. These are the
most widely spoken Romance , Germanic , and Slavic languages ,
respectively. Because of their close relationship, Spanish and
Portuguese are treated as one unit. The largest number of Interlingua
words are of
Latin origin, with the Greek and Germanic languages
providing the second and third largest number. The remainder of the
vocabulary originates in Slavic and non-
Indo-European languages .
Interlingua and eligibility of international words
A word, that is a form with meaning, is eligible for the Interlingua
vocabulary if it is verified by at least three of the four primary
control languages. Either secondary control language can substitute
for a primary language. Any word of Indo-European origin found in a
control language can contribute to the eligibility of an international
word. In some cases, the archaic or potential presence of a word can
contribute to its eligibility.
A word can be potentially present in a language when a derivative is
present, but the word itself is not. English proximity, for example,
gives support to
Interlingua proxime, meaning 'near, close'. This
counts as long as one or more control languages actually have this
basic root word, which the
Romance languages all do. Potentiality also
occurs when a concept is represented as a compound or derivative in a
control language, the morphemes that make it up are themselves
international, and the combination adequately conveys the meaning of
the larger word. An example is Italian fiammifero (lit. flamebearer),
meaning "match, lucifer", which leads to
Interlingua flammifero, or
"match". This word is thus said to be potentially present in the other
languages although they may represent the meaning with a single
Words do not enter the
Interlingua vocabulary solely because cognates
exist in a sufficient number of languages. If their meanings have
become different over time , they are considered different words for
the purpose of
Interlingua eligibility. If they still have one or more
meanings in common, however, the word can enter
Interlingua with this
smaller set of meanings.
If this procedure did not produce an international word, the word for
a concept was originally taken from
Latin (see below). This only
occurred with a few grammatical particles .
The form of an
Interlingua word is considered an international
prototype with respect to the other words. On the one hand, it should
be neutral, free from characteristics peculiar to one language. On the
other hand, it should maximally capture the characteristics common to
all contributing languages. As a result, it can be transformed into
any of the contributing variants using only these language-specific
characteristics. If the word has any derivatives that occur in the
source languages with appropriate parallel meanings, then their
morphological connection must remain intact; for example, the
Interlingua word for 'time' is spelled tempore and not *tempus or
*tempo in order to match it with its derived adjectives, such as
The language-specific characteristics are closely related to the
sound laws of the individual languages; the resulting words are often
close or even identical to the most recent form common to the
contributing words. This sometimes corresponds with that of Vulgar
Latin . At other times, it is much more recent or even contemporary.
It is never older than the classical period.
The French œil, Italian occhio, Spanish ojo, and Portuguese olho
appear quite different, but they descend from a historical form
oculus. German Auge, Dutch oog and English eye (cf. Czech and Polish
oko, Ukrainian око (óko)) are related to this form in that all
three descend from Proto-Indo-European *okʷ. In addition,
international derivatives like ocular and oculista occur in all of
Interlingua's control languages. Each of these forms contributes to
the eligibility of the
Interlingua word. German and English base
words do not influence the form of the
Interlingua word, because their
Indo-European connection is considered too remote. Instead, the
remaining base words and especially the derivatives determine the form
oculo found in Interlingua.
NOTES ON INTERLINGUA VOCABULARY
New words can be derived internally – that is, from existing
Interlingua words – or extracted from the control languages in the
manner of the original vocabulary. Internal word-building, though
freer than in the control languages, is more limited than in schematic
Originally, a word was taken from
Latin if the usual procedure did
not produce a sufficiently international word. More recently, modern
alternatives have become generally accepted. For example, the southern
Romance comprar, meaning 'to buy', has replaced emer, because the
latter occurs only in derivatives in the control languages. Similarly,
the modern form troppo, 'too' or 'too much', has replaced nimis, and
ma 'but' has largely replaced sed.
Interlingua has been developed to omit any grammatical feature that
is absent from any one primary control language. Thus,
no noun–adjective agreement by gender, case, or number (cf. Spanish
and Portuguese gatas negras or Italian gatte nere, 'black female
cats'), because this is absent from English, and it has no progressive
verb tenses (English I am reading), because they are absent from
Interlingua distinguishes singular nouns from
plural nouns because all the control languages do. With respect to
the secondary control languages,
Interlingua has articles, unlike
The definite article le is invariable, as in English. Nouns have no
grammatical gender . Plurals are formed by adding -s, or -es after a
Personal pronouns take one form for the subject and
one for the direct object and reflexive. In the third person, the
reflexive is always se. Most adverbs are derived regularly from
adjectives by adding -mente, or -amente after a -c. An adverb can be
formed from any adjective in this way.
Verbs take the same form for all persons (io vive, tu vive, illa
vive, 'I live', 'you live', 'she lives'). The indicative (pare,
'appear', 'appears') is the same as the imperative (pare! 'appear!'),
and there is no subjunctive . Three common verbs usually take short
forms in the present tense: es for 'is', 'am', 'are;' ha for 'has',
'have;' and va for 'go', 'goes'. A few irregular verb forms are
available, but rarely used.
There are four simple tenses (present, past, future, and
conditional), three compound tenses (past, future, and conditional),
and the passive voice. The compound structures employ an auxiliary
plus the infinitive or the past participle (e.g., Ille ha arrivate,
'He has arrived'). Simple and compound tenses can be combined in
various ways to express more complex tenses (e.g., Nos haberea morite,
'We would have died').
Word order is subject–verb–object , except that a direct object
pronoun or reflexive pronoun comes before the verb (Io les vide, 'I
see them'). Adjectives may precede or follow the nouns they modify,
but they most often follow it. The position of adverbs is flexible,
though constrained by common sense.
The grammar of
Interlingua has been described as similar to that of
the Romance languages, but greatly simplified, primarily under the
influence of English. More recently, Interlingua's grammar has been
likened to the simple grammars of Japanese and particularly Chinese.
CRITICISMS AND CONTROVERSIES
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Some opponents argue that, being based on a few European languages ,
Interlingua is best suited for speakers of European languages. Others
Interlingua has spelling irregularities that, while
internationally recognizable in written form, increase the time needed
to fully learn the language, especially for those unfamiliar with
Indo-European languages. A related point of criticism is that
Interlingua's credential as being
Standard Average European is too
weak outside the Romance languages. Some opponents see the Germanic ,
Slavic , and Celtic languages , in particular, as having little
Proponents argue that Interlingua's source languages include not only
Romance languages but English, German, and Russian as well. Moreover,
the source languages are widely spoken internationally, and large
numbers of their words also appear in other languages – still more
when derivative forms and loan translations are included. Tests had
shown that if a larger number of source languages were used, the
results would be about the same. So, IALA selected a much simpler
extraction procedure for
Interlingua with little adverse effect on its
From an essay by Alexander Gode:
Interlingua se ha distachate ab le
movimento pro le disveloppamento e le introduction de un lingua
universal pro tote le humanitate. Si o non on crede que un lingua pro
tote le humanitate es possibile, si o non on crede que interlingua va
devenir un tal lingua es totalmente indifferente ab le puncto de vista
de interlingua mesme. Le sol facto que importa (ab le puncto de vista
de interlingua mesme) es que interlingua, gratias a su ambition de
reflecter le homogeneitate cultural e ergo linguistic del occidente,
es capace de render servicios tangibile a iste precise momento del
historia del mundo. Il es per su contributiones actual e non per le
promissas de su adherentes que interlingua vole esser judicate.
Interlingua has detached itself from the movement for the development
and introduction of a universal language for all humanity. Whether or
not one believes that a language for all humanity is possible, whether
or not one believes that
Interlingua will become such a language is
totally irrelevant from the point of view of
Interlingua itself. The
only fact that matters (from the point of view of
is that Interlingua, thanks to its ambition of reflecting the cultural
and thus linguistic homogeneity of the West, is capable of rendering
tangible services at this precise moment in the history of the world.
It is by its present contributions and not by the promises of its
Interlingua wishes to be judged.
The Lord\'s Prayer
Lingua Franca Nova
Latino sine flexione
Patre nostre, qui es in le celos,
que tu nomine sia sanctificate;
que tu regno veni;
que tu voluntate sia facite
como in le celo, etiam super le terra.
Nos Padre, ce es en sielo,
sante es tu nome;
tu renia va veni;
tu vole va es fada
en tera como en sielo.
Patre nostro, qui es in celos,
que tuo nomine fi sanctificato;
que tuo regno adveni;
que tuo voluntate es facto
sicut in celo et in terra.
Patro nia, Kiu estas en la ĉielo,
sanktigata estu Via nomo.
Venu Via regno,
fariĝu Via volo,
kiel en la ĉielo tiel ankaŭ sur la tero.
Patro nia, qua esas en la cielo,
tua nomo santigesez;
tua regno advenez;
tua volo facesez quale en la cielo
tale anke sur la tero.
Pater noster, qui es in caelis,
sanctificetur nomen tuum.
Adveniat regnum tuum.
Fiat voluntas tua,
sicut in caelo, et in terra.
Padre nuestro, que estás en los cielos,
santificado sea tu Nombre;
venga a nosotros tu Reino;
hágase tu Voluntad
así en la tierra como en el cielo.
Padre nostro che sei nei cieli,
sia santificato il tuo Nome,
venga il tuo Regno,
sia fatta la tua Volontà
come in cielo così in terra.
Our Father, who art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name;
thy kingdom come,
thy will be done.
on earth, as it is in heaven.
Da nos hodie nostre pan quotidian,
e pardona a nos nostre debitas
como etiam nos los pardona a nostre debitores.
E non induce nos in tentation,
sed libera nos del mal.
Dona nos pan dial a nos,
pardona nos pecas,
como nos pardona los ci peca a nos.
No condui nos a tentia,
ma proteje nos de mal.
Da hodie ad nos nostro pane quotidiano,
et remitte ad nos nostro debitos,
sicut et nos remitte ad nostro debitores.
Et non induce nos in tentatione,
sed libera nos ab malo.
Nian panon ĉiutagan donu al ni hodiaŭ
kaj pardonu al ni niajn ŝuldojn,
kiel ankaŭ ni pardonas al niaj ŝuldantoj.
Kaj ne konduku nin en tenton,
sed liberigu nin de la malbono.
Donez a ni cadie la omnadiala pano,
e pardonez a ni nia ofensi,
quale anke ni pardonas a nia ofensanti,
e ne duktez ni aden la tento,
ma liberigez ni del malajo.
Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie,
et dimitte nobis debita nostra,
sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris.
Et ne nos inducas in tentationem,
sed libera nos a malo.
Y el pan nuestro de cada día dánosle hoy;
Perdónanos nuestras deudas,
así como nosotros hemos perdonado a nuestros deudores;
y no nos dejes caer en la tentación,
mas líbranos del mal.
Dacci oggi il nostro pane quotidiano,
e rimetti a noi i nostri debiti
come noi li rimettiamo ai nostri debitori,
e non ci indurre in tentazione,
ma liberaci dal male.
Give us this day our daily bread;
and forgive us our debts
as we have forgiven our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil.
FLAGS AND SYMBOLS
Interlingua by Karel Podrazil Another flag of
As with Esperanto, there have been proposals for a flag of
Interlingua; the proposal by Czech translator Karel Podrazil is
recognized by multilingual sites. It consists of a white four-pointed
star extending to the edges of the flag and dividing it into an upper
blue and lower red half. The star is symbolic of the four cardinal
directions, and the two halves symbolize Romance and non-Romance
Interlingua who understand each other.
Another symbol of
Interlingua is a globe surrounded by twelve stars
on a black or blue background, echoing the twelve stars of the Flag of
Europe (because the source languages of
Interlingua are purely
Interlingua with the Flag of Europe
* Comparison between
* Comparison between Ido and
* Grammatica de
* Interlingua, Instrumento Moderne de Communication International
Interlingua and eligibility of international words
* Irregularities and exceptions in
* ^ A B Sabine Fiedler, 1999, "Phraseology in planned languages",
Language Problems and
Language Planning, vol. 23 no. 2
* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank,
Sebastian, eds. (2016). "
Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language
Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the
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* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M Gopsill, F. P. (1990). International
languages: a matter for Interlingua.
England : British
Interlingua Society. ISBN 0-9511695-6-4 .
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* ^ See Gopsill, F. P. Interlingua: A course for beginners. Part 1.
Sheffield, England: British
Interlingua Society, 1987. Gopsill, here
and elsewhere, characterizes
Interlingua as having a simple grammar
and no irregularities.
* ^ The
Interlingua Grammar suggests that
Interlingua has a small
number of irregularities. See Gode (1955).
* ^ A B C D E F G Gode, Alexander, "Introduction",
Interlingua-English: A dictionary of the international language,
Revised Edition, New York: Continuum International Publishing Group,
* ^ Breinstrup, Thomas, Preface,
Interlingua course for beginners,
Bilthoven, Netherlands: Union Mundial pro Interlingua, 2006.
* ^ Yeager, Leland B., "Le linguistica como reclamo pro
Linguistics as an advertisement for Interlingua),
Interlinguistica e Interlingua: Discursos public, Beekbergen,
Netherlands: Servicio de Libros UMI, 1991.
* ^ A B Morris, Alice Vanderbilt , General Report, New York:
Language Association, 1945.
* ^ Falk, Julia S. "Words without grammar: Linguists and the
international language movement in the United States,
Communication, 15(3): pp. 241–259. Pergamon, 1995.
* ^ A B C D E F Bray, Mary Connell (1971), "Foreword",
Interlingua-English: A dictionary of the international Language,
Second Edition, New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company. ISBN
OCLC 162319 . Retrieved on 2010-04-18.
* ^ Gopsill, F. P., and Sexton, Brian, "Le historia antenatal de
interlingua", Historia de interlingua, 2001, revised 2006.
* ^ A B Gopsill, F. P., and Sexton, Brian, "Profunde recerca duce a
un lingua", Historia de interlingua, 2001, revised 2006.
* ^ A B C Gopsill, F. P., and Sexton, Brian, "Le natura, si – un
schema, no", Historia de interlingua, 2001, revised 2006.
* ^ Breinstrup, Thomas, "Un revolution in le mundo scientific" (A
revolution in the scientific world). Accessed January 16, 2007.
* ^ A B Esterhill, Frank,
Interlingua Institute: A History. New
Interlingua Institute, 2000.
* ^ Biographias: Alexander Gottfried Friedrich Gode-von Aesch.
Accessed January 16, 2007
* ^ Biographias: Hugh Edward Blair. Accessed January 16, 2007
* ^ A B C D Portrait del organisationes de interlingua. Access
January 16, 2007.
* ^ Bibliographia de Interlingua. Accessed January 16, 2007.
* ^ Biographias: Ingvar Stenström. Accessed January 16, 2007
* ^ A B C D Breinstrup, Thomas, "Interlingua: Forte, Fructuose,
Futur", Historia de Interlingua, 2001, Revised 2006.
* ^ "
Interlingua usate in le posta". Historia de Interlingua, 2001,
* ^ Breinstrup, Thomas. "Persecutate pro parlar Interlingua."
Interlingua , 1995, Issue 5.
* ^ Biographias: Július Tomin. Historia de Interlingua, 2001.
* ^ Breinstrup, Thomas, "Contactos directe con touristas e le gente
local", Historia de Interlingua, 2001, Revised 2006.
* ^ Stenström, Ingvar, "Experientias del inseniamento del
vocabulario international in le nove gymnasio svedese" (Experiences
with the teaching of the international vocabulary in the new Swedish
gymnasium), Interlinguistica e Interlingua: Discursos public per
Ingvar Stenström e Leland B. Yeager, Beekbergen, Netherlands:
Servicio de Libros UMI, 1991. (High school in Europe is often called
* ^ A B C Blandino, Giovanni, "Le problema del linguas
international auxiliari", Philosophia del Cognoscentia e del Scientia,
Rome, Italy: Pontificia Universitas Lateranensis, Pontificia
Universitas Urbaniana, 1989.
* ^ "AROCHO LAW OFFICE - Benvenite-Washington DC Advocato-servir
organisationes sinscopo lucrative & interprisas US Virgin Islands -
Interlingua". arocholaw.com. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
* ^ "Radioemissiones in e re Interlingua," Panorama in Interlingua
, Issue 3, 2006.
* ^ Stenström, Ingvar, “The
Interlingua of IALA: From ‘the
linguists’ project’ of 1951 to the working ‘tool of
international scientific communication’ of 1981”, Interlinguistica
e Interlingua: Discursos public per Ingvar Stenström e Leland B.
Yeager, Beekbergen, Netherlands: Servicio de Libros UMI, 1991.
* ^ Stenström, Ingvar, “Utilisation de
Interlingua in le
inseniamento de linguas” (Utilization of
Interlingua in the teaching
of languages), Interlinguistica e Interlingua: Discursos public per
Ingvar Stenström e Leland B. Yeager, Beekbergen, Netherlands:
Servicio de Libros UMI, 1991.
* ^ "A notar," Panorama in
Interlingua , Issue 4, 2006.
Interlingua Alphabet on Omniglot
* ^ Gopsill, F. P.,
Interlingua today: A course for beginners,
Sheffield, UK: British
Interlingua Society, 1994.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J Gode, Alexander ;
Hugh E. Blair (1955) .
Interlingua; a grammar of the international language (Second ed.). New
York : Frederick Ungar Publishing. ISBN 0-8044-0186-1 .
OCLC 147452 .
* ^ Morris, Alice Vanderbilt, "IALA\'s system: Underlying facts and
reasoning", General report, New York: International Auxiliary Language
* ^ A B C D Stillman, E. Clark, and Gode, Alexander,
Interlinguistic standardization, New York: International Auxiliary
Language Association, 1943. Articles 82–100 translated by Stanley
Mulaik . Revised 2006.
* ^ Gode, Alexander, "Introduction", Interlingua-English: A
dictionary of the international language, Revised Edition, New York:
Continuum International Publishing Group, 1971. See "Forms of
international words in derivational series".
* ^ Gode, Alexander, "Introduction", Interlingua-English: A
dictionary of the international language, Revised Edition, New York:
Continuum International Publishing Group, 1971. See "Methods and
* ^ A B C D E Wilgenhof, Karel. Grammatica de Interlingua. Union
Mundial pro Interlingua, Beekbergen, Netherlands, 1995.
* ^ Brauers, Karl. Grammatica synoptic de Interlingua. Morges,
Switzerland: Editiones Interlingua, 1975.
* ^ These are optional short forms for esser, 'to be'. They are
found in Wilgenhof, who stops short of calling them irregular verb
forms. Two such forms appear in Gode and Blair, and one is labeled
irregular; none are in Brauers.
* ^ See for example Gode (1955), §115, "Table of Conjugation", pp.
* ^ Yeager, Leland B., "Artificialitate, ethnocentrismo, e le
linguas oriental: Le caso de Interlingua", Interlinguistica e
Interlingua: Discursos public per Ingvar Stenstrom e Leland B. Yeager,
Beekbergen, Netherlands: Servicio de Libros UMI, 1991.
* ^ Novas de Interlingua, May/June 1958.
* ^ Flags of
Interlingua (IALA) from fotw.net (archived URL)
* ^ "Toto super le airbag jachetta e gilet / jachetta e gilet con
airbag (invento hungaro) - interlingua - All about Airbag Jacket and
Airbag Vest". Airbagjacket.eu. Retrieved 2016-06-23.
* Falk, Julia S. Women,
Language and Linguistics: Three American
stories from the first half of the twentieth century. Routledge,
Hugh E. Blair (1955) . Interlingua; a grammar of the
international language (Second ed.). New York : Frederick Ungar
Publishing. ISBN 0-8044-0186-1 .
OCLC 147452 . Retrieved 2007-03-05.
* Gopsill, F.P. Le historia antenatal de Interlingua.. (In
Interlingua.) Accessed 28 May 2005.
International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). General
Report. IALA, New York: 1945.
International Auxiliary Language Association (1971) . Alexander
Gode (ed.), ed. Interlingua-English; a dictionary of the international
language. "Foreword" and "Acknowledgements" by Mary Connell Bray
(Second ed.). New York : Frederick Ungar Publishing. ISBN
OCLC 162319 . Archived from the original on
2007-12-27. Retrieved 2010-04-18. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list
* Pei, Mario. One
Language for the World and How To Achieve It.
Devin-Adair, New York; 1958.
* Union Mundial pro
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Accessed 17 August 2006.
INTERLINGUA EDITION of , the free encyclopedia