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The Intercalated Olympic Games
Olympic Games
were to be a series of International Olympic Games
Olympic Games
halfway between what is now known as the Games of the Olympiad. This proposed series of games, intercalated in the Olympic Games cycle, was to always be held in Athens, and were to have equal status with the international games. However, the only such games were held in 1906.

Contents

1 Origin 2 First Intercalated Games 3 Decline 4 Downgrading 5 Winter sports 6 See also

Origin[edit] The first Intercalated Games
Intercalated Games
had been scheduled by the IOC
IOC
in 1901 as part of a new schedule, where every four years, in between the internationally organised games, there would be intermediate games held in Athens. This was a compromise: After the successful games of Athens
Athens
1896 the Greeks suggested they could organize the games every four years. Since they had the venues, and had proven to be able to hold well-organised games, they received quite a bit of support. However, Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Coubertin
did not like this at all, he had intended the first games to be in Paris
Paris
in 1900 and had no intention of losing not only the première for Paris
Paris
but the games as well. Thus the second games became the Paris
Paris
1900 games. When these games turned out less than perfect and were overshadowed by the Exposition Universelle, the IOC
IOC
supported the Greek idea by granting them a second series of quadrennial games, in between the first series. All of the games would be International Olympic Games; the difference was that only half of them would follow De Coubertin's idea of organising them in different countries to make the Olympic Movement more international, while the other half would follow the Greeks' idea of a permanent home with the Greek NOC as experienced organisers. This was a departure of the ancient schedule, but it was expected that if the ancient Greek could keep a four-year schedule, the modern Olympic Movement
Olympic Movement
could keep a two-year schedule. As 1902 was now too close, and Greece
Greece
was experiencing internal difficulties, the 2nd Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in Athens
Athens
were scheduled for 1906. As the 1904 Summer Olympics
1904 Summer Olympics
in St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri
were overshadowed by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and as a result met with a fate similar to that of Paris
Paris
1900, the Olympic Movement
Olympic Movement
was not in good shape. It desperately needed to recapture the spirit of Athens
Athens
1896. It also needed to do so quickly, as to all those who did not participate in St. Louis, Rome
Rome
1908 meant an 8-year gap. By that time there would not be much goodwill left for the Games. And on top of that, Rome
Rome
was planning an Exhibition. The Athens
Athens
games being just around the corner must have seemed like a lifeline. De Coubertin still disliked the idea, and did not do anything more than his function required him to. But the IOC
IOC
as a whole gave the Greek NOC full support for the organisation. First Intercalated Games[edit] Main article: 1906 Intercalated Games The 1906 games were quite successful. Unlike the 1900, 1904 or 1908 games, they were neither stretched out over months nor overshadowed by an international exhibition. Their crisp format was most likely instrumental in the continued existence of the games. These Games also were the first games to have all athlete registration go through the NOCs. They were the first to have the Opening of the Games as a separate event; an event at which for the first time the athletes marched into the stadium in national teams, each following its national flag. They introduced the closing ceremony, and the raising of national flags for the victors, and several more less visible changes now accepted as traditional. Decline[edit] The Greeks were unable to keep the schedule for 1910. On the one hand problems in the Balkans
Balkans
made things difficult, but on the other, the modern Greeks found out the ancient Greeks were right: A two-year interval was too short. Where there had been a gap of six years before Athens
Athens
1906 (because of the almost all-American nature of the 1904 St Louis games), a gap of two years after London 1908 did not leave people enough time to prepare. With Athens
Athens
1910 a failure, the faith in Athens
Athens
diminished, and as a result Athens
Athens
1914 got even less support. And then World War I started, and any further Intercalated Games
Intercalated Games
had to wait until after the war. But after the war was over it had been more than a decade since Athens
Athens
1906, and the idea of Intercalated Games
Intercalated Games
was given up entirely. Downgrading[edit] Since the 2nd International Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in Athens
Athens
now had become an exception, the personal views of various IOC
IOC
chairmen caused the IOC to retroactively downgrade the 1906 games, and the explanation for the games became that they had been a 10th anniversary celebration. As more stress was placed on the continuing sequence of four-year Olympiads, the games of 1906 did not fit in. Hence, today the IOC
IOC
does not recognize Athens
Athens
1906 as Olympic Games, and does not regard any events occurring there, such as the setting of new records or the winning of medals, as official. The success of Athens
Athens
1906, however, may have been what kept the Olympics alive. And as the next games are always built on the successes of the last, the innovations of Athens
Athens
were used again in London, and eventually became Olympic tradition. In fact, the influence of the First Intercalated Games
Intercalated Games
pervades the Olympics, with the holding of the Games concentrated in a small time period, at a small area. Winter sports[edit] Since there were no winter sports at the First Intercalated games, the mistaken idea has arisen that this was because the IOC
IOC
had made such an explicit requirement. In fact, the IOC
IOC
had always intended some winter sports to be part of the Olympic schedule. Before London 1908, however, none of the games had included any winter sports, and Athens 1906 was no exception.[citation needed] The scheduling concept of the Intercalated Games
Intercalated Games
- with additional Olympic games taking place two years after (and before) every Summer Olympics - was ultimately adopted for the Winter Olympic Games, starting with the 1994 Winter Olympics
1994 Winter Olympics
in Lillehammer, Norway. See also[edit]

Summer Olympics Olympics

v t e

Olympic Games
Olympic Games
scandals and controversies

By year

2008 (summer) 2010 (winter) 2012 (summer) 2014 (winter) 2016 (summer) 2018 (winter) 2020 (summer) 2022 (winter)

Boycotts

1936 1956 1964 1976 1980 1984 1988

Alternative competitions

People's Olympiad
Olympiad
(1936) Games of the New Emerging Forces (1963) Liberty Bell Classic (1980) Friendship Games
Friendship Games
(1984) Goodwill Games (1986–2001)

Events

Football match between Peru and Austria (1936) "Blood in the Water" water polo match (1956) Tlatelolco massacre
Tlatelolco massacre
(1968) Black Power salute (1968) Munich massacre
Munich massacre
(1972) Basketball gold-medal match controversy (1972) Kozakiewicz's gesture (1980) Centennial Olympic Park bombing
Centennial Olympic Park bombing
(1996) Winter Olympic bid scandal (1998) Figure-skating judging scandal (2002) Underage gymnasts controversy (2008) Death of Nodar Kumaritashvili (2010) One minute of silence campaign (2012) LGBT rights protests (2014) Sochi Ladies' singles judging controversy (2014) Russian doping scandal (2015–present) Ireland Summer Olympics
Summer Olympics
ticket scandal (2016) Death of Bahman Golbarnezhad
Bahman Golbarnezhad
(2016) Lochtegate
Lochtegate
(2016) Rule 40 (2016)

List of stripped Olympic medals Doping at the Olympic Games Apartheid-era South Africa and the Olympics

v t e

Olympic Games

Ceremonies Charter Participating nations

Summer Olympics Winter Olympics

Host cities

Bids Venues

IOC

NOCs Country codes

Medal

Medal tables Medalists Ties Diploma

Scandals and controversies

Colonialism Doping

Sports Symbols

Torch relays Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Coubertin
medal

Women Deaths

WWI

Olympic video games

Summer Games

1896 Athens 1900 Paris 1904 St. Louis 1908 London 1912 Stockholm 1916 Berlin 1920 Antwerp 1924 Paris 1928 Amsterdam 1932 Los Angeles 1936 Berlin 1940 Tokyo 1944 London 1948 London 1952 Helsinki 1956 Melbourne 1960 Rome 1964 Tokyo 1968 Mexico City 1972 Munich 1976 Montreal 1980 Moscow 1984 Los Angeles 1988 Seoul 1992 Barcelona 1996 Atlanta 2000 Sydney 2004 Athens 2008 Beijing 2012 London 2016 Rio de Janeiro 2020 Tokyo 2024 Paris 2028 Los Angeles 2032 TBD

Winter Games

1924 Chamonix 1928 St. Moritz 1932 Lake Placid 1936 Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1940 Sapporo 1944 Cortina d'Ampezzo 1948 St. Moritz 1952 Oslo 1956 Cortina d'Ampezzo 1960 Squaw Valley 1964 Innsbruck 1968 Grenoble 1972 Sapporo 1976 Innsbruck 1980 Lake Placid 1984 Sarajevo 1988 Calgary 1992 Albertville 1994 Lillehammer 1998 Nagano 2002 Salt Lake City 2006 Turin 2010 Vancouver 2014 Sochi 2018 Pyeongchang 2022 Beijing 2026 TBD 2030 TBD

Ancient Olympic Games Intercalated Games

1906

Paralympic Games Y

.