Interaction is a kind of action that occur as two or more objects have
an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential
in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal effect.
A closely related term is interconnectivity, which deals with the
interactions of interactions within systems: combinations of many
simple interactions can lead to surprising emergent phenomena.
Interaction has different tailored meanings in various
sciences. Changes can also involve interaction.
Casual examples of interaction outside science include:[citation
Communication of any sort, for example two or more people talking to
each other, or communication among groups, organizations, nations or
states: trade, migration, foreign relations, transportation,
The feedback during the operation of a machine such as a computer or
tool, for example the interaction between a driver and the position of
his or her car on the road: by steering the driver influences this
position, by observation this information returns to the driver.
2.1.1 Molecular biology
Medicine and pharmacology
3 Biology and genetics
6.1 An example from statistics applied to health science
8 Media art
9 See also
11 External links
Force and Fundamental interaction
In physics, a fundamental interaction (depending on the nature of the
interaction, it might also be called a fundamental force) is a process
by which elementary particles interact with each other. An interaction
is often described as a physical field, and is mediated by the
exchange of gauge bosons between particles. For example, the
interaction of charged particles takes place through the mediation of
electromagnetic fields, whereas beta decay occurs by means of the weak
interaction. An interaction is fundamental when it cannot be described
in terms of other interactions. There are five known fundamental
interactions in Nature: The electromagnetic, strong, weak, Higgs, and
gravitational interactions. The weak and electromagnetic interactions
are unified in electroweak theory, which is unified with the strong
force in the standard model.
Interactions between atoms and molecules:
Main articles: Molecular recognition, Intermolecular force,
Noncovalent bonding, Hydrogen bond, van der Waals force, Aromatic
interaction, Cation-pi interaction, Hydrophobic effect, Coordination
complex, Aurophilicity, and Electronic correlation
See also: Interface (chemistry)
List of protein interactions and Interactome
In molecular biology, the knowledge on gene/protein interaction among
themselves and with their metabolites is referred to as molecular
Medicine and pharmacology
Main article: Drug interaction
See also: Poly drug use § Dangerous interactions
In medicine, most medications can be safely used with other medicines,
but particular combinations of medicines need to be monitored for
interactions, often by the pharmacist. Interactions between
medications fall generally into one of two main categories:
pharmacodynamic : Involving the actions of the two interacting
pharmacokinetic : Involving the absorption, distribution,
metabolism, and excretion of one or both of the interacting drugs upon
In terms of efficacy, there can be three types of interactions between
medications: additive, synergistic, and antagonistic.
Additive interaction means the effect of two chemicals is equal to the
sum of the effect of the two chemicals taken separately. This is
usually due to the two chemicals acting on the body via same or
similar mechanism. Examples are aspirin and motrin, alcohol and
depressant, tranquilizer and painkiller.
Synergistic interaction means that the effect of two chemicals taken
together is greater than the sum of their separate effect at the same
doses. An example is pesticide and fertilizer; the biological effect
Antagonistic interaction means that the effect of two chemicals is
actually less than the sum of the effect of the two drugs taken
independently of each other. This is because the second chemical
increases the excretion of the first, or even directly blocks its
toxic actions. Antagonism forms the basis for antidotes of poisonings.
Biology and genetics
Main articles: Biological interaction, Gene–environment interaction,
and Cell–cell interaction
Geneticists work with a number of different genetic interaction modes
to characterize how the combination of two mutations affect (or does
not affect) the phenotype: noninteractive, synthetic, asynthetic,
suppressive, epistatic, conditional, additive, single-nonmonotonic and
double-nonmonotonic. Further characterizations is enhancement
interaction and nonadditive interaction. Biosemioticists investigate
sign-mediated interactions within and between organisms that underlie
syntactic, pragmatic and semantic rules.
The word epistasis is also used for genetic interaction in some
Main article: Interactivity
Main article: Social interaction
In sociology, social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of
social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their
actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction
partner(s). Social interactions can be differentiated into accidental,
repeated, regular, and regulated. Social interactions form the basis
of social relations.
In statistics, an interaction is a term in a statistical model in
which the effect of two, or more, variables is not simply additive.
An example from statistics applied to health science
If we were examining the effect of two variables, gender and premature
birth, on health outcomes, we would describe any difference in health
outcome scores between genders as a main effect. Similarly any
difference in scores of full term/premature birth would be described
as a main effect. The presence of an interaction effect implies that
the effect of gender on health outcome varies as a function of
premature birth status.
Main article: Human–computer interaction
Interaction cost, Interactive computation, and Interface
In media, interactivity is a feature of the media in question and as
digital technology becomes more accessible to the masses interest in
interactivity is increasing and becoming a cultural trend especially
in the arts.
Science Fiction Convention, the 63rd World
Convention, held in Glasgow, Scotland, in 2005
Gordon Pask Conversation and Interactions of Actors Theory
Interaction design pattern
Interface (communication studies)
^ Becky L. Drees; Vesteinn Thorsson; Gregory W. Carter; Alexander W.
Rives; Marisa Z. Raymond; Iliana Avila-Campillo; Paul Shannon; Timothy
Galitski (2005). "Derivation of genetic interaction networks from
quantitative phenotype data". Genome Biology. 6 (4): R38.
doi:10.1186/gb-2005-6-4-r38. PMC 1088966 .
Media related to
Interaction at Wikimedia Commons
Points of view
Cut on action
Shot reverse shot
Flashback / Flashforward
Walk and talk
Linear video editing
Non-linear editing system
Non-linear editing system (NLE)
Video editing software