An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred
to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits
on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material,
normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors
into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude
smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete
electronic components. The IC's mass production capability,
reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured
the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using
discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic
equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers,
mobile phones, and other digital home appliances are now inextricable
parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small
size and low cost of ICs.
Integrated circuits were made practical by mid-20th-century technology
advancements in semiconductor device fabrication. Since their origins
in the 1960s, the size, speed, and capacity of chips have progressed
enormously, driven by technical advances that fit more and more
transistors on chips of the same size - a modern chip may have several
billion transistors in an area the size of a human fingernail. These
advances, roughly following Moore's law, make computer chips of today
possess millions of times the capacity and thousands of times the
speed of the computer chips of the early 1970s.
ICs have two main advantages over discrete circuits: cost and
performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their components,
are printed as a unit by photolithography rather than being
constructed one transistor at a time. Furthermore, packaged ICs use
much less material than discrete circuits. Performance is high because
the IC's components switch quickly and consume comparatively little
power because of their small size and close proximity. The main
disadvantage of ICs is the high cost to design them and fabricate the
required photomasks. This high initial cost means ICs are only
practical when high production volumes are anticipated.
6.3 Chip labeling and manufacture date
7 Intellectual property
8 Other developments
9.1 SSI, MSI and LSI
9.3 ULSI, WSI, SOC and 3D-IC
Silicon labelling and graffiti
11 ICs and IC families
12 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
An integrated circuit is defined as:
A circuit in which all or some of the circuit elements are inseparably
associated and electrically interconnected so that it is considered to
be indivisible for the purposes of construction and commerce.
Circuits meeting this definition can be constructed using many
different technologies, including thin-film transistors, thick-film
technologies, or hybrid integrated circuits. However, in general usage
integrated circuit has come to refer to the single-piece circuit
construction originally known as a monolithic integrated
Main article: Invention of the integrated circuit
Early developments of the integrated circuit go back to 1949, when
German engineer Werner Jacobi (Siemens AG) filed a patent for
an integrated-circuit-like semiconductor amplifying device showing
five transistors on a common substrate in a 3-stage amplifier
arrangement. Jacobi disclosed small and cheap hearing aids as typical
industrial applications of his patent. An immediate commercial use of
his patent has not been reported.
The idea of the integrated circuit was conceived by Geoffrey Dummer
(1909–2002), a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar
Establishment of the British Ministry of Defence. Dummer presented the
idea to the public at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic
Components in Washington, D.C. on 7 May 1952. He gave many
symposia publicly to propagate his ideas and unsuccessfully attempted
to build such a circuit in 1956.
A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic squares
(wafers), each containing a single miniaturized component. Components
could then be integrated and wired into a bidimensional or
tridimensional compact grid. This idea, which seemed very promising in
1957, was proposed to the US Army by
Jack Kilby and led to the
short-lived Micromodule Program (similar to 1951's Project
Tinkertoy). However, as the project was gaining momentum, Kilby
came up with a new, revolutionary design: the IC.
Jack Kilby's original integrated circuit
Newly employed by Texas Instruments, Kilby recorded his initial ideas
concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958, successfully
demonstrating the first working integrated example on 12 September
1958. In his patent application of 6 February 1959, Kilby
described his new device as "a body of semiconductor material …
wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are completely
integrated." The first customer for the new invention was the US
Kilby won the 2000
Nobel Prize in Physics for his part in the
invention of the integrated circuit. His work was named an IEEE
Milestone in 2009.
Half a year after Kilby,
Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor
developed a new variety of integrated circuit, more practical than
Kilby's implementation. Noyce's design was made of silicon, whereas
Kilby's chip was made of germanium. Noyce credited
Kurt Lehovec of
Sprague Electric for the principle of p–n junction isolation, a
key concept behind the IC. This isolation allows each
transistor to operate independently despite being parts of the same
piece of silicon.
Semiconductor was also home of the first silicon-gate IC
technology with self-aligned gates, the basis of all modern CMOS
computer chips. The technology was developed by Italian physicist
Federico Faggin in 1968. In 1970, he joined
Intel in order to develop
the first single-chip central processing unit (CPU) microprocessor,
Intel 4004, for which he received the National Medal of Technology
and Innovation in 2010. The 4004 was designed by Busicom's Masatoshi
Shima and Intel's
Ted Hoff in 1969, but it was Faggin's improved
design in 1970 that made it a reality.
Advances in IC technology, primarily smaller features and larger
chips, have allowed the number of transistors in an integrated circuit
to double every two years, a trend known as Moore's law. This
increased capacity has been used to decrease cost and increase
functionality. In general, as the feature size shrinks, almost every
aspect of an IC's operation improves. The cost per transistor and the
switching power consumption per transistor go down, while the memory
capacity and speed go up, through the relationships defined by Dennard
scaling. Because speed, capacity, and power consumption gains are
apparent to the end user, there is fierce competition among the
manufacturers to use finer geometries. Over the years, transistor
sizes have decreased from 10s of microns in the early 1970s to 10
nanometers in 2017  with a corresponding million-fold increase in
transistors per unit area. As of 2016, typical chip areas range from a
few square millimeters to around 600 mm2, with up to 25 million
transistors per mm2.
The expected shrinking of feature sizes, and the needed progress in
related areas was forecast for many years by the International
Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). The final ITRS was
issued in 2016, and it is being replaced by the International Roadmap
for Devices and Systems.
Initially, ICs were strictly electronic devices. The success of ICs
has led to the integration of other technologies, in the attempt to
obtain the same advantages of small size and low cost. These
technologies include mechanical devices, optics, and sensors.
Charge-coupled devices, and the closely related active pixel sensors,
are chips that are sensitive to light. They have largely replaced
photographic film in scientific, medical, and consumer applications.
Billions of these devices are now produced each year for applications
such as cellphones, tablets, and digital cameras. This sub-field of
ICs won the Nobel prize in 2009.
Very small mechanical devices driven by electricity can be integrated
onto chips, a technology known as microelectromechanical systems.
These devices were developed in the late 1980s and are used in a
variety of commercial and military applications. Examples include DLP
projectors, inkjet printers, and accelerometers and MEMS gyroscopes
used to deploy automobile airbags.
Since the early 2000s, the integration of optical functionality
(optical computing) into silicon chips has been actively pursued in
both academic research and in industry resulting in the successful
commercialization of silicon based integrated optical transceivers
combining optical devices (modulators, detectors, routing) with CMOS
based electronics. Integrated optical circuits are also being
Integrated circuits are also being developed for sensor applications
in medical implants or other bioelectronic devices. Special
sealing techniques have to be applied in such biogenic environments to
avoid corrosion or biodegradation of the exposed semiconductor
As of 2018[update], the vast majority of all transistors are
fabricated in a single layer on one side of a chip of silicon in a
flat 2-dimensional planar process. Researchers have produced
prototypes of several promising alternatives, such as:
various approaches to stacking several layers of transistors to make a
three-dimensional integrated circuit, such as through-silicon via,
"monolithic 3D", stacked wire bonding, etc.
transistors built from other materials: graphene transistors,
molybdenite transistors, carbon nanotube field-effect transistor,
gallium nitride transistor, transistor-like nanowire electronic
devices, organic field-effect transistor, etc.
fabricating transistors over the entire surface of a small sphere of
modifications to the substrate, typically to make "flexible
transistors" for a flexible display or other flexible electronics,
possibly leading to a roll-away computer.
Electronic design automation
Electronic design automation and Hardware description
The cost of designing and developing a complex integrated circuit is
quite high, normally in the multiple tens of millions of dollars.
This only makes economic sense if production volume is high, so the
non-recurring engineering (NRE) costs are spread across typically
millions of production units.
Modern semiconductor chips have billions of components, and are too
complex to be designed by hand.
Software tools to help the designer
Electronic Design Automation
Electronic Design Automation (EDA), also referred to as
Electronic Computer-Aided Design (ECAD), is a category of software
tools for designing electronic systems, including integrated circuits.
The tools work together in a design flow that engineers use to design
and analyze entire semiconductor chips.
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CMOS 4511 IC in a DIP
Integrated circuits can be classified into analog, digital and
mixed signal (both analog and digital on the same chip).
Digital integrated circuits can contain anywhere from one to
billions of logic gates, flip-flops, multiplexers, and other
circuits in a few square millimeters. The small size of these circuits
allows high speed, low power dissipation, and reduced manufacturing
cost compared with board-level integration. These digital ICs,
typically microprocessors, DSPs, and microcontrollers, work using
boolean algebra to process "one" and "zero" signals.
The die from an
Intel 8742, an 8-bit microcontroller that includes a
CPU running at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM, and
I/O in the same chip
Among the most advanced integrated circuits are the microprocessors or
"cores", which control everything from computers and cellular phones
to digital microwave ovens. Digital memory chips and
application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are examples of other
families of integrated circuits that are important to the modern
In the 1980s, programmable logic devices were developed. These devices
contain circuits whose logical function and connectivity can be
programmed by the user, rather than being fixed by the integrated
circuit manufacturer. This allows a single chip to be programmed to
implement different LSI-type functions such as logic gates, adders and
registers. Current devices called field-programmable gate arrays
(FPGAs) can (as of 2016) implement the equivalent of millions of gates
in parallel and operate up to 1 GHz.
Analog ICs, such as sensors, power management circuits, and
operational amplifiers, work by processing continuous signals. They
perform functions like amplification, active filtering, demodulation,
and mixing. Analog ICs ease the burden on circuit designers by having
expertly designed analog circuits available instead of designing a
difficult analog circuit from scratch.
ICs can also combine analog and digital circuits on a single chip to
create functions such as A/D converters and D/A converters. Such
mixed-signal circuits offer smaller size and lower cost, but must
carefully account for signal interference. Prior to the late 1990s,
radios could not be fabricated in the same low-cost
CMOS processes as
microprocessors. But since 1998, a large number of radio chips have
been developed using
CMOS processes. Examples include Intel's DECT
cordless phone, or
802.11 (Wi-Fi) chips created by
Atheros and other
Modern electronic component distributors often further sub-categorize
the huge variety of integrated circuits now available:
Digital ICs are further sub-categorized as logic ICs, memory chips,
interface ICs (level shifters, serializer/deserializer, etc.), Power
Management ICs, and programmable devices.
Analog ICs are further sub-categorized as linear ICs and RF ICs.
mixed-signal integrated circuits are further sub-categorized as data
acquisition ICs (including A/D converters, D/A converter, digital
potentiometers) and clock/timing ICs.
Rendering of a small standard cell with three metal layers (dielectric
has been removed). The sand-colored structures are metal interconnect,
with the vertical pillars being contacts, typically plugs of tungsten.
The reddish structures are polysilicon gates, and the solid at the
bottom is the crystalline silicon bulk.
Schematic structure of a
CMOS chip, as built in the early 2000s. The
graphic shows LDD-MISFET's on an SOI substrate with five metallization
layers and solder bump for flip-chip bonding. It also shows the
FEOL (front-end of line),
BEOL (back-end of line) and
first parts of back-end process.
The semiconductors of the periodic table of the chemical elements were
identified as the most likely materials for a solid-state vacuum tube.
Starting with copper oxide, proceeding to germanium, then silicon, the
materials were systematically studied in the 1940s and 1950s. Today,
monocrystalline silicon is the main substrate used for ICs although
some III-V compounds of the periodic table such as gallium arsenide
are used for specialized applications like LEDs, lasers, solar cells
and the highest-speed integrated circuits. It took decades to perfect
methods of creating crystals without defects in the crystalline
structure of the semiconducting material.
Semiconductor ICs are fabricated in a planar process which includes
three key process steps – imaging, deposition and etching. The
main process steps are supplemented by doping and cleaning.
Mono-crystal silicon wafers (or for special applications, silicon on
sapphire or gallium arsenide wafers) are used as the substrate.
Photolithography is used to mark different areas of the substrate to
be doped or to have polysilicon, insulators or metal (typically
aluminium or copper) tracks deposited on them.
Integrated circuits are composed of many overlapping layers, each
defined by photolithography, and normally shown in different colors.
Some layers mark where various dopants are diffused into the substrate
(called diffusion layers), some define where additional ions are
implanted (implant layers), some define the conductors (polysilicon or
metal layers), and some define the connections between the conducting
layers (via or contact layers). All components are constructed from a
specific combination of these layers.
In a self-aligned
CMOS process, a transistor is formed wherever the
gate layer (polysilicon or metal) crosses a diffusion layer.
Capacitive structures, in form very much like the parallel conducting
plates of a traditional electrical capacitor, are formed according to
the area of the "plates", with insulating material between the plates.
Capacitors of a wide range of sizes are common on ICs.
Meandering stripes of varying lengths are sometimes used to form
on-chip resistors, though most logic circuits do not need any
resistors. The ratio of the length of the resistive structure to its
width, combined with its sheet resistivity, determines the resistance.
More rarely, inductive structures can be built as tiny on-chip coils,
or simulated by gyrators.
CMOS device only draws current on the transition between logic
CMOS devices consume much less current than bipolar devices.
A random-access memory is the most regular type of integrated circuit;
the highest density devices are thus memories; but even a
microprocessor will have memory on the chip. (See the regular array
structure at the bottom of the first image.) Although the structures
are intricate – with widths which have been shrinking for decades
– the layers remain much thinner than the device widths. The layers
of material are fabricated much like a photographic process, although
light waves in the visible spectrum cannot be used to "expose" a layer
of material, as they would be too large for the features. Thus photons
of higher frequencies (typically ultraviolet) are used to create the
patterns for each layer. Because each feature is so small, electron
microscopes are essential tools for a process engineer who might be
debugging a fabrication process.
Each device is tested before packaging using automated test equipment
(ATE), in a process known as wafer testing, or wafer probing. The
wafer is then cut into rectangular blocks, each of which is called a
die. Each good die (plural dice, dies, or die) is then connected into
a package using aluminium (or gold) bond wires which are
thermosonically bonded to pads, usually found around the edge of
the die. .
Thermosonic bonding was first introduced by A. Coucoulas
which provided a reliable means of forming these vital electrical
connections to the outside world. After packaging, the devices go
through final testing on the same or similar ATE used during wafer
Industrial CT scanning
Industrial CT scanning can also be used. Test cost can
account for over 25% of the cost of fabrication on lower-cost
products, but can be negligible on low-yielding, larger, or
As of 2016, a fabrication facility (commonly known as a semiconductor
fab) can cost over US$8 billion to construct. The cost of a
fabrication facility rises over time (Rock's law) because much of the
operation is automated. Today, the most advanced processes employ the
The wafers are up to 300 mm in diameter (wider than a common
As of 2016, a state of the art foundry can produce 14 nm transistors,
as implemented by Intel, TSMC, Samsung, and Global Foundries. The next
step, to 10 nm devices, is expected in 2017.
Copper interconnects where copper wiring replaces aluminium for
Low-K dielectric insulators.
Silicon on insulator (SOI).
Strained silicon in a process used by
IBM known as strained silicon
directly on insulator (SSDOI).
Multigate devices such as tri-gate transistors being manufactured by
Intel from 2011 in their 22 nm process.
Integrated circuit packaging
A Soviet MSI nMOS chip made in 1977, part of a four-chip calculator
set designed in 1970
The earliest integrated circuits were packaged in ceramic flat packs,
which continued to be used by the military for their reliability and
small size for many years. Commercial circuit packaging quickly moved
to the dual in-line package (DIP), first in ceramic and later in
plastic. In the 1980s pin counts of
VLSI circuits exceeded the
practical limit for DIP packaging, leading to pin grid array (PGA) and
leadless chip carrier (LCC) packages.
Surface mount packaging appeared
in the early 1980s and became popular in the late 1980s, using finer
lead pitch with leads formed as either gull-wing or J-lead, as
exemplified by the small-outline integrated circuit (SOIC) package –
a carrier which occupies an area about 30–50% less than an
equivalent DIP and is typically 70% thinner. This package has "gull
wing" leads protruding from the two long sides and a lead spacing of
In the late 1990s, plastic quad flat pack (PQFP) and thin
small-outline package (TSOP) packages became the most common for high
pin count devices, though PGA packages are still often used for
Intel and AMD are currently[when?]
transitioning from PGA packages on high-end microprocessors to land
grid array (LGA) packages.
Ball grid array
Ball grid array (BGA) packages have existed since the 1970s. Flip-chip
Ball Grid Array packages, which allow for much higher pin count than
other package types, were developed in the 1990s. In an FCBGA package
the die is mounted upside-down (flipped) and connects to the package
balls via a package substrate that is similar to a printed-circuit
board rather than by wires. FCBGA packages allow an array of
input-output signals (called Area-I/O) to be distributed over the
entire die rather than being confined to the die periphery.
Traces going out of the die, through the package, and into the printed
circuit board have very different electrical properties, compared to
on-chip signals. They require special design techniques and need much
more electric power than signals confined to the chip itself.
When multiple dies are put in one package, the result is a System in
Package, or SiP. A multi-chip module, or MCM, is created by combining
multiple dies on a small substrate often made of ceramic. The
distinction between a big MCM and a small printed circuit board is
Chip labeling and manufacture date
Most integrated circuits are large enough to include identifying
information. Four common sections are the manufacturer's name or logo,
the part number, a part production batch number and serial number, and
a four-digit date-code to identify when the chip was manufactured.
Extremely small surface mount technology parts often bear only a
number used in a manufacturer's lookup table to find the chip
The manufacturing date is commonly represented as a two-digit year
followed by a two-digit week code, such that a part bearing the code
8341 was manufactured in week 41 of 1983, or approximately in October
Integrated circuit layout design protection
The possibility of copying by photographing each layer of an
integrated circuit and preparing photomasks for its production on the
basis of the photographs obtained is a reason for the introduction of
legislation for the protection of layout-designs. The Semiconductor
Chip Protection Act of 1984 established intellectual property
protection for photomasks used to produce integrated circuits.
A diplomatic conference was held at Washington, D.C., in 1989, which
adopted a Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated
Circuits (IPIC Treaty).
The Treaty on Intellectual Property in respect of Integrated Circuits,
also called Washington Treaty or IPIC Treaty (signed at Washington on
26 May 1989) is currently not in force, but was partially integrated
National laws protecting IC layout designs have been adopted in a
number of countries, including Japan, the EC, the UK,
Australia, and Korea.
Future developments seem to follow the multi-core multi-microprocessor
paradigm, already used by
Intel and AMD multi-core processors. Rapport
IBM started shipping the KC256 in 2006, a 256-core
microprocessor. Intel, as recently as February–August 2011, unveiled
a prototype, "not for commercial sale" chip that bears 80 cores. Each
core is capable of handling its own task independently of the others.
This is in response to heat-versus-speed limit, that is about to be
reached using existing transistor technology (see: thermal design
power). This design provides a new challenge to chip programming.
Parallel programming languages such as the open-source X10 programming
language are designed to assist with this task.
In the early days of simple integrated circuits, the technology's
large scale limited each chip to only a few transistors, and the low
degree of integration meant the design process was relatively simple.
Manufacturing yields were also quite low by today's standards. As the
technology progressed, millions, then billions of transistors
could be placed on one chip, and good designs required thorough
planning, giving rise to the field of Electronic Design Automation, or
Logic gates number
1 to 10
1 to 12
10 to 500
13 to 99
500 to 20 000
100 to 9999
very large-scale integration
20 000 to 1 000 000
10 000 to 99 999
1 000 000 and more
100 000 and more
SSI, MSI and LSI 
The first integrated circuits contained only a few transistors. Early
digital circuits containing tens of transistors provided a few logic
gates, and early linear ICs such as the
Plessey SL201 or the Philips
TAA320 had as few as two transistors. The number of transistors in an
integrated circuit has increased dramatically since then. The term
"large scale integration" (LSI) was first used by
IBM scientist Rolf
Landauer when describing the theoretical concept;
that term gave rise to the terms "small-scale integration" (SSI),
"medium-scale integration" (MSI), "very-large-scale integration"
(VLSI), and "ultra-large-scale integration" (ULSI). The early
integrated circuits were SSI.
SSI circuits were crucial to early aerospace projects, and aerospace
projects helped inspire development of the technology. Both the
Minuteman missile and
Apollo program needed lightweight digital
computers for their inertial guidance systems. Although the Apollo
guidance computer led and motivated integrated-circuit technology,
it was the
Minuteman missile that forced it into mass-production. The
Minuteman missile program and various other Navy programs accounted
for the total $4 million integrated circuit market in 1962, and by
1968, U.S. Government space and defense spending still accounted for
37% of the $312 million total production.
The demand by the U.S. Government supported the nascent integrated
circuit market until costs fell enough to allow IC firms to penetrate
first the industrial and eventually the consumer markets. The average
price per integrated circuit dropped from $50.00 in 1962 to $2.33 in
1968. Integrated circuits began to appear in consumer products by
the turn of the decade, a typical application being FM inter-carrier
sound processing in television receivers.
The first MOS chips were small-scale integration chips for NASA
The next step in the development of integrated circuits, taken in the
late 1960s, introduced devices which contained hundreds of transistors
on each chip, called "medium-scale integration" (MSI).
Frank Wanlass demonstrated a single-chip 16-bit shift
register he designed, with an incredible (at the time) 120 transistors
on a single chip.
MSI devices were attractive economically because while they cost a
little more to produce than SSI devices, they allowed more complex
systems to be produced using smaller circuit boards, less assembly
work (because of fewer separate components), and a number of other
Further development, driven by the same economic factors, led to
"large-scale integration" (LSI) in the mid-1970s, with tens of
thousands of transistors per chip.
The masks used to process and manufacture SSI, MSI and early LSI and
VLSI devices (such as the microprocessors of the early 1970s) were
mostly created by hand, often using Rubylith-tape or similar. For
large or complex ICs (such as memories or processors), this was often
done by specially hired layout people under supervision of a team of
engineers, who would also, along with the circuit designers, inspect
and verify the correctness and completeness of each mask. However,
VLSI devices contain so many transistors, layers,
interconnections, and other features that it is no longer feasible to
check the masks or do the original design by hand. The engineer
depends on computer programs and other hardware aids to do most of
Integrated circuits such as 1K-bit RAMs, calculator chips, and the
first microprocessors, that began to be manufactured in moderate
quantities in the early 1970s, had under 4,000 transistors. True LSI
circuits, approaching 10,000 transistors, began to be produced around
1974, for computer main memories and second-generation
Some SSI and MSI chips, like discrete transistors, are still
mass-produced, both to maintain old equipment and build new devices
that require only a few gates. The
7400 series of TTL chips, for
example, has become a de facto standard and remains in production.
Main article: Very-large-scale integration
Upper interconnect layers on an
Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor die
The final step in the development process, starting in the 1980s and
continuing through the present, was "very-large-scale integration"
(VLSI). The development started with hundreds of thousands of
transistors in the early 1980s, and continues beyond ten billion
transistors as of 2016.
Multiple developments were required to achieve this increased density.
Manufacturers moved to smaller design rules and cleaner fabrication
facilities, so that they could make chips with more transistors and
maintain adequate yield. The path of process improvements was
summarized by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors
(ITRS). Design tools improved enough to make it practical to finish
these designs in a reasonable time. The more energy-efficient CMOS
replaced NMOS and PMOS, avoiding a prohibitive increase in power
In 1986 the first one-megabit
RAM chips were introduced, containing
more than one million transistors.
Microprocessor chips passed the
million-transistor mark in 1989 and the billion-transistor mark in
2005. The trend continues largely unabated, with chips introduced
in 2007 containing tens of billions of memory transistors.
ULSI, WSI, SOC and 3D-IC
To reflect further growth of the complexity, the term ULSI that stands
for "ultra-large-scale integration" was proposed for chips of more
than 1 million transistors.
Wafer-scale integration (WSI) is a means of building very large
integrated circuits that uses an entire silicon wafer to produce a
single "super-chip". Through a combination of large size and reduced
packaging, WSI could lead to dramatically reduced costs for some
systems, notably massively parallel supercomputers. The name is taken
from the term Very-Large-Scale Integration, the current state of the
art when WSI was being developed.
A system-on-a-chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit in which all
the components needed for a computer or other system are included on a
single chip. The design of such a device can be complex and costly,
and building disparate components on a single piece of silicon may
compromise the efficiency of some elements. However, these drawbacks
are offset by lower manufacturing and assembly costs and by a greatly
reduced power budget: because signals among the components are kept
on-die, much less power is required (see Packaging).
A three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D-IC) has two or more layers
of active electronic components that are integrated both vertically
and horizontally into a single circuit. Communication between layers
uses on-die signaling, so power consumption is much lower than in
equivalent separate circuits. Judicious use of short vertical wires
can substantially reduce overall wire length for faster operation.
Silicon labelling and graffiti
To allow identification during production most silicon chips will have
a serial number in one corner. It is also common to add the
manufacturer's logo. Ever since ICs were created, some chip designers
have used the silicon surface area for surreptitious, non-functional
images or words. These are sometimes referred to as chip art, silicon
art, silicon graffiti or silicon doodling.
ICs and IC families
The 555 timer IC
The 741 operational amplifier
7400 series TTL logic building blocks
4000 series, the
CMOS counterpart to the
7400 series (see also: 74HC00
Intel 4004, the world's first microprocessor, which led to the famous
CPU and then the
IBM PC's 8088, 80286, 486 etc.
MOS Technology 6502
MOS Technology 6502 and
Zilog Z80 microprocessors, used in many
home computers of the early 1980s
Motorola 6800 series of computer-related chips, leading to the
88000 series (used in some
Apple computers and in the 1980s
The LM-series of analog integrated circuits
Integrated circuit development
Integrated injection logic
Monolithic microwave integrated circuit
Photonic integrated circuit
Integrated circuit (IC)". JEDEC.
^ Andrew Wylie (2009). "The first monolithic integrated circuits".
Retrieved 14 March 2011. Nowadays when people say 'integrated circuit'
they usually mean a monolithic IC, where the entire circuit is
constructed in a single piece of silicon.
^ Horowitz, Paul; Hill, Winfield (1989). The Art of
ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 61. ISBN 0-521-37095-7.
Integrated circuits, which have largely replaced circuits constructed
from discrete transistors, are themselves merely arrays of transistors
and other components built from a single chip of semiconductor
^ "Integrated circuits help Invention". Integratedcircuithelp.com.
^ DE 833366 W. Jacobi/SIEMENS AG: "Halbleiterverstärker"
priority filing on 14 April 1949, published on 15 May 1952.
^ "The Hapless Tale of Geoffrey Dummer" Archived 11 May 2013 at the
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Integrated circuit (IC)
Digital signal (electronics)
Logic in computer science
Digital signal (signal processing)
Digital signal processing
Switching circuit theory
Formal equivalence checking
Bipolar junction transistor
Bipolar junction transistor (BJT)
Field-effect transistor (FET)
Constant-current diode (CLD, CRD)
Heterostructure barrier varactor
Insulated-gate bipolar transistor
Insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)
Integrated circuit (IC)
Light-emitting diode (LED)
Silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)
Unijunction transistor (UJT)
Pentagrid (Hexode, Heptode, Octode)
Vacuum tubes (RF)
Backward-wave oscillator (BWO)
Crossed-field amplifier (CFA)
Inductive output tube
Inductive output tube (IOT)
Traveling-wave tube (TWT)
Cathode ray tubes
Beam deflection tube
Magic eye tube
Video camera tube
audio and video
DO-204 (DO-7 / DO-35 / DO-41)
DO-214 (SMA / SMB / SMC)
SOD (SOD-123 / SOD-323 / SOD-523 / SOD-923)
SOT / TSOT
TO-3 (TH / Panel)
TO-66 (TH / Panel)
TO-126 (TH / Panel)
TO-220 (TH / Panel)
TO-247 (TH / Panel)
TO-251 (IPAK) (SMT)
TO-252 (DPAK) (SMT)
TO-262 (I2PAK) (SMT)
TO-263 (D2PAK) (SMT)
TO-273 (Super-220) (SMT)
TO-274 (Super-247) (SMT)
SIP / SIL
DIP / DIL
SO / SOIC
SOP / SSOP
TSOP / TSSOP
QUIP / QUIL
WL-CSP / WLP
Integrated circuit packaging
List of integrated circuit packaging types
Printed circuit board
Note: It's relatively common to find packages that contain other
components than their designated ones, such as diodes or voltage
regulators in transistor packages, etc.
Major fields of computer science
Note: This template roughly follows the 2012 ACM Computing
Printed circuit board
Electronic design automation
Network performance evaluation
Integrated development environment
Software configuration management
Software development process
Theory of computation
Model of computation
Computational complexity theory
Analysis of algorithms
Database management system
Information storage systems
Enterprise information system
Social information systems
Geographic information system
Decision support system
Process control system
Multimedia information system
World Wide Web
Intrusion detection system
Natural language processing
Knowledge representation and reasoning
Automated planning and scheduling
Philosophy of artificial intelligence
Distributed artificial intelligence
Graphics processing unit
Computational social science