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The Info List - Intake


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An intake or (for aircraft) inlet is an opening on a car or aircraft body capturing air for operation of an internal combustion engine. Because the modern ground vehicle internal combustion engine is in essence a powerful air pump, like the exhaust system on an engine, the intake must be carefully engineered and tuned to provide the greatest efficiency and power. An ideal intake system should increase the velocity of the air until it travels into the combustion chamber, while minimizing turbulence and restriction of flow. However, in aircraft, particularly supersonic aircraft, the purpose of the intake is to slow and increase the pressure of the air.

Contents

1 Automobile engine intakes 2 Aircraft intakes 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Automobile engine intakes[edit]

Engine intake of a Mercedes-Benz C 63 AMG

Early automobile intake systems were simple air inlets connected directly to carburetors. The first air filter was implemented on the 1915 Packard
Packard
Twin Six.[citation needed] The modern automobile air intake system has three main parts, an air filter, mass flow sensor, and throttle body. Some modern intake systems can be highly complex, and often include specially-designed intake manifolds to optimally distribute air and air/fuel mixture to each cylinder. Many cars today now include a silencer to minimize the noise entering the cabin.[citation needed] Silencers impede air flow and create turbulence which reduce total power, so performance enthusiasts often remove them.[citation needed] All the above is usually accomplished by flow testing on a flow bench in the port design stage. Cars with turbochargers or superchargers which provide pressurized air to the engine usually have highly refined intake systems to improve performance dramatically.[citation needed] Production cars have specific-length air intakes to cause the air to vibrate and buffet[dubious – discuss] at a specific frequency to assist air flow into the combustion chamber.[citation needed] Aftermarket companies for cars have introduced larger throttle bodies and air filters to decrease restriction of flow at the cost of changing the harmonics of the air intake for a small net increase in power or torque.[citation needed] Aircraft intakes[edit] Main article: Components of jet engines § Air intakes With the development of jet engines and the subsequent ability of aircraft to travel at supersonic speeds, it was necessary to design inlets to provide the flow required by the engine over a wide operating envelope and to provide air with a high pressure recovery and low distortion. These designs became more complex as aircraft speeds increased to Mach 3.0 and Mach 3.2, design points for the XB-70 and SR-71
SR-71
respectively. The inlet is part of the fuselage or part of the nacelle. See also[edit]

Cold air intake Warm air intake Short ram air intake Ram-air intake Intake
Intake
ramp Inlet manifold

References[edit]

External links[edit]

v t e

Automotive engine

Part of the Automobile series

Basic terminology

Bore Compression ratio Crank Cylinder Dead centre Diesel engine Dry sump Engine balance Engine configuration Engine displacement Engine knocking Firing order Hydrolock Petrol engine Power band Redline Spark-ignition engine Stroke Stroke ratio Wet sump

Main components

Connecting rod Crankcase Crankpin Crankshaft Crossplane Cylinder bank Cylinder block Cylinder head
Cylinder head
(crossflow, reverse-flow) Flywheel Head gasket Hypereutectic piston Main bearing Piston Piston
Piston
ring Starter ring gear Sump

Valvetrain

Cam Cam
Cam
follower Camshaft Desmodromic valve Hydraulic tappet Multi-valve Overhead camshaft Overhead valve Pneumatic valve springs Poppet valve Pushrod Rocker arm Sleeve valve Tappet Timing belt Timing mark Valve float Variable valve timing

Aspiration

Air filter Blowoff valve Boost controller Butterfly valve Centrifugal-type supercharger Cold air intake Dump valve Electronic throttle control Forced induction Inlet manifold Intake Intercooler Manifold vacuum Naturally aspirated engine Ram-air intake Scroll-type supercharger Short ram air intake Supercharger Throttle Throttle
Throttle
body Turbocharger Twin-turbo Variable-geometry turbocharger Variable-length intake manifold Warm air intake

Fuel system

Carburetor Common rail Direct injection Fuel filter Fuel injection Fuel pump Fuel tank Gasoline direct injection Indirect injection Injection pump Lean-burn Stratified charge engine Turbo fuel stratified injection Unit injector

Ignition

Contact breaker Magneto Distributor Electrical ballast High tension leads Ignition coil Spark plug Wasted spark

Electrics and engine management

Air–fuel ratio meter Alternator Automatic Performance Control Car
Car
battery (lead–acid battery) Crankshaft
Crankshaft
position sensor Dynamo Drive by wire Electronic control unit Engine control unit Engine coolant temperature sensor Glow plug Idle air control actuator MAP sensor Mass flow sensor Oxygen sensor Starter motor Throttle
Throttle
position sensor

Exhaust system

Automobile emissions control Catalytic converter Diesel particulate filter Exhaust manifold Glasspack Muffler

Engine cooling

Air cooling Antifreeze
Antifreeze
(ethylene glycol) Core plug Electric fan Fan belt Radiator Thermostat Water cooling Viscous fan (fan clutch)

Other components

Balance shaft Block heater Combustion chamber Cylinder head
Cylinder head
porting Gasket Motor oil Oil filter Oil pump Oil sludge PCV valve Seal Synthetic oil Underdrive pulleys

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