INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION (
The book was written as an introductory textbook on the Protestant faith for those with some previous knowledge of theology and covered a broad range of theological topics from the doctrines of church and sacraments to justification by faith alone and Christian liberty . It vigorously attacked the teachings of those Calvin considered unorthodox , particularly Roman Catholicism , to which Calvin says he had been "strongly devoted" before his conversion to Protestantism.
* 1 Background * 2 Title * 3 Contents * 4 Translations * 5 Legacy
* 6 List of editions
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 8.1 Citations * 8.2 Bibliography
* 9 Further reading * 10 External links
Title page of the first edition (1536)
The Institutes proved instantly popular, with many asking for a
revised edition. In 1539, Calvin published a much larger work, with
seventeen chapters of about the same length as the six chapters of the
first edition. It includes many references to classical authors and
Church fathers , as well as many additional references to the Bible.
Calvin's epistle to the reader indicates that the new work is intended
for theological students preparing for ministry. Four chapters were
added in a third edition in 1543, and a 1550 edition was published
with only minor changes. The fifth and final edition with which
Calvin was involved, and which is used by scholars as the
authoritative text, is 80% larger than the previous edition and was
Calvin's theology did not change substantially throughout his life, and so the Institutes did not undergo changes as far as its substance.
Institutes in its first form was not merely an exposition of
Reformation doctrine; it proved the inspiration to a new form of
Christian life for many. It is indebted to
The book is prefaced by a letter to Francis I. As this letter shows, Institutes was composed, or at least completed, to meet a present necessity, to correct an aspersion on Calvin's fellow reformers. The French king, wishing to suppress the Reformation at home, yet unwilling to alienate the reforming princes of Germany, had sought to confound the teachings of the French reformers with the attacks of Anabaptists on civil authority. "My reasons for publishing the Institutes," Calvin wrote in 1557, "were first that I might vindicate from unjust affront my brethren whose death was precious in the sight of the Lord, and next that some sorrow and anxiety should move foreign people, since the same sufferings threaten many." "The hinges on which our controversy turns," says Calvin in his letter to the king, "are that the Church may exist without any apparent form" and that its marks are "pure preaching of the word of God and rightful administration of the sacraments."
Despite the dependence on earlier writers, Institutes was felt by many to be a new voice, and within a year there was demand for a second edition. This came in 1539, amplifying especially the treatment of the fall of man, of election, and of reprobation, as well as that of the authority of scripture. It showed also a more conciliatory temper toward Luther in the section on the Lord\'s Supper .
The opening chapter of the Institutes is perhaps the best known, in which Calvin presents the basic plan of the book. There are two general subjects to be examined: the creator and his creatures. Above all, the book concerns the knowledge of God the Creator, but "as it is in the creation of man that the divine perfections are best displayed", there is also an examination of what can be known about humankind. After all, it is mankind's knowledge of God and of what He requires of his creatures that is the primary issue of concern for a book of theology. In the first chapter, these two issues are considered together to show what God has to do with mankind (and other creatures) and, especially, how knowing God is connected with human knowledge.
To pursue an explanation of the relationship between God and man, the edition of 1559, although Calvin claimed it to be "almost a new work", in fact completely recast the old Institutes into four sections and 80 chapters, on the basis of the Apostles\' Creed , a traditional structure of Christian instruction used in Western Christianity. First, the knowledge of God is considered as knowledge of the Father, the creator, provider, and sustainer. Next, it is examined how the Son reveals the Father, since only God is able to reveal God. The third section of the Institutes describes the work of the Holy Spirit, who raised Christ from the dead, and who comes from the Father and the Son to affect a union in the Church through faith in Jesus Christ, with God, forever. And finally, the fourth section speaks of the Christian church, and how it is to live out the truths of God and Scriptures, particularly through the sacraments. This section also describes the functions and ministries of the church, how civil government relates to religious matters, and includes a lengthy discussion of the deficiencies of the papacy.
Title page of the first French edition (1541)
There is some speculation that Calvin may have translated the first
edition (1536) into French soon after its publication, but the
earliest edition which has survived is Calvin's 1541 translation. It
was primarily intended for French-speaking Swiss , since very few
copies were able to be smuggled into France. Some of these were
publicly burned in front of
Notre-Dame Cathedral soon after their
publication. Calvin published French editions of the Institutes in
1541, 1545, 1551, and 1560. They follow the expansion and development
The French translations of Calvin's Institutes helped to shape the French language for generations, not unlike the influence of the King James Version for the English language.
The Institutes were translated into many other European languages. A
Spanish translation by
Francisco de Enzinas
In English, five complete translations have been published – four
The Institutes overshadowed the earlier
LIST OF EDITIONS
* Calvino, Ioanne (1536). Christianae religionis institutio, totam fere pietatis summam, & quicquid est in doctrina salutis cognitu necessarium: complectens: omnibus pietatis studiosis lectu dignissimum opus, ac recens editum: Praefatio ad Christianissimum regem Franciae, qua hic ei liber pro confessione fidei offertur (in Latin). Basel: Thomam Platteru & Balthasarem Lasium. * ——— (1539). Institutio Christianae Religionis Nunc vere demum suo titulo respondens (in Latin) (2nd ed.). Strassburg: Wendelinum Rihelium. * ——— (1543). Institutio Christianae Religionis Nunc vere demum suo titulo respondens (in Latin) (3rd ed.). Strassburg: Wendelinum Rihelium. * ——— (1550). Institutio totius christianae religionis, nunc ex postrema authoris recognitione, quibusdam locis auctior, inﬁnitis vero castigatior. Joanne Calvino authore. Additi sunt indices duo locupletissimi (in Latin) (4th ed.). Genève: Jean Girard. * ——— (1559). Institutio christianae religionis, in libros quatuor nunc primum digesta, certisque distincta capitibus, ad aptissimam methodum: aucta etiam tam magna accessione ut propemodum opus novum haberi possit (in Latin) (5th ed.). Genevae: Robert I. Estienne.
* Calvin, Jean (1541). Institution de la religion chrestienne: en laquelle est comprinse une somme de pieté, et quasi tout ce qui est necessaire a congnoistre en la doctrine de salut (in French). Genève: Michel Du Bois. * ——— (1545). Institution de la religion chrestienne: composée en latin par Jehan Calvin, et translatée en francoys par luymesme: en laquelle est comprise une somme de toute la chrestienté (in French). Genève: Jean Girard. * ——— (1551). Institution de la religion chrestienne: composée en latin par Jean Calvin, et translatée en françoys par luymesme, et puis de nouveau reveuë et augmentée: en laquelle est comprinse une somme de toute la chrestienté (in French). Genève: Jean Girard. * ——— (1553). Institution de la religion chrestienne: composée en latin par Jean Calvin, et translatée en françoys par luymesme, et encores de nouveau reveuë et augmentée: en laquelle est comprinse une somme de toute la chrestienté (in French). Genève: Jean Girard. * ——— (1554). Institution de la religion chrestienne: composée en latin par Jean Calvin, et translatée en françoys par luymesme, et encores de nouveau reveuë et augmentée: en laquelle est comprinse une somme de toute la chrestienté (in French). Genève: Philbert Hamelin. * ——— (1560). Institution de la religion chrestienne (in French). Genève: Jean Crespin.
* Calvin, Iohann (1572) . Institutio Christianae Religionis, Das ist/Underweisung inn Christlicher Religion. Heydelberg: Johannes Meyer. * Unterricht in der christlichen Religion - Institutio Christianae Religionis, Institutes of the Christian Religion based on the last (1559) edition translated and edited by Otto Weber , edited and reissued by Matthias Freudenberg . 2nd edition, Neukirchener Verlag (publisher) located in Neukirchen-Vluyn, Germany, released in 2008. ISBN 978-3-7887-2327-9
* Calvino, Giovanni (1557). Institutione della religion christiana di messer Giovanni Calvino, in volgare italiano tradotta per Giulio Cesare P (in Italian). Translated by Giulio Cesare Paschali. Genève: François Jaquy, Antoine Davodeau & Jacques Bourgeois.
* Institucion de la religion Cristiana, 1597, translation by Cipriano de Valera
* Zpráva a vysvětlení náboženství křesťanského, cca 1615, translation by Jiří Strejc
* Caluin, Iohn (1561) . The Institvtion of Christian Religion, vvrytten in Latine by maister Ihon Caluin, and translated into Englysh according to the authors last edition. Translated by Thomas Norton . London: Reinolde Vvolf & Richarde Harisson.
* Calvin, John (1813). Institutes of the Christian Religion. 1. Translated by John Allen . Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication.
* ——— (1813). Institutes of the Christian Religion. 2. Translated by John Allen . Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication.
* ——— (1845). Institutes of the Christian Religion; a New Translation by Henry Beveridge. 1. Translated by Henry Beveridge . Edinburgh: Calvin Translation Society.
* ——— (1845). Institutes of the Christian Religion; a New Translation by Henry Beveridge. 2. Translated by Henry Beveridge . Edinburgh: Calvin Translation Society. * ——— (1845). Institutes of the Christian Religion; a New Translation by Henry Beveridge. 3. Translated by Henry Beveridge . Edinburgh: Calvin Translation Society.
* ——— (1960) . Institutes of the Christian Religion: in Two Volumes. Translated by Ford Lewis Battles. Philadelphia: Westminster Press . ISBN 978-0-66422028-0 . * ——— (1959) . Institutes of the Christian Religion. Translated by Ford Lewis Battles (1536 ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. ISBN 978-0-80284167-4 . * ——— (2009) . Institutes of the Christian Religion. Translated by Elsie Anne McKee (1541 French ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. ISBN 978-0-80280774-8 . * ——— (2014) . Institutes of the Christian Religion. Translated by Robert White (1541 French ed.). Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth . ISBN 9781848714632 .
* Calvyn, Johannes (1984) . Institusie van die Christelike Godsdiens.
1. Translated by HW Simpson (1559
* ——— (1986) . Institusie van die Christelike Godsdiens. 2.
Translated by HW Simpson (1559
* Calvinism portal
* ^ "John Calvin", 131 Christians everyone should know, Christian History & Biography, Christianity Today * ^ McNeill 1960 , p. xxx. * ^ A B McNeill 1960 , p. xxxi. * ^ McNeill 1960 , p. xxxii–xxxiii. * ^ A B C McNeill 1960 , p. xxxiv. * ^ A B McNeill 1960 , p. xxxv. * ^ A B McNeill 1960 , p. xxxvi. * ^ McNeill 1960 , p. xxxvii–xxxviii. * ^ A B Schaff, Philip . "Calvin\'s Place in History". History of the Christian Church. VIII: Modern Christianity. The Swiss Reformation. Retrieved 2007-09-18. * ^ McNeill 1960 , p. xxix. * ^ McNeill 1960 , p. xxxiii. * ^ A B C One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Benjamin Willis Wells (1920). "Institutes of the Christian Religion, The". In Rines, George Edwin. Encyclopedia Americana . * ^ Gordon 2016 , pp. 28–29. * ^ McNeill 1960 , p. xl. * ^ A B McNeill 1960 , p. xli. * ^ McNeill 1960 , p. xlii. * ^ "Die 1559-Institusie van die Christelike Godsdiens deur Johannes Calvyn". Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
* Gordon, Bruce (2016). John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion: A Biography. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-8050-8 . * McNeill, John T. (1960). "Introduction". In McNeill, John T. Institutes of the Christian Religion. 1. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox. pp. xxix–lxxi. ISBN 978-0-664-23911-4 .
* Battles, Ford Lewis and John Walchenbach, Analysis of the
"Institutes of the Christian Religion" of
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