Institute for Scientific Information
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The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) was an academic publishing service, founded by
Eugene Garfield Eugene Eli Garfield (September 16, 1925 – February 26, 2017) was an American linguist and businessman, one of the founders of bibliometrics and scientometrics. He helped to create ''Current Contents'', ''Science Citation Index'' (SCI), ''Journa ...
in
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the of in the . It is the in the United States and the city in the state of Pennsylvania, with a 2020 population of 1,603,797. It is also the in the Northeastern U ...

Philadelphia
in 1956. ISI offered scientometric and
bibliographic database A bibliographic database is a database of bibliographic records, an organized digital collection of references to published literature, including academic journal, journal and newspaper articles, conference proceedings, reports, government and lega ...
services. Its specialty was
citation index A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index A bibliographic index is a bibliography intended to help find a publication. Citations are usually listed by author and subject in separate sections, or in a single alphabetical sequence under a ...
ing and analysis, a field pioneered by Garfield.


Services

ISI maintained citation databases covering thousands of
academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most ...
s, including a continuation of its longtime print-based indexing service the
Science Citation Index The Science Citation Index (SCI) is a citation index A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citation A citation is a reference to a source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded ...
(SCI), as well as the
Social Sciences Citation Index The Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) is a commercial citation index A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citation A citation is a reference to a source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric ...
(SSCI) and the
Arts and Humanities Citation Index The ''Arts & Humanities Citation Index'' (A&HCI), also known as ''Arts & Humanities Search'', is a citation index A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citation A citation is a reference to a source. More precisely, a ...
(AHCI). All of these were available via ISI's
Web of Knowledge Web of Science (previously known as Web of Knowledge) is a website that provides subscription-based access to multiple databases that provide comprehensive citation data for many different academic discipline An academic discipline or academic ...
database service. This database allows a researcher to identify which articles have been cited most frequently, and who has cited them. The database provides some measure of the academic impact of the papers indexed in it, and may increase their impact by making them more visible and providing them with a quality label. Some anecdotal evidence suggests that appearing in this database can double the number of citations received by a given paper. The company's main product was ''Current Contents'', which gathers the tables of contents for recent academic journals. The ISI also published the annual ''
Journal Citation Reports ''Journal Citation Reports'' (''JCR'') is an annual publicationAnnual publications, more often simply called annuals, are periodical publications appearing regularly once per year."Annuals", in ''Encyclopedia of library and information science'' ( ...
'' which list an
impact factor #REDIRECT Impact factor#REDIRECT Impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a scientometric index calculated by Clarivate that reflects the yearly average number of citations of articles publish ...
for each of the journals that it tracked. Within the scientific community, journal impact factors continue to play a large but controversial role in determining the kudos attached to a scientist's published research record. A list of over 14,000 journals was maintained by the ISI. The list included some 1,100 arts and humanities journals as well as scientific journals. Listings were based on published selection criteria and are an indicator of journal quality and impact. ISI published ''Science Watch'', a newsletter which every two months identified one paper published in the previous two years as a "fast-breaking paper" in each of 22 broad fields of science, such as
Mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no general consensus abo ...
(including
Statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical ...

Statistics
),
Engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specializ ...

Engineering
,
Biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...

Biology
,
Chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a with other . ...

Chemistry
, and
Physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of eve ...

Physics
. The designations were based on the number of citations and the largest increase from one bimonthly update to the next. Articles about the papers often included comments by the authors. The ISI also published a list of "ISI Highly Cited Researchers", one of the factors included in the
Academic Ranking of World Universities The ''Academic Ranking of World Universities'' (''ARWU''), also known as the Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings. The league table was originally compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiao Tong University ...

Academic Ranking of World Universities
published by
Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU; ) is a major research university in Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered ...
. This continues under Clarivate.


History

Initially, the company was named Documation. In 1992, ISI was acquired by
Thomson Scientific & HealthcareThomson Scientific was one of the five operating divisions of The Thomson Corporation from 2006 to 2008. Following the merger of Thomson with Reuters Group to form Thomson Reuters in 2008, it became the "Scientific" business unit of the new company. ...
, and became known as Thomson ISI. It was a part of the Intellectual Property & Science business of
Thomson Reuters Thomson Reuters Corporation () is a Canadian-American . The company was founded in , , Canada, where it is headquartered at the . Thomson Reuters was created by the 's purchase of the British company in April 2008 and is majority owned ...
until 2016, when the IP & Science business was sold, becoming
Clarivate Analytics Clarivate is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the sociological con ...

Clarivate Analytics
. In February 2018, Clarivate announced it will re-establish ISI as part of its Scientific and Academic Research group. It exists as a group within Clarivate as of November 2018.


ISI Highly Cited

"ISI Highly Cited" is a database of "highly cited researchers"—scientific researchers whose publications are most often in
academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most ...
s over the past decade, published by the Institute for Scientific Information. Inclusion in this list is taken as a measure of the esteem of these academics and is used, for example, by the
Academic Ranking of World Universities The ''Academic Ranking of World Universities'' (''ARWU''), also known as the Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings. The league table was originally compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiao Tong University ...

Academic Ranking of World Universities
. It was founded under ISI and as of 2018 continues under the same name at Clarivate. The methodology for inclusion is to consider papers in the upper first percentile based on citation countsWelcome to Highly Cited Researchers
retrieved July 6, 2014
of all articles indexed in the Scientific Citation Databases and published in a single, fixed year. Papers in the upper first percentile with respect to their year of publication are called highly cited papers. Each paper in the data is assigned to one or more of 21 categories, based on the ISI classification of the journal in which the article was published. The Highly Cited Researchers list is compiled by selecting, in every field, those researchers with the highest number of highly cited papers in a 10-year, rolling time period. The number of highly cited researchers varies from field to field and is determined accordingly to the total number of researchers contributing to the single field. The categories are as follows: The publication list and biographical details supplied by the researchers are freely available online, although general access to the ISI citation database is by subscription.


See also

*
Clarivate Citation Laureates Clarivate Citation Laureates formerly Thomson Reuters Citation Laureates is a list of candidates considered likely to win the Nobel Prize in their respective field. The candidates are so named based on the citation impact of their published resea ...


References


External links


Web of Science website

Highly Cited website
{{Authority control Publishing companies established in 1960 Bibliographic database providers Online databases 1960 establishments in Pennsylvania 1992 mergers and acquisitions Publishing companies disestablished in 1992 1992 disestablishments in Pennsylvania