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Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol
Mongol
Autonomous Region, is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country. Its border includes most of the length of China's border with Mongolia,[a] and a small section of China's border with Russia. Its capital is Hohhot; other major cities include Baotou, Chifeng, and Ordos. The Autonomous Region was established in 1947, incorporating the areas of the former Republic of China
China
provinces of Suiyuan, Chahar, Rehe, Liaobei and Xing'an, along with the northern parts of Gansu
Gansu
and Ningxia. Its area makes it the third largest subdivision of China, constituting approximately 1,200,000 km2 (463,000 sq mi) and 12% of China's total land area. It recorded a population of 24,706,321 in the 2010 census, accounting for 1.84% of Mainland China's total population. Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
is the country's 23rd most populous province-level division.[8] The majority of the population in the region are Han Chinese, with a sizeable titular Mongol
Mongol
minority. The official languages are Mandarin and Mongolian, the latter of which is written in the traditional Mongolian script, as opposed to the Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, which is used in the state of Mongolia (formerly often described in the West as "Outer Mongolia").

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Mongol
Mongol
and Ming periods 2.3 Qing period 2.4 Republic of China
China
and the Second World War periods 2.5 People's Republic of China

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Administrative divisions 5 Economy

5.1 Economic and Technological Development Zones

6 Government and politics 7 Demographics 8 Language and culture 9 Religion 10 Tourism 11 Image gallery 12 Chinese space program 13 Education

13.1 Colleges and universities

14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Further reading 18 External links

Name[edit] In Chinese, the region is known as "Inner Mongolia", where the terms of "Inner/Outer" are derived from Manchu
Manchu
dorgi/tulergi (cf. Mongolian dotugadu/gadagadu). Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
is distinct from Outer Mongolia, which was a term used by the Republic of China
China
and previous governments to refer to what is now the independent state of Mongolia plus the Republic of Tuva
Tuva
in Russia. The term Inner 内 (Nei) referred to the Nei Fan 内番 (Inner Tributary), i.e. those descendants of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
who granted the title khan (king) in Ming and Qing dynasties and lived in part of southern part of Mongolia. In Mongolian, the region was called Dotugadu monggol during Qing rule and was renamed into Öbür Monggol in 1947, öbür meaning the southern side of a mountain, while the Chinese term Nei Menggu was retained. In recent years, some Mongols
Mongols
began to call Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Nan (Chinese: 南; pinyin: Nán) Menggu, literally "South Mongolia", and with it came the change of English translation from Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
to Southern Mongolia.[9] History[edit] See also: History of Mongolia Much of what is known about the history of Greater Mongolia, including Inner Mongolia, is known through Chinese chronicles and historians. Before the rise of the Mongols
Mongols
in the 13th century, what is now central and western Inner Mongolia, especially the Hetao region, alternated in control between Chinese agriculturalists in the south and Xiongnu, Xianbei, Khitan, Jurchen, Tujue, and nomadic Mongol
Mongol
of the north. The historical narrative of what is now Eastern Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
mostly consists of alternations between different Tungusic and Mongol
Mongol
tribes, rather than the struggle between nomads and Chinese agriculturalists. Early history[edit] Slab Grave cultural monuments are found in northern, central and eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, north-western China, southern, central-eastern and southern Baikal territory. Mongolian scholars prove that this culture related to the Proto-Mongols.[10] During the Zhou dynasty, central and western Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
(the Hetao region and surrounding areas) were inhabited by nomadic peoples such as the Loufan, Linhu, and Dí, while eastern Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
was inhabited by the Donghu. During the Warring States period, King Wuling (340–295 BC) of the state of Zhao based in what is now Hebei
Hebei
and Shanxi
Shanxi
provinces pursued an expansionist policy towards the region. After destroying the Dí state of Zhongshan in what is now Hebei province, he defeated the Linhu and Loufan and created the commandery of Yunzhong near modern Hohhot. King Wuling of Zhao
King Wuling of Zhao
also built a long wall stretching through the Hetao region. After Qin Shihuang
Qin Shihuang
created the first unified Chinese empire in 221 BC, he sent the general Meng Tian
Tian
to drive the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
from the region, and incorporated the old Zhao wall into the Qin dynasty Great Wall of China. He also maintained two commanderies in the region: Jiuyuan and Yunzhong, and moved 30,000 households there to solidify the region. After the Qin dynasty collapsed in 206 BC, these efforts were abandoned.[11] During the Western Han dynasty, Emperor Wu sent the general Wei Qing to reconquer the Hetao region from the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
in 127 BC. After the conquest, Emperor Wu continued the policy of building settlements in Hetao to defend against the Xiong-Nu. In that same year he established the commanderies of Shuofang and Wuyuan in Hetao. At the same time, what is now eastern Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
was controlled by the Xianbei, who would later on eclipse the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
in power and influence. During the Eastern Han dynasty
Eastern Han dynasty
(25–220 AD), Xiongnu
Xiongnu
who surrendered to the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
began to be settled in Hetao, and intermingled with the Han immigrants in the area. Later on during the Western Jin dynasty, it was a Xiongnu
Xiongnu
noble from Hetao, Liu Yuan, who established the Han Zhao
Han Zhao
kingdom in the region, thereby beginning the Sixteen Kingdoms period that saw the disintegration of northern China
China
under a variety of Han and non-Han (including Xiongnu
Xiongnu
and Xianbei) regimes. The Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
(581–618) and Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
(618–907) re-established a unified Chinese empire, and like their predecessors, they conquered and settled people into Hetao, though once again these efforts were aborted when the Tang empire began to collapse. Hetao (along with the rest of what now consists Inner Mongolia) was then taken over by the Khitan Empire
Khitan Empire
(Liao dynasty), founded by the Khitans, a nomadic people originally from what is now the southern part of Manchuria
Manchuria
and eastern Inner Mongolia. They were followed by the Western Xia
Western Xia
of the Tanguts, who took control of what is now the western part of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
(including western Hetao) . The Khitans were later replaced by the Jurchens, precursors to the modern Manchus, who established the Jin dynasty over Manchuria
Manchuria
and northern China. Mongol
Mongol
and Ming periods[edit] Main articles: Mongol
Mongol
Empire, Mongolia
Mongolia
under Yuan rule, Northern Yuan dynasty, and Ming dynasty

Persian miniature
Persian miniature
depicting Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
entering Beijing

The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent

After Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
unified the Mongol
Mongol
tribes in 1206 and founded the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, the Tangut Western Xia
Western Xia
empire was ultimately conquered in 1227, and the Jurchen Jin dynasty fell in 1234. In 1271, Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
established the Yuan dynasty. Kublai Khan's summer capital Shangdu
Shangdu
(aka Xanadu) was located near present-day Dolonnor. During that time Ongud
Ongud
and Khunggirad
Khunggirad
peoples dominated the area of what is now Inner Mongolia. After the Yuan dynasty was overthrown by the Han-led Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
in 1368, the Ming captured parts of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
including Shangdu
Shangdu
and Yingchang. The Ming rebuilt the Great Wall of China
Great Wall of China
at its present location, which roughly follows the southern border of the modern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (though it deviates significantly at the Hebei-Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
border). The Ming established the Three Guards composed of the Mongols
Mongols
there. Soon after the Tumu incident
Tumu incident
in 1449, when the Oirat ruler Esen taishi
Esen taishi
captured the Chinese emperor, Mongols
Mongols
flooded south from Outer Mongolia
Mongolia
to Inner Mongolia. Thus from then on until 1635, Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
was the political and cultural center of the Mongols
Mongols
during the Northern Yuan dynasty.[12] Qing period[edit] Main article: Mongolia
Mongolia
under Qing rule The eastern Mongol
Mongol
tribes near and in Manchuria, particularly the Khorchin
Khorchin
and Southern Khalkha
Khalkha
in today's Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
intermarried, formed alliances with, and fought against the Jurchen tribes until Nurhaci, the founder of the new Jin dynasty, consolidated his control over all groups in the area in 1593.[13] The Manchus
Manchus
gained far-reaching control of the Inner Mongolian tribes in 1635, when Ligden Khan's son surrendered the Chakhar Mongol
Mongol
tribes to the Manchus. The Manchus
Manchus
subsequently invaded Ming China
China
in 1644, bringing it under the control of their newly established Qing dynasty. Under the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1636–1912), Greater Mongolia
Mongolia
was administered in a different way for each region:

Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
and Outer Mongolia
Mongolia
within the Qing dynasty

"Outer Mongolia": This region corresponds to the modern state of Mongolia, plus the Russian-administered region of Tannu Uriankhai, and a part of northern Xinjiang. It included the four leagues (aimag) of the Khalkha
Khalkha
Mongols
Mongols
north of the Gobi, as well as the Tannu Uriankhai and Khovd regions in northwestern Mongolia, which were overseen by the General of Uliastai
Uliastai
from the city of Uliastai. "Inner Mongolia": This region corresponded to most of modern Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
and some neighboring areas in Liaoning
Liaoning
and Jilin
Jilin
provinces. The banners and tribes in this region came under six leagues (chuulghan): Jirim, Juuuda, Josutu, Xilingol, Ulanqab, and Yekejuu. "Taoxi Mongolia": The Alashan Öölüd and Ejine Torghuud banners were separate from the aimags of Outer Mongolia
Mongolia
and the chuulghans of Inner Mongolia. This territory is equivalent to modern-day Alxa League, the westernmost part of what is now Inner Mongolia. The Chahar Banners were controlled by the military commander of Chahar (now Zhangjiakou). Their extent corresponded to southern Ulanqab
Ulanqab
and Bayannur
Bayannur
in modern Inner Mongolia, plus the region around Zhangjiakou in Hebei
Hebei
province. At the same time, the jurisdiction of some border departments of Zhili and Shanxi
Shanxi
provinces also belonged to this region. The Guihua Tümed banner was controlled by the military commander of Suiyuan
Suiyuan
(now Hohhot). This corresponds to the vicinities of the modern city of Hohhot. At the same time, the jurisdiction of some border departments of modern Shanxi
Shanxi
province also belonged to this region. The Hulunbuir
Hulunbuir
region in what is now northeastern Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
was part of the jurisdiction of the General of Heilongjiang, one of the three generals of Manchuria.

The Inner Mongolian Chahar leader Ligdan Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan, opposed and fought against the Qing until he died of smallpox in 1634. Thereafter, the Inner Mongols
Mongols
under his son Ejei Khan surrendered to the Qing and was given the title of Prince (Qin Wang, 親王), and Inner Mongolian nobility became closely tied to the Qing royal family and intermarried with them extensively. Ejei Khan died in 1661 and was succeeded by his brother Abunai. After Abunai showed disaffection with Manchu
Manchu
Qing rule, he was placed under house arrest in 1669 in Shenyang
Shenyang
and the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
gave his title to his son Borni. Abunai then bid his time and then he and his brother Lubuzung revolted against the Qing in 1675 during the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, with 3,000 Chahar Mongol
Mongol
followers joining in on the revolt. The revolt was put down within two months, the Qing then crushed the rebels in a battle on April 20, 1675, killing Abunai and all his followers. Their title was abolished, all Chahar Mongol
Mongol
royal males were executed even if they were born to Manchu
Manchu
Qing princesses, and all Chahar Mongol
Mongol
royal females were sold into slavery except the Manchu
Manchu
Qing princesses. The Chahar Mongols
Chahar Mongols
were then put under the direct control of the Qing Emperor unlike the other Inner Mongol leagues which maintained their autonomy. Despite officially prohibiting Han Chinese
Han Chinese
settlement on the Manchu and Mongol
Mongol
lands, by the 18th century the Qing decided to settle Han refugees from northern China
China
who were suffering from famine, floods, and drought into Manchuria
Manchuria
and Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
so that Han Chinese farmed 500,000 hectares in Manchuria
Manchuria
and tens of thousands of hectares in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
by the 1780s.[14] Ordinary Mongols
Mongols
were not allowed to travel outside their own leagues. Mongols
Mongols
were forbidden by the Qing from crossing the borders of their banners, even into other Mongol
Mongol
Banners and from crossing into neidi (the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
18 provinces) and were given serious punishments if they did in order to keep the Mongols
Mongols
divided against each other to benefit the Qing.[15] During the eighteenth century, growing numbers of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
settlers had illegally begun to move into the Inner Mongolian steppe. By 1791 there had been so many Han Chinese
Han Chinese
settlers in the Front Gorlos Banner that the jasak had petitioned the Qing government to legalize the status of the peasants who had already settled there.[16] During the nineteenth century, the Manchus
Manchus
were becoming increasingly sinicized, and faced with the Russian threat, they began to encourage Han Chinese
Han Chinese
farmers to settle in both Mongolia
Mongolia
and Manchuria. This policy was followed by subsequent governments. The railroads that were being built in these regions were especially useful to the Han Chinese settlers. Land was either sold by Mongol
Mongol
Princes, or leased to Han Chinese farmers, or simply taken away from the nomads and given to Han Chinese farmers. The Jindandao Incident, a rebellion by an ethnic Chinese secret society called Jindandao occurred in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
in November 1891 and massacred 150,000 Mongols
Mongols
before being suppressed by government troops in late December. Republic of China
China
and the Second World War periods[edit] Further information: Mongolia
Mongolia
(1911–24) and Inner Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Outer Mongolia
Mongolia
gained independence from the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in 1911, when the Jebtsundamba Khutugtu of the Khalkha
Khalkha
was declared the Bogd Khan
Bogd Khan
of Mongolia. Although almost all banners of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
recognized the Bogd Khan
Bogd Khan
as the supreme ruler of Mongols, the internal strife within the region prevented a full reunification. The Mongol
Mongol
rebellions in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
were counterbalanced by princes who hoped to see a restored Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in Manchuria
Manchuria
and Mongolia, as they considered the theocratic rule of the Bogd Khan
Bogd Khan
would be against their modernizing objectives for Mongolia.[17] Eventually, the newly formed Republic of China
China
promised a new nation of five races (Han, Manchu, Mongol, Tibetan and Uyghur),[18] and suppressed the Mongol
Mongol
rebellions in the area,[19][20] forcing the Inner Mongolian princes to recognize the Republic of China. The Republic of China
China
reorganized Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
into provinces:

Rehe province was created to include the Juuuda
Juuuda
and Josutu leagues, plus the Chengde
Chengde
area in what is now northern Hebei. Chahar province was created to include Xilingol
Xilingol
league as well as much of the former territory of the Eight Banners. Suiyuan
Suiyuan
province was created to include Ulanqab
Ulanqab
league, Yekejuu league, and the Hetao region (former Guihua Tümed territory). Hulunbuir
Hulunbuir
stayed within Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
in Manchuria, which had become a province. Most of Jirim league came under the new province of Fengtian in southern Manchuria. Taoxi Mongolia, i.e. Alashan and Ejine leagues, was incorporated into neighbouring Gansu
Gansu
province. Later on Ningxia
Ningxia
province was split out of northern Gansu, and Taoxi Mongolia
Mongolia
became part of Ningxia.

Some Republic of China
China
maps still show this structure. The history of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
during the Second World War is complicated, with Japanese invasion and different kinds of resistance movements. In 1931, Manchuria
Manchuria
came under the control of the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo, taking some Mongol
Mongol
areas in the Manchurian provinces (i.e. Hulunbuir
Hulunbuir
and Jirim leagues) along. Rehe was also incorporated into Manchukuo
Manchukuo
in 1933, taking Juu Uda and Josutu leagues along with it. These areas were occupied by Manchukuo
Manchukuo
until the end of World War II
World War II
in 1945. In 1937, the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
openly and fully invaded Republic of China
China
by war. On December 8, 1937, Mongolian Prince Demchugdongrub (also known as "De Wang") declared an independence of the remaining parts of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
(i.e. the Suiyuan
Suiyuan
and Chahar provinces) as Mengjiang, and signed an agreements with Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and Japan. Its capital was established at Zhangbei (now in Hebei
Hebei
province), with the Japanese puppet government's control extending as far west as the Hohhot
Hohhot
region. After 1945, Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
has remained part of China. People's Republic of China[edit]

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The Communist movement gradually gained momentum as part of the Third Communist International in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
during the Japanese period. By the end of WWII, the Inner Mongolian faction of the ComIntern had a functional militia, and actively opposed the attempts at independence by De Wang's Chinggisid princes on the grounds of fighting feudalism. Following the end of World War II, the Chinese Communists gained control of Manchuria
Manchuria
as well as the Inner Mongolian Communists with decisive Soviet support, and established the Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Autonomous Region in 1947. The Comintern army was absorbed into the People's Liberation Army. Initially the autonomous region included just the Hulunbuir
Hulunbuir
region. Over the next decade, as the communists established the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
and consolidated control over mainland China, Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
was expanded westwards to include five of the six original leagues (except Josutu League, which remains in Liaoning province), the northern part of the Chahar region, by then a league as well (southern Chahar remains in Hebei
Hebei
province), the Hetao region, and the Alashan and Ejine banners. Eventually, near all areas with sizeable Mongol
Mongol
populations were incorporated into the region, giving present-day Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
its elongated shape. The leader of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
during that time, as both regional CPC secretary and head of regional government, was Ulanhu. During the Cultural Revolution, the administration of Ulanhu
Ulanhu
was purged, and a wave of repressions was initiated against the Mongol population of the autonomous region.[21] In 1969 much of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
was distributed among surrounding provinces, with Hulunbuir divided between Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
and Jilin, Jirim going to Jilin, Juu Uda to Liaoning, and the Alashan and Ejine region divided among Gansu
Gansu
and Ningxia. This was reversed in 1979. Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
has seen considerable development since Deng Xiaoping instituted Chinese economic reform
Chinese economic reform
in 1978. For about ten years since 2000, Inner Mongolia's GDP growth has been the highest in the country, (along with Guangdong) largely owing to the success of natural resource industries in the region. GDP growth has continually been over 10%, even 15% and connections with the Wolf Economy
Wolf Economy
to the north has helped development. However, growth has come at a cost with huge amounts of pollution and degradation to the grasslands.[22] Attempts to attract ethnic Chinese to migrate from other regions, as well as urbanise those rural nomads and peasants has led to huge amounts of corruption and waste in public spending, such as Ordos City.[23][24] Acute uneven wealth distribution has further exacerbated ethnic tensions, many indigenous Mongolians feeling they are increasingly marginalised in their own homeland, leading to riots in 2011 and 2013.[25][26] Geography[edit]

Grasslands in the region

Officially Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
is classified as one of the provincial-level divisions of North China, but its great stretch means that parts of it belong to Northeast China
China
and Northwest China
China
as well. It borders eight provincial-level divisions in all three of the aforementioned regions (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Ningxia, and Gansu), tying with Shaanxi
Shaanxi
for the greatest number of bordering provincial-level divisions. Most of its international border is with Mongolia, which, in Chinese, is sometimes called “Outer Mongolia” (外蒙古), while a small portion is with Russia.

Weeping willows (Salix Babylonica) grow tall at the Zhaojun Tomb
Zhaojun Tomb
in Hohhot, reflecting the milder climate there.

Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
largely consists of the northern side of the North China
China
Craton, a tilted and sedimented Precambrian
Precambrian
block. In the extreme southwest is the edge of the Tibetan Plateau where the autonomous region’s highest peak, Main Peak in the Helan Mountains reaches 3,556 metres (11,670 ft), and is still being pushed up today in short bursts.[27] Most of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
is a plateau averaging around 1,200 metres (3,940 ft) in altitude and covered by extensive loess and sand deposits. The northern part consists of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era Khingan Mountains, and is owing to the cooler climate more forested, chiefly with Manchurian elm, ash, birch, Mongolian oak and a number of pine and spruce species. Where discontinuous permafrost is present north of Hailar District, forests are almost exclusively coniferous. In the south the natural vegetation is grassland in the east and very sparse in the arid west, and grazing is the dominant economic activity. Owing to the ancient, weathered rocks lying under its deep sedimentary cover, Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
is a major mining district, possessing large reserves of coal, iron ore and rare-earth minerals, which have made it a major industrial region today. Climate[edit] Due to its elongated shape, Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
has a wide variety of regional climates. Throughout the region, the climate is based off a four-season, monsoon climate. The winters in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
are very long, cold, and dry with frequent blizzards, though snowfall is so light that Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
has no modern glaciers[27] even on the highest Helan peaks. The spring is short, mild and arid, with large, dangerous sandstorms, whilst the summer is very warm to hot and relatively humid except in the west where it remains dry. Autumn is brief and sees a steady cooling, with temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) reached in October in the north and November in the south. Officially, most of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
is classified as either a cold arid or steppe regime (Köppen BWk, BSk, respectively). The small portion besides these are classified as humid continental (Köppen Dwb) in the northeast, or subarctic (Köppen Dwc) in the far north near Hulunbuir.[28]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for some locations in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
of China

City July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)

Baotou 29.6/17.1 85.3/62.8 –4.1/–16.8 24.7/1.8

Bayannur 30.7/17.9 87.3/64.2 –3.3/–15.1 26.1/4.8

Hohhot 28.5/16.4 83.3/61.5 –5/–16.9 23/1.6

Ordos 26.7/15.8 80.1/60.4 –4.8/–14.7 23.4/5.5

Ulanqab 25.4/13.6 77.7/56.5 –6.1/–18.5 21/–1.3

Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
and List of township-level divisions of Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
is divided into twelve prefecture-level divisions. Until the late 1990s, most of Inner Mongolia's prefectural regions were known as Leagues (Chinese: 盟), a usage retained from Mongol divisions of the Qing dynasty. Similarly, county-level divisions are often known as Banners (Chinese: 旗). Since the 1990s, numerous Leagues have converted into prefecture-level cities, although Banners remain. The restructuring led to the conversion of primate cities in most leagues to convert to districts administratively (i.e.: Hailar, Jining and Dongsheng). Some newly founded prefecture-level cities have chosen to retain the original name of League (i.e.: Hulunbuir, Bayannur
Bayannur
and Ulanqab), some have adopted the Chinese name of their primate city (Chifeng, Tongliao), and one League (Yekejuu) simply renamed itself Ordos. Despite these recent administrative changes, there is no indication that the Alxa, Hinggan, and Xilingol
Xilingol
Leagues will convert to prefecture-level cities in the near future.

Administrative divisions of Inner Mongolia

№ Division code[29] English name Mongolian Mongolian Transcription Chinese Pinyin Area
Area
in km2[30] Population 2010[31] Seat Divisions[32]

Districts Counties Banners Aut. banners CL cities

  150000 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

Öbür mongγol-un öbertegen zasaqu orun 內蒙古自治区 Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū 1183000.00 24,706,321 Hohhot 23 66 3 11

6 150100 Hohhot

Kökeqota 呼和浩特市 Hūhéhàotè Shì 17186.10 2,866,615 Xincheng District 4 5

5 150200 Baotou

Buɣutu qota 包头市 Bāotóu Shì 27768.00 2,650,364 Hondlon District 6 3

3 150300 Wuhai

Üqai qota 乌海市 Wūhǎi Shì 1754.00 532,902 Haibowan District 3

9 150400 Chifeng

Ulaɣanqada qota 赤峰市 Chìfēng Shì 90021.00 4,341,245 Songshan District 3 9

10 150500 Tongliao

Tüŋliyou qota 通辽市 Tōngliáo Shì 59535.00 3,139,153 Horqin District 1 6

1

4 150600 Ordos

Ordos qota 鄂尔多斯市 È'ěrduōsī Shì 86881.61 1,940,653 Hia'bagx District 2 7

12 150700 Hulunbuir

Kölön Buyir qota 呼伦贝尔市 Hūlúnbèi'ěr Shì 254003.79 2,549,278 Hailar District 2 4 3 5

2 150800 Bayannur

Bayannaɣur qota 巴彦淖尔市 Bāyànnào'ěr Shì 65755.47 1,669,915 Linhe District 1 6

7 150900 Ulanqab

Ulaɣančab qota 乌兰察布市 Wūlánchábù Shì 54447.72 2,143,590 Jining District 1 9

1

11 152200 Hinggan League

Qiŋɣan ayimaɣ 兴安盟 Xīng'ān Méng 59806.00 1,613,250 Ulanhot

4

2

8 152500 Xilingol
Xilingol
League

Sili-yin Ɣool ayimaɣ 锡林郭勒盟 Xīlínguōlè Méng 202580.00 1,028,022 Xilinhot

10

2

1 152900 Alxa League

Alaša ayimaɣ 阿拉善盟 Ālāshàn Méng 267574.00 231,334 Alxa Left Banner

3

The twelve prefecture-level divisions of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
are subdivided into 102 county-level divisions, including 22 districts, 11 county-level cities, 17 counties, 49 banners, and 3 autonomous banners. Those are in turn divided into 1425 township-level divisions, including 532 towns, 407 townships, 277 sumu, eighteen ethnic townships, one ethnic sumu, and 190 subdistricts. Economy[edit] Farming of crops such as wheat takes precedence along the river valleys. In the more arid grasslands, herding of goats, sheep and so on is a traditional method of subsistence. Forestry
Forestry
and hunting are somewhat important in the Greater Khingan
Greater Khingan
ranges in the east. Reindeer herding is carried out by Evenks
Evenks
in the Evenk Autonomous Banner. More recently, growing grapes and winemaking have become an economic factor in the Wuhai
Wuhai
area.

Theater in Hohhot

Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
has abundance of resources especially coal, cashmere, natural gas, rare-earth elements, and has more deposits of naturally occurring niobium, zirconium and beryllium than any other province-level region in China. However, in the past, the exploitation and utilisation of resources were rather inefficient, which resulted in poor returns from rich resources. Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
is also an important coal production base, with more than a quarter of the world's coal reserves located in the province.[33] It plans to double annual coal output by 2010 (from the 2005 volume of 260 million tons) to 500 million tons of coal a year.[34]

Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Gymnasium

Industry in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
has grown up mainly around coal, power generation, forestry-related industries, and related industries. Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
now encourages six competitive industries: energy, chemicals, metallurgy, equipment manufacturing, processing of farm (including dairy) produce, and high technology. Well-known Inner Mongolian enterprises include companies such as ERDOS, Yili, and Mengniu. The nominal GDP of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
in 2015 was 1.8 trillion yuan (US$272.1 billion), with an average annual increase of 10% from the period 2010-2015. Its per capita GDP reached US$11,500 in 2015, ranking No.4th among all the 31 provinces of China, only after Shanghai, Beijing
Beijing
and Tianjin.[35] As with much of China, economic growth has led to a boom in construction, including new commercial development and large apartment complexes. In addition to its large reserves of natural resources, Inner Mongolia also has the largest usable wind power capacity in China[33] thanks to strong winds which develop in the province's grasslands. Some private companies have set up wind parks in parts of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
such as Bailingmiao, Hutengliang and Zhouzi. Economic and Technological Development Zones[edit]

Baotou
Baotou
National Rare-Earth Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone[36] Erenhot
Erenhot
Border Economic Cooperation Area Hohhot
Hohhot
Export Processing Zone

Hohhot
Hohhot
Export Processing Zone
Export Processing Zone
was established on June 21, 2002, by the State Council, which is located in the west of the Hohhot, with a planning area of 2.2 km2. Industries encouraged in the export processing zone include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Telecommunications Equipment, Garment and Textiles Production, Trading and Distribution, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Food/Beverage Processing, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics, Heavy Industry.[37]

Hohhot
Hohhot
Economic and Technological Development Zone Hohhot
Hohhot
Export Processing Zone Manzhouli
Manzhouli
Border Economic Cooperation Area

Government and politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Inner Mongolia See also: List of provincial leaders of the People's Republic of China Under the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, articles 112-122, autonomous regions have limited autonomy in both the political and economic arena. Autonomous regions have more discretion in administering economic policy in the region in accordance with national guidelines. Structurally, the Chairman—who legally must be an ethnic minority and is usually ethnic Mongolian—is always kept in check by the Communist Party Regional Committee Secretary, who is usually from a different part of China
China
(to reduce corruption) and Han Chinese. The current party secretary is Wang Jun.[38] The Inner Mongolian government and its subsidiaries follow roughly the same structure as that of a Chinese province. With regards to economic policy, as a part of increased federalism characteristics in China, Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
has become more independent in implementing its own economic roadmap. The position of Chairman of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
alternates between Khorchin Mongols
Mongols
in the east and the Tumed Mongols
Mongols
in the west. Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, this convention has not been broken. The family of Ulanhu
Ulanhu
has retained influence in regional politics ever since the founding the People's Republic. His son Buhe and granddaughter Bu Xiaolin both served as Chairman of the region. Demographics[edit] Main articles: Southern Mongols, Mongols
Mongols
in China, and List of ethnic groups in China

Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot

Historical population

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1954[39] 6,100,104 —    

1964[40] 12,348,638 +7.31%

1982[41] 19,274,279 +2.50%

1990[42] 21,456,798 +1.35%

2000[43] 23,323,347 +0.84%

2010[4] 24,706,321 +0.58%

Established in 1947 from dissolution of Xing'an Province, Qahar Province, parts of Rehe Province, and Suiyuan
Suiyuan
Province; parts of Ningxia
Ningxia
Province were incorporated into Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
AR.

When the autonomous region was established in 1947, Han Chinese comprised 83.6% of the population, while the Mongols
Mongols
comprised 14.8% of the population.[44] By 2010, the percentage of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
had dropped to 79.5%. While the Hetao region along the Yellow River
Yellow River
has always alternated between farmers from the south and nomads from the north, the most recent wave of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
migration began in the early 18th century with encouragement from the Qing dynasty, and continued into the 20th century. Han Chinese
Han Chinese
live mostly in the Hetao region as well as various population centres in central and eastern Inner Mongolia. Over 70% of Mongols
Mongols
are concentrated in less than 18% of Inner Mongolia's territory (Hinggan League, and the prefectures of Tongliao
Tongliao
and Chifeng). Mongols
Mongols
are the second largest ethnic group, comprising 17.11% of the population as of the 2010 census.[45] They include many diverse Mongolian-speaking groups; groups such as the Buryats
Buryats
and the Oirats are also officially considered to be Mongols
Mongols
in China. In addition to the Manchus, three other Tungusic ethnic groups, the Daur, the Oroqen, and the Evenks
Evenks
also populate parts of northeastern Inner Mongolia. Many of the traditionally nomadic Mongols
Mongols
have settled in permanent homes as their pastoral economy was collectivized during the Mao Era, and some have taken jobs in cities as migrant labourers; however, some Mongols
Mongols
continue in their nomadic tradition. In practice, highly educated Mongols
Mongols
tend to migrate to big urban centers after which they become essentially indistinct with ethnic Han Chinese
Han Chinese
populations. Inter-marriage between Mongol
Mongol
and non- Mongol
Mongol
populations is very common, particularly in areas where Mongols
Mongols
are in regular contact with other groups. There was little cultural stigma within Mongol families for marrying outside the ethnic group, and in urban centers in particular, Mongol
Mongol
men and women married non Mongols
Mongols
at relatively similar rates. The rates of intermarriage stands in very sharp contrast to ethnic Tibetans and Uyghurs in their respective autonomous regions. By the 1980s, for instance, in the former Jirim League, nearly 40% of marriages with at least one Mongol
Mongol
spouse was a mixed Mongol- Han Chinese
Han Chinese
marriage.[46] However, anecdotal reports have also demonstrated an increase in Mongol-female, Han Chinese-male pairings in which the woman is of a rural background, ostensibly shutting rural Mongol
Mongol
males from the marriage market as the sex ratio in China becomes more skewed with a much higher proportion of men.[47] There is also a significant number of Hui and Koreans.

Ethnic groups in Inner Mongolia, 2010 census[48]

Ethnicity Population Percentage

Han Chinese 19,650,687 79.54%

Mongol 4,226,093 17.11%

Hui 452,765 1.83%

Daur 121,483 0.90%

Evenks 26,139 0.11%

Oroqen people 8,464 0.07%

Year Population Han Chinese Mongol Manchu

1953[49] 6,100,104 5,119,928 83.9% 888,235 14.6% 18,354 0.3%

1964[49] 12,348,638 10,743,456 87.0% 1,384,535 11.2% 50,960 0.4%

1982[49] 19,274,281 16,277,616 84.4% 2,489,378 12.9% 237,149 1.2%

1990[50] 21,456,500 17,290,000 80.6% 3,379,700 15.8%

2000[51] 23,323,347 18,465,586 79.2% 3,995,349 17.1% 499,911 2.3%

2010[52] 24,706,321 19,650,687 79.5% 4,226,093 17.1% 452,765 1.83%

Territories with Mongol
Mongol
majorities and near-majorities[53][54]

Name of banner Mongol
Mongol
population Percentage

Horqin Right Middle Banner, Hinggan (2009) 222,410 84.1%

New Barag Right Banner, Hulunbuir
Hulunbuir
(2009) 28,369 82.2%

Horqin Left Back Banner, Tongliao 284,000 75%

New Barag Left Banner, Hulunbuir
Hulunbuir
(2009) 31,531 74.9%

Horqin Left Middle Banner, Tongliao 395,000 73.5%

East Ujimqin Banner, Xilingol
Xilingol
(2009) 43,394 72.5%

West Ujimqin Banner, Xilingol 57,000 65%

Sonid Left Banner, Xilingol
Xilingol
(2006) 20,987 62.6%

Bordered Yellow Banner, Xilingol 19,000 62%

Hure Banner, Tongliao 93,000 56%

Jarud Banner, Tongliao 144,000 48%

Horqin Right Front Banner, Hinggan 162,000 45%

Old Barag Banner, Hulunbuir
Hulunbuir
(2006) 25,903 43.6%

Jalaid Banner, Hinggan 158,000 39%

Ar Khorchin
Khorchin
Banner, Chifeng
Chifeng
(2002) 108,000 36.6%

Population numbers exclude members of the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
in active service based in Inner Mongolia. Language and culture[edit] See also: Culture of Mongolia, Music of Mongolia, and Music of Inner Mongolia

A KFC
KFC
in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian

Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870

Alongside Chinese, Mongolian is the official provincial language of the Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Autonomous Region, where there are at least 4.1 million ethnic Mongols.[55] Across the whole of China, the language is spoken by roughly half of the country's 5.8 million ethnic Mongols (2005 estimate)[56] However, the exact number of Mongolian speakers in China
China
is unknown, as there is no data available on the language proficiency of that country's citizens. The use of Mongolian in China, specifically in Inner Mongolia, has witnessed periods of decline and revival over the last few hundred years. The language experienced a decline during the late Qing period, a revival between 1947 and 1965, a second decline between 1966 and 1976, a second revival between 1977 and 1992, and a third decline between 1995 and 2012.[57] However, in spite of the decline of the Mongolian language
Mongolian language
in some of Inner Mongolia's urban areas and educational spheres, the ethnic identity of the urbanized Chinese-speaking Mongols
Mongols
is most likely going to survive due to the presence of urban ethnic communities.[58] The multilingual situation in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
does not appear to obstruct efforts by ethnic Mongols
Mongols
to preserve their language.[59][60] Although an unknown number of Mongols
Mongols
in China, such as the Tumets, may have completely or partially lost the ability to speak their language, they are still registered as ethnic Mongols
Mongols
and continue to identify themselves as ethnic Mongols.[56][61] The children of inter-ethnic Mongol-Chinese marriages also claim to be and are registered as ethnic Mongols.[62] By law, all street signs, commercial outlets, and government documents must be bilingual, written in both Mongolian and Chinese. There are three Mongolian TV channels in the Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Satellite TV network. In public transportation, all announcements are to be bilingual. Mongols
Mongols
in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
speak Mongolian dialects such as Chakhar, Xilingol, Baarin, Khorchin
Khorchin
and Kharchin Mongolian and, depending on definition and analysis, further dialects[63] or closely related independent Central Mongolic languages[64] such as Ordos, Khamnigan, Barghu Buryat and the arguably Oirat dialect Alasha. The standard pronunciation of Mongolian in China
China
is based on the Chakhar dialect of the Plain Blue Banner, located in central Inner Mongolia, while the grammar is based on all Southern Mongolian dialects.[65] This is different from the Mongolian state, where the standard pronunciation is based on the closely related Khalkha
Khalkha
dialect. There are a number of independent languages spoken in Hulunbuir
Hulunbuir
such as the somewhat more distant Mongolic language Dagur and the Tungusic language Evenki. Officially, even the Evenki dialect Oroqin is considered a language.[66] The Han Chinese
Han Chinese
of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
speak a variety of dialects, depending on the region. Those in the eastern parts tend to speak Northeastern Mandarin, which belongs to the Mandarin group of dialects; those in the central parts, such as the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley, speak varieties of Jin, another subdivision of Chinese, due to its proximity to other Jin-speaking areas in China
China
such as the Shanxi province. Cities such as Hohhot
Hohhot
and Baotou
Baotou
both have their unique brand of Jin Chinese
Jin Chinese
such as the Zhangjiakou– Hohhot
Hohhot
dialect which are sometimes incomprehensible with dialects spoken in northeastern regions such as Hailar. The vast grasslands have long symbolised Inner Mongolia. Mongolian art often depicts the grassland in an uplifting fashion and emphasizes Mongolian nomadic traditions. The Mongols
Mongols
of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
still practice their traditional arts. Inner Mongolian cuisine has Mongol roots and consists of dairy-related products and hand-held lamb (手扒肉). In recent years, franchises based on Hot pot
Hot pot
have appeared in Inner Mongolia, the best known of which is Xiaofeiyang (小肥羊). Notable Inner Mongolian commercial brand names include Mengniu
Mengniu
and Yili, both of which began as dairy product and ice cream producers. Among the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
of Inner Mongolia, Jinju (晉劇) or Shanxi Opera is a popular traditional form of entertainment. See also: Shanxi. A popular career in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
is circus acrobatics. The internationally known Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Acrobatic Troupe travels and performs with the renowned Ringling Bros. and Barnum and Bailey Circus. Religion[edit]

Religion in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
(2005-2010)

Chinese and Mongolian folk religion (worship of Heaven and ovoo/aobao)

80%

Tibetan Buddhism

12.1%

Chinese ancestral religion

2.35%

Christianity

2%

Islam

0.91%

Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.[b]

Main article: Religion in Inner Mongolia According to a survey held in 2004 by the Minzu University of China, about 80% of the population of the region practice the worship of Heaven (that is named Tian
Tian
in the Chinese tradition and Tenger in the Mongolian tradition) and of ovoo/aobao.[67] Official statistics report that 12.1% of the population (3 million people) are members of Tibetan Buddhist groups.[68] According to the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey of 2007 and the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009, Christianity
Christianity
is the religious identity of 2% of the population of the region; and Chinese ancestral religion
Chinese ancestral religion
the professed belonging of 2.36%,[69] while a demographic analysis of the year 2010 reported that Muslims comprise the 0.91%.[70] The cult of Genghis Khan, present in the form of various Genghis Khan temples, is a tradition of Mongolian shamanism, in which he is considered a cultural hero and divine ancestor, an embodiment of the Tenger (Heaven, God of Heaven).[71] His worship in special temples, greatly developed in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
since the 1980s, is also shared by the Han Chinese, claiming his spirit as the founding principle of the Yuan dynasty.[72] Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
(Mongolian Buddhism, locally also known as "Yellow Buddhism") is the dominant form of Buddhism in Inner Mongolia, also practiced by many Han Chinese. Another form of Buddhism, practiced by the Chinese, are the schools of Chinese Buddhism. Tourism[edit] In the capital city Hohhot:

Da Zhao Temple is a Lamaist temple built in 1580. Dazhao Temple is known for three sites: a statue of Buddha made from silver, elaborate carvings of dragons, and murals. Five-pagoda Temple is located in the capital of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Hohhot. It is also called Jingangzuo Dagoba, used to be one building of the Cideng Temple (Temple of Merciful Light) built in 1727. Residence of Gurun Princess Kejing
Residence of Gurun Princess Kejing
is a mansion typical of Qing dynasty architectural style that was built in 1705 by the Kangxi Emperor for his daughter. Wanbu-Huayanjing Pagoda (万部华严经塔) in Hohhot. It was built during the reign of Emperor Shengzong (983–1031) of the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125) and is still well preserved. Xiaozhao Temple, also known as Chongfu temple, is a Lamaist temple built in 1697 and favoured by the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
of the Qing dynasty. Xilitu Zhao
Xilitu Zhao
/ Siregtu juu Temple is the largest Lamaist temple in the Höhhot area, and once the center of power of Lamaism
Lamaism
in the region. Zhaojun Tomb
Zhaojun Tomb
is the tomb of Wang Zhaojun, a Han dynasty
Han dynasty
palace lady-in-waiting who became the consort of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
ruler Huhanye Shanyu in 33BC.

Elsewhere in Inner Mongolia:

The Mausoleum of Genghis Khan, the cenotaph of Genghis Khan, is located in Ordos City. Bashang Grasslands, on the border close to Beijing, is a popular retreat for urban residents wanting to get a taste of grasslands life. The Arshihaty Stone Forest in Hexigten Global Geopark
Hexigten Global Geopark
has magnificent granite rock formations formed from natural erosion. Xiangshawan, or "singing sands gorge", is located in the Gobi Desert and contains numerous tourist attractions including sand sledding and camel rides. Remains of Zhongjing (Central Capital) built in 1003 by Emperor Shengzong of the Khitan Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
(907-1125) in Ningcheng County. Remains of Shangjing (Upper Capital) built in 918 by Yelu Abaoji the 1st emperor of the Khitan Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
(907-1125). Also called Huangdu it was one of the five capitals of the Liao dynasty. Zuling Mausoleum of Abaoji Khan. It was built in 926 for Abaoji the 1st Emperor of the Liao dynasty. Located north-west of Shifangzi village. Tablets of Juyan. Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BC – 220 AD) inscriptions on wood and bamboo. In 1930 Folke Bergman of the Sino-Swedish expedition first discovered 10,000 tablets at Ejin Khoshuu in the Gobi Desert. Ruins of Shangdu
Shangdu
(Xanadu) the Summer Capital of the Mongol
Mongol
Yuan dynasty built in 1256 by Kublai Khan. White pagoda of the Mongol
Mongol
Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
(1279-1368) in Kailu (開魯), Tongliao. It is still well preserved. Ruins of Chagan Khoto (查干浩特) capital of the last Mongol
Mongol
Great Khan Ligden (1588–1634). Located in Ar Horqin Banner.

Image gallery[edit]

Jade dragon of the Hongshan culture
Hongshan culture
(4700 BC – 2900 BC) found in Ongniud, Chifeng

Ulaanbutan grassland

Inner Mongolian grassland

Honorary tomb of Wang Zhaojun
Wang Zhaojun
(born c. 50BC) in Hohhot

Fresco in the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
(907–1125) tomb at Baoshan, Ar Horqin

Khitan people
Khitan people
cooking. Fresco in the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
(907–1125) tomb at Aohan

Remains of the city Khara-Khoto built in 1032. Located in Ejin Khoshuu, Alxa Aimag

Maidari Juu temple fortress (美岱召, Meidai Zhao) built by Altan Khan in 1575 near Baotou

Newly built arch in front of the Maidari Juu temple fortress (1575)

Da Zhao temple (also called Ikh Zuu) built by Altan Khan
Altan Khan
in 1579

Badekar Monastery
Badekar Monastery
(1749) near Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Called Badgar Zuu in Mongolian

Five Pagoda temple (1727) in Hohhot

Badain Jaran temple (1868) in western Inner Mongolia

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Mausoleum (1954)

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Mausoleum (1954)

Alshaa mountain scenery

Alxa Western Monastery (Alshaa Baruun Hiid) built in 1756

Chinese space program[edit] One of China's space vehicle launch facilities, Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center (JSLC) (酒泉卫星发射中心), is located in the extreme west of Inner Mongolia, in the Alxa League's Ejin Banner. It was founded in 1958, making it the PRC's first launch facility. More Chinese launches have occurred at Jiuquan than anywhere else. As with all Chinese launch facilities, it is remote and generally closed to the public. It is named as such since Jiuquan is the nearest urban center, although Jiuquan is in the nearby province of Gansu. Many space vehicles have also made their touchdowns in Inner Mongolia. For example, the crew of Shenzhou 6
Shenzhou 6
landed in Siziwang Banner, near Hohhot. Education[edit] Colleges and universities[edit] See also: List of universities and colleges in Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Agricultural University (öbür mongγol-un tariyalang-un yeke surγaγuli / 内蒙古农业大学) Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
University (öbür mongγol-un yeke surγaγuli / 内蒙古大学) Hulunbuir
Hulunbuir
University (hulunbuir surγaγuli / 呼伦贝尔学院) Chifeng
Chifeng
University (ulaγanqada degedü surγaγuli / 赤峰学院) Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Finance and Economics College (öbür mongγol-un ed-ün jasaγ aju aqui-yin degedü surγaγuli / 内蒙古财经学院) Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Medical College (öbür mongγol-un emnelge-yin degedü surγaγuli / 内蒙古医学院) Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Normal University (öbür mongγol-un baγsi-yin yeke surγaγuli / 内蒙古师范大学) Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
University for Nationalities (öbür mongγol-un ündüsüten-ü yeke surγaγuli / 内蒙古民族大学) Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
University of Science and Technology (内蒙古科技大学) Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
University of Technology (öbür mongγol-un aju üiledbüri-yin yeke surγaγuli / 内蒙古工业大学)

All of the above are under the authority of the autonomous region government. Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed. See also[edit]

China
China
portal Mongolia
Mongolia
portal

Leagues of Inner Mongolia List of administrative divisions of Inner Mongolia Major national historical and cultural sites in Inner Mongolia East Asian snowstorms of 2009-2010

Notes[edit]

^ The rest of the China- Mongolia
Mongolia
border coincides with parts of the borders of the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
autonomous region and of Gansu
Gansu
province ^ The White Sulde (White Spirit) is one of the two spirits of Genghis Khan (the other being the Black Sulde), represented either as his white or yellow horse or as a fierce warrior riding this horse. In its interior, the temple enshrines a statue of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
(at the center) and four of his men on each side (the total making nine, a symbolic number in Mongolian culture), there is an altar where offerings to the godly men are made, and three white suldes made with white horse hair. From the central sulde there are strings which hold tied light blue pieces of cloth with a few white ones. The wall is covered with all the names of the Mongol
Mongol
kins. The Chinese worship Genghis as the ancestral god of the Yuan dynasty.

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China
Perspective". thechinaperspective.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-26.  ^ "People's Daily Online -- Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
to double annual coal output by 2010". people.com.cn.  ^ "People's Daily Online -- Inner Mongolia's economy maintains a rapid growth momentum". people.com.cn.  ^ Baotou
Baotou
National Rare-Earth Hi-Tech Industiral Development Zone Archived 2015-10-16 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ RightSite.asia Hohhot
Hohhot
Export Processing Zone[permanent dead link]. ^ "Who's Who in China's Leadership". china.org.cn.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2009-08-05.  ^ "第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-06-19.  ^ "现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-08-29.  ^ Myron Weiner, Sharon Stanton Russell(2001). Demography and national security. page 276, table 9.4. ^ "Who is Chinese? The Upper Han". The Economist. 2016-11-19. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2017-01-02.  ^ Mongolia
Mongolia
in the Twentieth Century. New York City: Rutledge. 1999. p. 213.  ^ He, Shenghai; Eade, John (May 2015). "Unequal Marriage Exchange Between Majority and Minority Groups: A Case Study From Inner Mongolia, China" (PDF). Sociology Study.  ^ Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2010 Population Census of China (《2010年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5) ^ a b c (without Rehe)《中华人民共和国人口统计资料汇编1949—1985》, "People's Republic of demographic data compilation 1949–1985" 中国财政经济出版社,1988。第924页。 " China
China
Financial and Economic Publishing House, 1988. Section 924". ^ 内蒙古自治区统计局(Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Autonomous Region Bureau of Statistics) 1990年第四次人口普查(4th National Census) Archived 2013-07-27 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ 《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》, (5th National Census)民族出版社,2003。第4—8页。 ^ (6th National Census) 内蒙古自治区发布2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报 Archived 2013-07-12 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Baidu" network: Inner Mongolian Banner demographics (in Chinese). ^ "XZQH.org" network: Inner Mongolian Banner demographics (in Chinese). ^ Tsung, Linda (October 27, 2014). "3". Language Power and Hierarchy: Multilingual Education in China. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 59.  ^ a b Janhunen, Juha (November 29, 2012). "1". Mongolian. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 11.  ^ Tsung, Linda (October 27, 2014). "3". Language Power and Hierarchy: Multilingual Education in China. Bloomsbury Academic.  ^ Iredale, Robyn; Bilik, Naran; Fei, Guo (August 2, 2003). "4". China's Minorities on the Move: Selected Case Studies. p. 84.  ^ Janhunen, Juha (November 29, 2012). "1". Mongolian. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 16.  ^ Otsuka, Hitomi (30 Nov 2012). "6". More Morphologies: Contributions to the Festival of Languages, Bremen, 17 Sep to 7 Oct, 2009. p. 99.  ^ Iredale, Robyn (August 2, 2003). "3". China's Minorities on the Move: Selected Case Studies. Routledge. pp. 56, 64–67.  ^ Janhunen, Juha (November 29, 2012). "1". Mongolian. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 11. Iredale, Robyn; Bilik, Naran; Fei, Guo (August 2, 2003). "3". China's Minorities on the Move: Selected Case Studies. p. 61.  ^ e.g. Sečenbaγatur, Qasgerel, Tuyaγ-a, B. ǰirannige, U Ying ǰe. 2005. Mongγul kelen-ü nutuγ-un ayalγun-u sinǰilel-ün uduridqal. Kökeqota: ÖMAKQ. ^ e.g. Janhunen, Juha. 2006. Mongolic languages. In: Brown, K. (ed.): The encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Amsterdam: Elsevier: 231–234. ^ Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 85. ^ Janhunen, Juha. 1997. The languages of Manchuria
Manchuria
in today’s China. In: Northern Minority languages: Problems of survival. Senri ethnological studies, 44: 123–146. See pages 130–133. ^ Fenggang Yang, Graeme Lang. Social Scientific Studies of Religion in China. BRILL, 2012. ISBN 9004182462. pp. 184-185, reporting the results of surveys held in 2004 by the Minzu University of China. Quote from page 185: «[...] the registered adherents of the five official religions comprise only 3.7% of those [populations] in Inner Mongolia. When we compare this final statistic with Minzu University research team's finding that 80% of the inhabitants of Inner Mongolia worship Tian
Tian
(loosely translated "Heaven") and aobao (traditional stone structures that serve as altars for sacrifice), it is evident that the official calculations of registered religious believers are markedly low, and the policy decisions based on these numbers lack the necessary grounding in reality. [...] Foreign religions can be transformed into indigenous ethnic religions, and the traditional folk religions of China's ethnic minorities can integrate and neutralize non-native religions. Thus, China's ethnic religions should not be regarded as social burdens or challenges, but rather as valuable cultural assets.» ^ Jiayu Wu, Yong Fang (2016). Study on the Protection of the Lama Temple Heritage in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
as a Cultural Landscape. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, v. 15 n. 1, January 2016. Note that the article, in an evident mistranslation from Chinese, reports 30 million Tibetan Buddhists in Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
instead of 3 million. ^ Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007, China
China
General Social Survey (CGSS) 2009. Results reported by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Min Junqing. The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam
Islam
in China. JISMOR, 8. 2010 Islam
Islam
by province, page 29. Data from: Yang Zongde, Study on Current Muslim
Muslim
Population in China, Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010. ^ John Man. Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection. Bantam Press, London, 2004. ISBN 9780553814989. pp. 402–404. ^ John Man. Genghis Khan. Bantam, 2005. ISBN 0553814982. p. 23.

Further reading[edit]

Borjigin, Monkbat. "A case study of Language education in the Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
" (Archive; Japanese title: 内モンゴル自治区における言語教育について ). Journal of Chiba University Eurasian Society (千葉大学ユーラシア言語文化論集) 16, 261-266, 2014-09-25. Chiba University Eurasian Society (千葉大学ユーラシア言語文化論講座). See profile at Chiba University Repository. See profile at CiNii. - In English with a Japanese abstract. Yin-tʻang Chang (1933). The Economic Development and Prospects of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
(Chahar, Suiyuan, and Ningsia). Commercial Press, Limited. p. 117. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Inner Mongolia.

(in Chinese) Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Government website (in Mongolian) Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Government website Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
travel guide from Wikivoyage

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v t e

Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
topics

Hohhot
Hohhot
(capital)

General

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Geography

Cities Gobi Desert Tengger Desert Climate

Education

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Culture

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Cuisine

Hot pot

Visitor attractions

Shiretu Juu Zhaojun Tomb Mausoleum of Genghis Khan Hexigten Global Geopark

Category Commons

v t e

County-level divisions of Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Autonomous Region

Hohhot
Hohhot
(capital)

Prefecture-level cities

Hohhot

Huimin District Xincheng District Yuquan District Saihan District Togtoh County Wuchuan County Horinger County Qingshuihe County Tumed Jun Banner

Baotou

Hondlon District Donghe District Qingshan District Xiguit District Bayan Obo Mining District Jiuyuan District Guyang County Tumed Barun Banner Darhan Muminggan Holbot Banner

Wuhai

Haibowan District Hainan
Hainan
District Wuda District

Chifeng

Hongshan District Yuanbaoshan District Songshan District Ningcheng County Linxi County Ar Horqin Banner Bairin Jun Banner Bairin Barun Banner Hexigten Banner Ongniud Banner Harqin Banner Aohan Banner

Tongliao

Horqin District Holingol
Holingol
City Kailu County Hure Banner Naiman Banner Jarud Banner Horqin Left Middle Banner Horqin Left Rear Banner

Ordos

Dongsheng
Dongsheng
District Kangbashi District Dalad Banner Jungar Banner Otog Omnod Banner Otog Banner Hanggin Banner Uxin Banner Ejin Horo Banner

Hulunbuir

Hailar District Jalainur District Manzhouli
Manzhouli
City Zhalantun
Zhalantun
City Yakeshi
Yakeshi
City Genhe
Genhe
City Ergun City Arun Banner Xin Barag Barun Banner Xin Barag Jun Banner Huqin Barag Banner Oroqin Banner (Autonomous) Evenk Banner (Autonomous) Morin Dawa Daur Banner (Autonomous)

Bayannur

Linhe District Wuyuan County Dengkou County Urad Omnod Banner Urad Dundad Banner Urad Hoit Banner Hanggin Hoit Banner

Ulanqab

Jining District Fengzhen
Fengzhen
City Zhuozi County Huade County Shangdu
Shangdu
County Xinghe County Liangcheng County Qahar Barun Garun Omnod Banner Qahar Barun Garun Dundad Banner Qahar Barun Garun Hoit Banner Siziwang (Dorbod) Banner

Leagues

Hinggan

Ulanhot
Ulanhot
City Arxan
Arxan
City Tuquan County Horqin Barun Garun Omnod Banner Horqin Barun Garun Dundad Banner Jalaid Banner

Xilingol

Xilinhot
Xilinhot
City Erenhot
Erenhot
City Duolun County Abag Banner Sonid Jun Banner Sonid Barun Banner Jun Ujimqin Banner Barun Ujimqin Banner Taibus Banner Xianghuang (Hobot Xar) Banner Zhengxiangbai (Xulun Hobot Qagan) Banner Zhenglan (Xulun Hoh) Banner

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v t e

Mongol-designated autonomous areas in China

Regions

Inner Mongolia
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A.R.

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Prefectures and counties

in Qinghai

Haixi ( Mongol
Mongol
and Tibetan) Henan

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other provinces

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Ethnic minority autonomous areas Dong Hui Korean Manchu Miao Mongol Tibetan Tujia Uyghur Y

.