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Inner London
Inner London
is the name for the group of London boroughs
London boroughs
which form the interior part of Greater London
Greater London
and are surrounded by Outer London. With its origins in the Bills of mortality, it became fixed as an area for statistics in 1847 and was used as an area of local government from 1855 to 1965 principally as the County of London
County of London
or earlier as the Metropolitan Board of Works
Metropolitan Board of Works
Area (metropolis). It now has two common definitions. The first is the statutory definition delineated in the London Government Act 1963, coming into force on 1 April 1965, comprising twelve Inner London boroughs
London boroughs
and almost identical to the County of London
County of London
that was abolished at the same time.[1] The second is the current definition used by the Office for National Statistics comprising eleven of the statutory Inner London boroughs and two of the statutory Outer London boroughs, and the City of London.[2] Inner London
Inner London
is smaller than Outer London both in terms of population and area, but the density of population is more than double that of Outer London. Inner London
Inner London
is officially the wealthiest area in Europe with the most expensive street in Europe, GDP per capita is more than €80,000[3] while the UK GDP per capita is around €27,000.[3] Many of the world's wealthiest people live in Inner London, but there is also widespread poverty.[4] Central London
Central London
is located at the core of Inner London.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Background 1.2 London Government Act 1963 1.3 Statistics

2 Strategic planning 3 Other definitions 4 Economy 5 References

History[edit] Background[edit] The area that is now Inner London
Inner London
was defined by the Registrar General as a collection of parishes called "London" and appeared in the 1851 Census. At the time the metropolitan area—commonly called the Metropolis—had its origins in the area of the Bills of mortality that had expanded from the tiny City of London
City of London
into three surrounding counties over the previous several hundred years. The area become fixed in 1847 with the addition of Lewisham Poor Law Union and the parish of Hampstead.[5] In 1855 the Registrar General
Registrar General
area, with the addition of Penge, was used to define the district of the Metropolitan Board of Works.[6] The Metropolis was also described as Inner London from the 1881 Census.[7] In 1889 this area became the County of London. The area was adjusted in 1900 when Penge
Penge
was transferred to Kent and South Hornsey
South Hornsey
was gained from Middlesex. London Government Act 1963[edit] The " Inner London
Inner London
boroughs" were defined by the London Government Act 1963.[8] The Inner London boroughs
London boroughs
occupied the same area as the County of London
County of London
that was abolished as they were created. North Woolwich was an anomaly as it was part of the County of London, but became part of an Outer London borough. The main difference between Inner and Outer London boroughs
London boroughs
between 1965 and 1990 was that the councils of the inner boroughs were not local education authorities and there was a single Inner London Education Authority for the area, including the City of London. The inner borough councils became local education authorities on 1 April 1990. The statutory definition is used as part of the grant settlement used to finance local government.[9] Newham London Borough Council campaigns for recognition as an Inner London
Inner London
borough council for central government grants, as this would have financial benefits for the borough. It is not currently considered an Inner London
Inner London
borough as, with the exception of North Woolwich, it did not form part of the County of London.[2] The statutory Inner London boroughs
London boroughs
are:

Camden Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith and Fulham Islington Kensington and Chelsea Lambeth Lewisham Southwark Tower Hamlets Wandsworth Westminster

The City of London
City of London
was not designated as an Inner London
Inner London
borough, but the Corporation of London
Corporation of London
is usually classed as an inner London local authority.[10] Statistics[edit] The Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
and Eurostat
Eurostat
define Inner London differently, explicitly including the City of London, adding Haringey and Newham, but excluding Greenwich.[11] The land area is 319 km2 (123 sq. miles) and the population in 2011 was 3,231,901.[12]

Historical population

Year Population

1891

4,488,242

1901

4,859,558

1911

4,998,237

1921

4,972,870

1931

4,893,261

1939

4,364,457

1951

3,679,390

1961

3,492,879

1971

3,031,935

1981

2,550,100

1991

2,599,300

2001

2,859,400

2011

3,231,901

Figures before 1971 have been reconstructed by the Office for National Statistics based on past censuses in order to fit the 2001 limits. Figures from 1981 onward are ONS midyear estimates (revised as of 2010).[13] After centuries of increase, the population of Inner London
Inner London
reached its peak of 4,998,237 in 1911. The area's population from World War I began a steady decline as that of Outer London continued to increase. The census of 1951 showed the damage inflicted by the 1940s Blitz as the population of Greater London
Greater London
switched into decline which was reversed in Outer London with house building and territory expansion whereas in Inner London
Inner London
continued. The war damage and early 20th century slums had physical and psychological hence property price effects and focus on New Towns and suburban development reflected a drive among urban planners for greener, less dense settlements. Inner London reached a post-War nadir, a population not seen since the early 19th century in 1981 having 2,550,100 residents, after which an upward trend ensued and Inner London
Inner London
residents numbered 3,231,901 in 2011 — 1,766,336 short of the 1911 peak. Strategic planning[edit] For the purposes of the London Plan
London Plan
planning document produced by the Mayor of London, Inner London
Inner London
consists of the City of London, all the statutory Inner London boroughs
London boroughs
and Newham.[14] Other definitions[edit]

London postal district
London postal district
shown (in red) against the Greater London boundary

The area covered by the London postal district
London postal district
is sometimes referred to as 'Inner London'.[15] However it is not coterminous with other definitions of Inner London
Inner London
as its area is somewhat larger and covers 624 km2 (241 sq. miles). The southern part of the London Borough of Lewisham as well as a small part of the Royal Borough of Greenwich fall outside its boundaries whilst 44 of its 119 districts are in Outer London and its irregular shape stretches to the Greater London boundary at Mill Hill and Scratch Wood and beyond it at Sewardstone. From 1990 to 2000 London used two separate telephone dialling codes with one code designated for Inner London, however the area covered by this code was widely different from all of the above definitions and most of Greater London
Greater London
is now covered by a single 020
020
dialling code. Economy[edit] There are approximately 200,000 businesses with around 2,000,000 employees in Inner London. 56% of all private sector jobs in Greater London are located in Inner London.[16] There is significant commuting of workers from Outer London and from outside Greater London. Much of the commercial activity is focused on Central London
Central London
and Canary Wharf. 10% of public sector employment is focused on Westminster
Westminster
around the Government of the United Kingdom.[16] References[edit]

London portal

^ Saint, A., Politics and the people of London: the London County Council (1889–1965), (1989) ^ a b Newham London Borough Council
Newham London Borough Council
Archived 2007-06-30 at the Wayback Machine. – Positively Inner London ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-03-25.  ^ Simon Rogers (2011-03-29). "Indices of multiple deprivation: find the poorest places in England". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-08-16.  ^ "1861 Census: General Report". Vision of Britain. Archived from the original on 2016-08-29. Retrieved 2016-08-16.  ^ Davis, J., Reforming London: The London Government Problem, 1855–1900, (1988) ^ "1881 Census: General Report". Vision of Britain. Archived from the original on 2016-08-29. Retrieved 2016-08-16.  ^ Office of Public Sector Information – London Government Act 1963 (c.33) (as amended) Archived 2008-05-30 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Local authority lower tier boundaries – Greater London". Archived from the original on 2010-05-31.  ^ "List of inner/outer London boroughs". London Councils. Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2014.  ^ " Inner London
Inner London
through time: Administrative History (post 1974)". A vision of Britain through time. Great Britain Historical GIS. Archived from the original on 2012-11-01. Retrieved 2009-11-20.  ^ http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census/key-statistics-for-local-authorities-in-england-and-wales/rft-table-qs203ew.xls ^ Obtained from Neighbourhood Statistics website at URL http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/datasetList.do?JSAllowed=true&Function=&%24ph=60&CurrentPageId=60&step=1&CurrentTreeIndex=-1&searchString=&datasetFamilyId=1813&Next.x=11&Next.y=10 (accessed July 12th 2010) ^ Mayor of London. London Plan: Chapter 2 (PDF). Greater London Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-06.  ^ HMSO, The Inner London
Inner London
Letter Post, (1980) ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 

v t e

Sub-regions of London

NUTS 2

Inner London Outer London

Boundary Commission

North London South London

London Plan

Sub-regions used in the London Plan

Other

Central London Docklands East End South Bank Thames Gateway (London Riverside Lower Lea Valley) West End

Mayor of London, (April 2009), A new plan for London: Proposals for the Mayor's London Plan, (PDF; 1,4 MB), Greater London
Greater London
Authority, ISBN=978-1-84781-249-0

Coordinates: 51°30′30″N 0°07′31″W / 51.508411°N 0.125364°W / 51

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