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Inmarsat
Inmarsat
plc (LSE: ISAT) is a British satellite telecommunications company, offering global mobile services. It provides telephone and data services to users worldwide, via portable or mobile terminals which communicate with ground stations through thirteen geostationary telecommunications satellites.[3] Inmarsat's network provides communications services to a range of governments, aid agencies, media outlets and businesses (especially in the shipping, airline and mining industries) with a need to communicate in remote regions or where there is no reliable terrestrial network. The company is listed on the London Stock Exchange, is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index, and is a financial and technical sponsor of Télécoms Sans Frontières.

IsatPhone Pro SIM card

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 Privatisation 1.3 Malaysia Airlines Flight 370

2 Operations 3 Coverage 4 Satellites 5 Country codes 6 Networks

6.1 High Throughput Services 6.2 Advanced services 6.3 M2M communications 6.4 Global voice services

6.4.1 Existing and evolved services

7 New projects underway

7.1 European Aviation Network 7.2 Global Xpress Expansion 7.3 Inmarsat-6 7.4 IRIS and ICE

8 Issues 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] Origins[edit] Further information: International Mobile Satellite Organization The present company originates from the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT), a non-profit intergovernmental organization established in 1979 at the behest of the International Maritime Organization (IMO)—the United Nations' maritime body—and pursuant to the Convention on the International Maritime Satellite Organization, signed by 28 countries in 1976.[4][5] The organisation was created to establish and operate a satellite communications network for the maritime community.[4][6] In coordination with the International Civil Aviation Organization
International Civil Aviation Organization
in the 1980s, the convention governing INMARSAT was amended to include improvements to aeronautical communications, notably for public safety.[4] The member states owned varying shares of the operational business.[5] The main offices were originally located in the Euston Tower, Euston Road, London.[7] Privatisation[edit] In the mid-1990s, many member states were unwilling to invest in improvements to INMARSAT's network, especially owing to the competitive nature of the satellite communications industry, while many recognized the need to maintain the organization's older systems and the need for an intergovernmental organization to oversee public safety aspects of satellite communication networks.[5] In 1998, an agreement was reached to modify INMARSAT's mission as an intergovernmental organization and separate and privatize the organization's operational business, with public safety obligations attached to the sale.[5] In April 1999, INMARSAT was succeeded by the International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO) as an intergovernmental regulatory body for satellite communications, while INMARSAT's operational unit was separated and became the UK-based company Inmarsat
Inmarsat
Ltd.[4][8] The IMSO and Inmarsat
Inmarsat
Ltd. signed an agreement imposing public safety obligations on the new company.[4] Inmarsat
Inmarsat
was the first international satellite organization that was privatized.[5] In 2005, Apax Partners
Apax Partners
and Permira
Permira
bought shares in the company. The company was also first listed on the London Stock Exchange
London Stock Exchange
in that year.[9] In March 2008, it was disclosed that U.S. hedge fund Harbinger Capital
Harbinger Capital
owned 28% of the company.[10] In 2009, Inmarsat completed the acquisition of satellite communications provider Stratos Global Corporation (Stratos)[11] and acquired a 19-percent stake in SkyWave Mobile Communications Inc., a provider of Inmarsat
Inmarsat
D+/IsatM2M network services which in turn purchased the GlobalWave business from TransCore.[12] Inmarsat
Inmarsat
won the 2010 MacRobert Award for its Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN) service.[13][14] Inmarsat
Inmarsat
at first provided services using Marisat[15] and MARECS,[16] which were launched by the US Navy and ESA respectively. In the early 1990s Inmarsat
Inmarsat
launched its first dedicated satellite constellation, Inmarsat-2. These satellites provided the Inmarsat-A service for maritime uses.[17] Between 1996 and 1998 Inmarsat's second constellation, Inmarsat-3, was launched. Consisting of 5 geostationary L-band satellites the constellation provides the Inmarsat-B and Inmarsat-C services, primarily providing low bandwidth communications and safety services for global shipping. [18]. Following privatization in 1999 Inmarsat
Inmarsat
developed and launched the first satellite communications system offering global coverage, BGAN.[19] This service was provided initially through the three Inmarsat-4 satellite launched between 2005 and 2008, and was then extended with the addition of Alphasat
Alphasat
in 2013.[20] In the 2010s Inmarsat
Inmarsat
began development of the High Throughput Satellite (HTS) constellation Global Xpress, operating in Ka-band spectrum. Global Xpress, launched in 2015, offers global satellite capacity to various markets including shipping and aviation. Global Xpress also marks a significant expansion of Inmarsat's commercial operations in the aviation markets.[21][22] In 2017 Inmarsat
Inmarsat
launched its first S-band
S-band
satellite, intended to provide (in association with an LTE ground network) inflight internet access across Europe.[23] Malaysia Airlines Flight 370[edit] Further information: Analysis of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 satellite communications In March 2014, Malaysia Airlines Flight 370
Malaysia Airlines Flight 370
disappeared with 239 passengers and crew en route from Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
to Beijing. After turning away from its planned path and disappearing from radar coverage, the aircraft's satellite data unit remained in contact with Inmarsat's ground station in Perth
Perth
via the IOR satellite. The aircraft used Inmarsat's Classic Aero
Classic Aero
service, which does not provide explicit information about the aircraft's location. Analysis of these communications by Inmarsat
Inmarsat
and independently by other agencies determined that the aircraft flew into the southern Indian Ocean and was used to guide the search for the aircraft.[24][25] Operations[edit] The Inmarsat
Inmarsat
head office is at Old Street Roundabout
Old Street Roundabout
in the London Borough of Islington.[26] Aside from its commercial services, Inmarsat provides global maritime distress and safety services (GMDSS) to ships and aircraft at no charge, as a public service.[27] Services include traditional voice calls, low-level data tracking systems, and high-speed Internet
Internet
and other data services as well as distress and safety services. The BGAN
BGAN
network provides GPRS-type services at up to 800 kbit/s via an IP satellite modem the size of a notebook computer,[28] while the Global Xpress network offers up to 50 Mb/s via antennas as small as 60cm.[29] Other services provide mobile Integrated Services Digital Network
Integrated Services Digital Network
(ISDN) services used by the media for live reporting on world events via videophone,[30] and inflight Internet
Internet
access via the European Aviation Network.[23] The price of a call via Inmarsat
Inmarsat
has now dropped to a level where they are comparable to, and in many cases lower than, international roaming costs, or hotel phone calls. Voice call charges are the same for any location in the world where the service is used. Tariffs for calls to Inmarsat
Inmarsat
country codes vary, depending on the country in which they are placed. Inmarsat
Inmarsat
primarily uses country code 870 (see below).[31] Newer Inmarsat
Inmarsat
services use an IP technology that features an always-on capability where the users are only charged for the amount of data they send and receive, rather than the length of time they are connected.[32] In addition to its own satellites, Inmarsat
Inmarsat
has a collaboration agreement with ACeS regarding handheld voice services.[33] Coverage[edit]

Inmarsat
Inmarsat
Global HQ at 99 City Road, London. (January 2006)

There are three types of coverage related to each Inmarsat
Inmarsat
I-4 satellite.[34]

Global beam coverage Each satellite is equipped with a single global beam that covers up to one-third of the Earth's surface, apart from the poles. Overall, global beam coverage extends from latitudes of −82 to +82 degrees regardless of longitude.

Regional spot beam coverage Each regional beam covers a fraction of the area covered by a global beam, but collectively all of the regional beams offer virtually the same coverage as the global beams. Use of regional beams allow user terminals (also called mobile earth stations) to operate with significantly smaller antennas. Regional beams were introduced with the I-3 satellites. Each I-3 satellite provides four to six spot beams; each I-4 satellite provides 19 regional beams.

Narrow spot beam coverage Narrow beams are offered by the three Inmarsat-4 satellites. Narrow beams vary in size, tend to be several hundred kilometers across. The narrow beams, while much smaller than the global or regional beams, are far more numerous and hence offer the same global coverage. Narrow spot beams allow yet smaller antennas and much higher data rates. They form the backbone of Inmarsat's handheld (GSPS) and broadband services (BGAN). This coverage was introduced with the I-4 satellites. Each I-4 satellite provides around 200 narrow spot beams.

Global Xpress (I-5)

The Inmarsat
Inmarsat
I-5 satellites provide global coverage using four geostationary satellites. [35] Each satellite supports 89 beams, giving a total coverage of approximately one-third of the Earth's surface per satellite. In addition, 6 steerable beams are available per satellite, which may be moved to provide higher capacity to selected locations.[36] Satellites[edit]

Satellite Coverage Longitude [37]

Vehicles Launch date (GMT) Services / notes

Marisat series

Marisat F1

Delta 2914 19 February 1976

Marisat F2

Delta 2914 14 October 1976 Transferred to Intelsat
Intelsat
in 2004, decommissioned in 2008

Marisat F3

Delta 2914 10 June 1976

MARECS series

MARECS-1

Ariane 1 20 December 1981

MARECS-B

- Ariane 1 9 September 1982 Launch failure

MARECS-2

Ariane 3 10 November 1984

Inmarsat-2 series

Inmarsat-2 F1

Delta II
Delta II
6925 30 October 1990 Decommissioned 19 April 2013 Previous record holder for mission lifespan[38]

Inmarsat-2 F2 POR 143° east Delta II
Delta II
6925 8 March 1991 Decommissioned Dec 2014 World record for mission lifespan[38]

Inmarsat-2 F3

Ariane 44L 16 December 1991 Decommissioned 2006

Inmarsat-2 F4

Ariane 44L 15 April 1992 Decommissioned 2012

Inmarsat-3 series

Inmarsat-3 F1 IOR 64.5° east Atlas IIA 3 April 1996 Existing and evolved services only

Inmarsat-3 F2 AOR-E 15.5° west Proton-K/DM1 6 September 1996 Existing and evolved services only

Inmarsat-3 F3 POR 178.2° east Atlas IIA 18 December 1996 Existing and evolved services only

Inmarsat-3 F4 AOR-W 54° west Ariane 44L 3 June 1997 Existing and evolved services only

Inmarsat-3 F5 I-3 Europe, Middle-East, Africa 24.6° east Ariane 44LP 4 February 1998 Various leases

Inmarsat-4 series

Inmarsat-4 F1[39] I-4 Asia-Pacific 143.5° east Atlas V
Atlas V
431 11 March 2005 BGAN
BGAN
family, SPS and lease services

Inmarsat-4 F2[40] I-4 Middle-East, Asia 64.4° east Zenit-3SL 8 November 2005 BGAN
BGAN
family, SPS and lease services Transferred from 25° east to 63° east in mid-2015[41]

Inmarsat-4 F3[42] I-4 Americas 98° west Proton-M/Briz-M 18 August 2008 BGAN
BGAN
family and lease services

Inmarsat-4A F4
Inmarsat-4A F4
(AlphaSat)[43] I-4 Europe, Middle-East, Africa 24.8° east Ariane 5
Ariane 5
ECA 25 July 2013 BGAN
BGAN
family, SPS and lease services

Inmarsat-5 series

Inmarsat-5 F1[44][45] I-5 Europe, Middle East, Africa 62.6° east Proton-M/Briz-M 8 December 2013 Ka-Band
Ka-Band
global data services, Global Xpress

Inmarsat-5 F2[46] I-5 Americas 55° west Proton-M/Briz-M 2 February 2015 Ka-Band
Ka-Band
global data services, Global Xpress

Inmarsat-5 F3[47] I-5 Pacific, Asia, West Americas 179.6° east Proton-M/Briz-M 28 August 2015 Ka-Band
Ka-Band
global data services, Global Xpress

Inmarsat-5 F4[48] I-5 Europe + in-orbit spare

Falcon 9 FT 15 May 2017[49] Ka-Band
Ka-Band
global data services, Global Xpress

European Aviation Network

Inmarsat
Inmarsat
S EAN[50] Europe 39° east Ariane-5 28 June 2017 S-band
S-band
services for European aviation

Country codes[edit] The permanent telephone country code for calling Inmarsat
Inmarsat
destinations is:[31]

870 SNAC (Single Network Access Code)

The 870 number is an automatic locator; it is not necessary to know to which satellite the destination Inmarsat
Inmarsat
terminal is logged-in. SNAC is now usable by all Inmarsat
Inmarsat
services. Country codes phased out on 31 December 2008 were

871 Atlantic Ocean Region – East (AOR-E) 872 Pacific Ocean Region (POR) 873 Indian Ocean Region (IOR) 874 Atlantic Ocean Region – West (AOR-W)

Networks[edit]

Inmarsat-3 satellite locations

Inmarsat
Inmarsat
has developed a series of networks providing certain sets of services (most networks support multiple services). They are grouped into two sets, existing and evolved services, and advanced services. Existing and evolved services are offered through land earth stations which are not owned nor operated by Inmarsat, but through companies which have a commercial agreement with Inmarsat. Advanced services are provided via distribution partners but the satellite gateways are owned and operated by Inmarsat
Inmarsat
directly. High Throughput Services[edit]

Global Xpress: Since 2015 Inmarsat
Inmarsat
has offered high throughput services through the Global Xpress network. This service provides an IP based global service of up to 50 Mb/s downlink and 5 Mb/s uplink. Services are provided for maritime, aviation, government and enterprise markets. [51] Global Xpress is supported by the existing BGAN
BGAN
L-band network, and services are offered using a combination of the two networks to increase availability and reliability.[52]

European Aviation Network: Inmarsat
Inmarsat
is also planning to offer aviation services through the European Aviation Network, developed in partnership with Deutsche Telekom. The European Aviation Network
European Aviation Network
uses a ground based LTE network and an Inmarsat
Inmarsat
S-band
S-band
satellite to provide 50Gbps capacity to aircraft in European airspace. The project faces a number of legal and regulatory challenges.[53] In March 2018, Inmarsat stated that commercial service would begin in 2018.[54]

Advanced services[edit] The " BGAN
BGAN
Family" is a set of IP-based shared-carrier services, as follows:[55]

BGAN: Broadband Global Area Network
Broadband Global Area Network
for use on land. BGAN
BGAN
benefits from the I-4 satellites to offer a shared-channel IP packet-switched service of up to 800 kbit/s (uplink and downlink speeds may differ and depend on terminal model) and a streaming-IP service from 32 kbit/s up to X-Stream data rate (services depend on terminal model). Most terminals also offer circuit-switched Mobile ISDN
ISDN
services at 64 kbit/s and even low speed (4.8 kbit/s) voice etc. services. BGAN service is available globally on all I4 satellites. FleetBroadband (FB): A maritime service, FleetBroadband is based on BGAN
BGAN
technology, offering similar services and using the same infrastructure as BGAN. A range of Fleet Broadband user terminals are available, designed for fitting on ships. SwiftBroadband (SB): An aeronautical service, SwiftBroadband is based on BGAN
BGAN
technology and offers similar services. SB terminals are specifically designed for use aboard commercial, private, and military aircraft.

M2M communications[edit] The " BGAN
BGAN
M2M Family" is a set of IP-based services designed for long-term machine-to-machine management of fixed assets, as follows:[56]

BGAN
BGAN
M2M: Which was launched at the beginning of January 2012, will deliver a global, IP-based low-data rate service, for users needing high levels of data availability and performance in permanently unmanned environments. Ideally suited for high-frequency, very low-latency data reporting, BGAN
BGAN
M2M will prove extremely attractive for monitoring fixed assets such as pipelines and oil well heads, or backhauling electricity consumption data within a utility. IsatM2M: IsatM2M is a global, short burst data, store and forward service that will deliver messages of 10.5 or 25.5 bytes in the send direction, to 100 bytes in the receive direction. The service is delivered to market via two partners - SkyWave Mobile Communications and Honeywell
Honeywell
Global Tracking. Each has their own solutions to integrate the service into customers’ infrastructure. IsatData Pro: IsatData Pro is a global satellite data service designed for two-way text and data communications with remote assets and has the capability to exchange large amounts of data quickly (To mobile: 10kBytes / From mobile: 6.4kBytes with typical delivery time at 15 sec.) This service is used in mission-critical applications and is used in everything from managing trucks, fishing vessels and oil & gas and heavy equipment, to text message remote workers and security applications. It is provided by SkyWave Mobile Communications Inc, now part of Orbcomm.

Global voice services[edit] The company offers portable and fixed phone services as follows:[57]

IsatPhone 2: IsatPhone 2 is Inmarsat's own-designed and manufactured robust mobile satellite phone, offering clear voice telephony. It also comes with a variety of data capabilities, including SMS, short message emailing and GPS
GPS
look-up-and-send, as well as supporting a data service of up to 20kbit/s.[58]

IsatPhone Link: IsatPhone Link is a low-cost, fixed, global satellite phone service. It provides essential voice connectivity for those working or living in areas without cellular coverage and also comes with a variety of data capabilities. FleetPhone: Inmarsat's FleetPhone service is a fixed phone service ideal for use on smaller vessels where voice communications is the primary requirement or on vessels where additional voice lines are needed. It provides a low-cost, global satellite phone service option for those working or sailing outside cellular coverage.

Existing and evolved services[edit] They are based on older technologies, as follows:[59]

Aeronautical (Classic Aero): provides analog voice/fax/data services for aircraft. Three levels of terminals, Aero-L (Low Gain Antenna) primarily for packet data including ACARS
ACARS
and ADS, Aero-H (High Gain Antenna) for medium quality voice and fax/data at up to 9600 bit/s, and Aero-I (Intermediate Gain Antenna) for low quality voice and fax/data at up to 2400 bit/s. Note, there are also aircraft rated versions of Inmarsat-C and mini-M/M4. The aircraft version of GAN is called Swift 64 (see below). Inmarsat-B: service was closed early January 2017. It provided digital voice services, telex services, medium speed fax/data services at 9.6 kbit/s and high speed data services at 56, 64 or 128 kbit/s. There was also a 'leased' mode for Inmarsat-B available on the spare Inmarsat satellites. Inmarsat-C: effectively this is a "satellite telex" terminal with low-speed all-digital (transmission bit rate 1200bit/s and information bit rate of 600 bit/s) store-and-forward, polling etc. capabilities. Certain models of Inmarsat-C terminals are also approved for usage in the GMDSS system, equipped with GPS. Inmarsat-M: provides voice services at 4.8 kbit/s and medium speed fax/data services at 2.4 kbit/s. It paved the way towards Inmarsat-Mini-M. Service has been closed. Mini-M: provides voice services at 4.8 kbit/s and medium speed fax/data services at 2.4 kbit/s. One 2.4kbit/s channel takes up 4.8kbit/s on the satellite. Service was closed early January 2017 GAN (Global Area Network): provides a selection of low speed services like voice at 4.8 kbit/s, fax & data at 2.4 kbit/s, ISDN
ISDN
like services at 64 kbit/s (called Mobile ISDN) and shared-channel IP packet-switched data services at 64 kbit/s (called Mobile Packet Data Service or MPDS, formerly Inmarsat
Inmarsat
Packet Data Service – IPDS). GAN is also known as "M4". Service was closed early in January 2017. Fleet: actually a family of networks that includes the Inmarsat-Fleet77, Inmarsat-Fleet55 and Inmarsat-Fleet33 members (The numbers 77, 55 and 33 come from the diameter of the antenna in centimeters). Much like GAN, it provides a selection of low speed services like voice at 4.8 kbit/s, fax/data at 2.4 kbit/s, medium speed services like fax/data at 9.6 kbit/s, ISDN
ISDN
like services at 64 kbit/s (called Mobile ISDN) and shared-channel IP packet-switched data services at 64 kbit/s (called Mobile Packet Data Service or MPDS - see below). However, not all these services are available with all members of the family. The latest service to be supported is Mobile ISDN
ISDN
at 128 kbit/s on Inmarsat-Fleet77 terminals. Swift 64: Similar to GAN, providing voice, low rate fax/data, 64kbit/s ISDN, and MPDS services, for private, business, and commercial aircraft. Swift 64 is often sold in a multi-channel version, to support several times 64kbit/s. Inmarsat
Inmarsat
D/D+/IsatM2M: Inmarsat's version of a pager, although much larger than terrestrial versions. Some units are equipped with GPS. The original Inmarsat-D terminals were one-way (to mobile) pagers. The newer Inmarsat-D+ terminals are the equivalent of a two-way pager. The main use of this technology nowadays is in tracking trucks and buoys and SCADA
SCADA
applications. SkyWave Mobile Communications is a provider of D/D+/IsatM2M satellite data services with its DMR and SureLinx series products. SkyWave also provides satellite tracking, monitoring and control capabilities through its GlobalWave MT series products.[60] Competing systems such as from SkyBitz only operate on the MSAT geostationary satellite over North America. MPDS (Mobile Packet Data Service): Previously known as IPDS, this is an IP-based data service in which several users share a 64kbit/s carrier in a manner similar to ADSL. MPDS-specific terminals are not sold; rather, this is a service which comes with most terminals that are designed for GAN, Fleet, and Swift64. IsatPhone: provides voice services at 4.8 kbit/s and medium speed fax/data services at 2.4 kbit/s. This service emerged from a collaboration agreement with ACeS, and is available in the EMEA and APAC satellite regions. Coverage is available in Africa, the Middle-East, Asia, and Europe, as well as in maritime areas of the EMEA and APAC coverage.

New projects underway[edit] European Aviation Network[edit] On 30 June 2008, the European Parliament
European Parliament
and the Council adopted the European’s Decision to establish a single selection and authorisation process (ESAP – European S-band
S-band
Application Process) to ensure a coordinated introduction of mobile satellite services (MSS) in Europe. The selection process was launched in August 2008 and attracted four applications by prospective operators (ICO, Inmarsat, Solaris Mobile (now EchoStar
EchoStar
Mobile), TerreStar).[61][62] In May 2009, the European Commission
European Commission
selected two operators, Inmarsat Ventures and Solaris Mobile, giving these operators “the right to use the specific radio frequencies identified in the Commission's decision and the right to operate their respective mobile satellite systems". EU Member States now have to ensure that the two operators have the right to use the specific radio frequencies identified in the Commission's decision and the right to operate their respective mobile satellite systems for 18 years from the selection decision. The operators are compelled to start operations within 24 months (May 2011) from the selection decision.[63][64][65][66] Inmarsat's S-band
S-band
satellite programme will deliver mobile multimedia broadcast, mobile two-way broadband telecommunications and next-generation MSS services across all member states of the European Union and as far east as Moscow and Ankara by means of a hybrid satellite/terrestrial network. It was built by Thales Alenia Space
Thales Alenia Space
and launched in 2017.[67] The complementary ground network consists of around 300 LTE base stations constructed by Deutsche Telekom. [68] The European Aviation Network
European Aviation Network
faces a number of legal challenges. This includes a challenge from Viasat
Viasat
alleging unfair bidding practices and a misuse of spectrum[69] and a ruling by the Belgian telecommunications regulator revoking permission for the use of the ground network in Belgium.[70] Global Xpress Expansion[edit] Inmarsat
Inmarsat
has ordered a fifth Global Xpress satellite from Thales. The satellite, planned for launch in 2019, has been described as a 'very high throughput satellite', and is expected to provide services to the Middle East, India and Europe.[71] CEO Rupert Pearce has also indicated that Inmarsat
Inmarsat
is planning further expansion of the Global Xpress network in the future. Trials of new technologies have demonstrated bandwidths of 330 Mbps over the existing Global Xpress network, far in excess of the currently marketed 50 Mbps. [72] Inmarsat-6[edit] At the end of 2015 Inmarsat
Inmarsat
ordered two sixth generation satellites from Airbus. These satellites will offer both Ka and L band payloads and will provide additional capacity to the existing BGAN
BGAN
and Global Xpress networks.[73] In 2017 it was announced that the first of these satellites will be launched by MHI in 2020.[74] IRIS and ICE[edit] Inmarsat
Inmarsat
is participating in two ESA ARTES programs, IRIS and ICE. IRIS is a project to improve tracking of aircraft, and to improve communications between aircraft and air traffic controllers. Inmarsat will provide high capacity satellite communications links for aircraft, and improve detection of aircraft locations in time and space.[75][76] ICE ( Inmarsat
Inmarsat
Communications Evolution) is a partnership with industrial partners intended to identify innovative technologies and solutions that can expand and enhance the capabilities of the next generation of satellite communications.[77] Issues[edit] INMARSAT and Iridium frequency bands abut each other at 1626.5 MHz thus each satcom radio has the ability to interfere with the other. Usually, the far more powerful INMARSAT radio disrupts the Iridium radio up to 10–800 metres away.[78] See also[edit]

Mobile-satellite service Satellite phone AeroMobile DVB-SH Globalstar Globalsat Group Intersputnik Iridium Communications Librestream Maritime safety information O3b Networks OnAir (telecommunications) Orbcomm Radiotelephone SES Broadband for Maritime Sky and Space Global Thuraya Wideband Global SATCOM
Wideband Global SATCOM
(WGS)

References[edit]

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