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Industry
Industry
is the production of goods or related services within an economy.[1] The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry.[2] When a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing
Manufacturing
industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. This came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal. Following the Industrial Revolution, possibly a third of the world's economic output are derived that is from manufacturing industries. Many developed countries and many developing/semi-developed countries (China, India
India
etc.) depend significantly on manufacturing industry. Industries, the countries they reside in, and the economies of those countries are interlinked in a complex web of interdependence.

Contents

1 Industrial development 2 Deindustrialisation 3 Society 4 Industrial labour 5 War 6 List of countries by industrial output 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External links

Industrial development[edit]

Optimized logistics have enabled the rapid development of industry. Here is a thermal oxidizer during the industrial shipping process.

A factory, a traditional symbol of the industrial development (a cement factory in Kunda, Estonia)

The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
led to the development of factories for large-scale production with consequent changes in society.[3] Originally the factories were steam-powered, but later transitioned to electricity once an electrical grid was developed. The mechanized assembly line was introduced to assemble parts in a repeatable fashion, with individual workers performing specific steps during the process. This led to significant increases in efficiency, lowering the cost of the end process. Later automation was increasingly used to replace human operators. This process has accelerated with the development of the computer and the robot. Deindustrialisation[edit] Main article: Deindustrialisation

Colin Clark's sector model of an economy undergoing technological change. In later stages, the Quaternary sector of the economy
Quaternary sector of the economy
grows.

Historically certain manufacturing industries have gone into a decline due to various economic factors, including the development of replacement technology or the loss of competitive advantage. An example of the former is the decline in carriage manufacturing when the automobile was mass-produced. A recent trend has been the migration of prosperous, industrialized nations towards a post-industrial society. This is manifested by an increase in the service sector at the expense of manufacturing, and the development of an information-based economy, the so-called informational revolution. In a post-industrial society, manufacturers relocate to more profitable locations through a process of off-shoring. Measurements of manufacturing industries outputs and economic effect are not historically stable. Traditionally, success has been measured in the number of jobs created. The reduced number of employees in the manufacturing sector has been assumed to result from a decline in the competitiveness of the sector, or the introduction of the lean manufacturing process. Related to this change is the upgrading of the quality of the product being manufactured. While it is possible to produce a low-technology product with low-skill labour, the ability to manufacture high-technology products well is dependent on a highly skilled staff. Society[edit] Main article: Industrial society An industrial society can be defined in many ways. Today, industry is an important part of most societies and nations. A government must have some kind of industrial policy, regulating industrial placement, industrial pollution, financing and industrial labour. Industrial labour[edit]

A female industrial worker amidst heavy steel semi-products (KINEX BEARINGS, Bytča, Slovakia, c. 1995–2000)

Main article: Industrial labour Further information: industrial sociology, industrial and organizational psychology, industrial district, and industrial park In an industrial society, industry employs a major part of the population. This occurs typically in the manufacturing sector. A labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and other working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts with employers. This movement first rose among industrial workers. War[edit] Main article: Industrial warfare

The assembly plant of the Bell Aircraft Corporation
Bell Aircraft Corporation
(Wheatfield, New York, United States, 1944) producing P-39 Airacobra
P-39 Airacobra
fighters

The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
changed warfare, with mass-produced weaponry and supplies, machine-powered transportation, mobilization, the total war concept and weapons of mass destruction. Early instances of industrial warfare were the Crimean War
Crimean War
and the American Civil War, but its full potential showed during the world wars. See also military-industrial complex, arms industries, military industry and modern warfare. List of countries by industrial output[edit] Main article: List of countries by GDP sector composition

20 largest countries by industrial output according to IMF
IMF
and CIA World 200book, 2016

Economy

Countries by industrial output in 2016 (billions in USD)

(01)  China

4,566

(—)  European Union

4,184

(02)  United States

3,602

(03)  Japan

1,368

(04)  Germany

1,050

(05)  India

672

(06)  South Korea

531

(07)  United Kingdom

505

(08)  France

478

(09)  Italy

442

(10)  Russia

424

(11)  Canada

424

(12)  Brazil

392

(13)  Indonesia

376

(14)  Australia

355

(15)  Mexico

346

(16)  Spain

312

(17)  Saudi Arabia

276

(18)  Turkey

232

(19)  Taiwan

191

(20)  Poland

180

The twenty largest countries by industrial output in 2016, according to the IMF
IMF
and CIA World Factbook.

20 Largest Countries by industrial output according to UNCTAD
UNCTAD
at 2005 constant prices and exchange rates, 2015 [4]

Economy

Top 20 countries by industrial output in 2015 (millions in 2005 constant USD
USD
and exchange rates)

(01)  United States

3,042,332

(02)  China

2,837,667

(03)  Japan

1,415,551

(04)  Germany

889,336

(05)  India

499,519

(06)  United Kingdom

468,181

(07)  South Korea

454,504

(08)  France

415,400

(09)  Canada

370,732

(10)  Italy

369,751

(11)  Mexico

365,959

(12)  Russia

277,858

(13)  Brazil

267,769

(14)  Australia

261,385

(15)  Saudi Arabia

256,969

(16)  Spain

254,480

(17)  Taiwan

204,109

(18)  Indonesia

198,254

(19)  Turkey

177,586

(20)  Poland

141,921

See also[edit]

Industry
Industry
information North American Industry
Industry
Classification System North American Product Classification System Outline of industry Standard Industrial Classification

References[edit]

^ Industry
Industry
Define Industry
Industry
at Dictionary.com Archived 2014-02-04 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "'Definition of Industry' Investopedia". Archived from the original on 2017-07-24.  ^ More, Charles (2000). "Understanding the Industrial Revolution". London: Routledge. Archived from the original on 2011-08-14.  ^ http://unctadstat.unctad.org/wds/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=95

Bibliography[edit]

Krahn, Harvey J., and Graham S. Lowe. Work, Industry, and Canadian Society. Second ed. Scarborough, Ont.: Nelson Canada, 1993. xii, 430 p. ISBN 0-17-603540-0

External links[edit]

Look up industry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Media related to Industries at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to industry at Wikiquote

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