The INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION (IVC) was a
Bronze Age civilisation
(3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the
northwestern regions of
South Asia , extending from what today is
Pakistan and northwest
India . Along with
Mesopotamia it was one of three earliest
civilisations of the world and included among the civilisations of the
Old World , and of the three, the most widespread.
It flourished in the basins of the
Indus River , which flows through
the length of Pakistan, and along a system of perennial, mostly
monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal
Hakra river in northwest
India and eastern Pakistan.
Aridification of this region during the 3rd millennium BCE may have
been the initial spur for the urbanisation associated with the
civilisation, but eventually also reduced the water supply enough to
cause the civilisation's demise, and to scatter its population
At its peak, the
Indus Civilisation may have had a population of over
five million. Inhabitants of the ancient
Indus river valley developed
new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and
metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The
Indus cities are noted
for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage
systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential
Indus Valley Civilisation is also known as the HARAPPAN
Harappa , the first of its sites to be excavated
in the 1920s, in what was then the
Punjab province of British
and now is Pakistan. The discovery of Harappa, and soon afterwards,
Mohenjo-Daro , was the culmination of work beginning in 1861 with the
founding of the Archaeological Survey of
India in the
British Raj .
Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with
important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. This Harappan
civilisation is sometimes called the MATURE HARAPPAN culture to
distinguish it from the cultures immediately preceding and following
it. Of these, the earlier is often called the Early Harappan culture,
while the later one may be referred to as the Late Harappan, both of
which existed in the same area as the
Mature Harappan Civilisation.
The early Harappan cultures were preceded by local Neolithic
agricultural villages, from where the river plains were populated.
As of 1999, over 1,056 cities and settlements had been found, of which
96 have been excavated, mainly in the general region of the
Hakra Rivers and their tributaries. Among the settlements were
the major urban centres of
Mohenjo-daro (UNESCO World
Heritage Site ),
Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is
uncertain since the
Indus script is still undeciphered. A relationship
with the Dravidian or Elamo-
Dravidian language family is favoured by a
section of scholars.
* 1 Extent
* 2 Discovery and history of excavation
* 3 Chronology
* 4 Pre-Harappan -
* 5 Early Harappan
* 6.1 Cities
* 6.2 Authority and governance
* 6.3 Technology
* 6.4 Arts and crafts
* 6.5 Trade and transportation
* 6.6 Subsistence
* 6.7 Language
* 6.8 Possible writing system
* 6.9 Religion
* 7.1 "Aryan invasion"
Climate change and drought
* 7.3 Continuity
* 8 Post-Harappan
* 9 Historical context
* 9.1 Near East
* 9.3 Munda
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes
* 12 References
* 13 Bibliography
* 14 Further reading
* 15 External links
Locations of IVC-sites Diorama reconstruction of
everyday life in
Indus Valley Civilisation (National Science Centre,
Delhi , India)
Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) encompassed much of
western India, and northeastern
Afghanistan ; extending from Pakistani
Balochistan in the west to
Uttar Pradesh in the east, northeastern
Afghanistan to the north and
Maharashtra to the south. The geography
Indus Valley put the civilisations that arose there in a highly
similar situation to those in
Peru , with rich agricultural
lands being surrounded by highlands, desert, and ocean. Recently,
Indus sites have been discovered in Pakistan's northwestern Frontier
Province as well. Other IVC colonies can be found in
smaller isolated colonies can be found as far away as
Maharashtra . The largest number of colonies are in the
Gujrat belt Coastal settlements
Sutkagan Dor in Western Baluchistan to
Gujarat . An
Indus Valley site has been found on the
Oxus River at
Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, in the
Gomal River valley in
northwestern Pakistan, at
Manda, Jammu on the
Beas River near
India, and at
Alamgirpur on the
Hindon River , only 28 km from Delhi
Indus Valley sites have been found most often on rivers, but also
on the ancient seacoast, for example, Balakot, and on islands, for
It flourished in the basins of the
Indus River , which flows through
the length of Pakistan, and along a system of perennial, mostly
monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal
Hakra river in northwest
India and eastern Pakistan. There
is evidence of dry river beds overlapping with the
Hakra channel in
Pakistan and the seasonal Ghaggar River in India. Many
sites have been discovered along the Ghaggar-
Hakra beds. Among them
Kalibangan , and Ganwariwala.
According to some archaeologists, more than 500 Harappan sites have
been discovered along the dried up river beds of the Ghaggar-Hakra
River and its tributaries, in contrast to only about 100 along the
Indus and its tributaries; consequently, in their opinion, the
Hakra civilisation or Indus-Saraswati
civilisation is justified. However, these arguments are disputed by
other archaeologists who state that the Ghaggar-
Hakra desert area has
been left untouched by settlements and agriculture since the end of
Indus period and hence shows more sites than those found in the
alluvium of the
Indus valley; second, that the number of Harappan
sites along the Ghaggar-
Hakra river beds has been exaggerated.
"Harappan Civilisation" remains the commonly used name, according to
the archaeological norm of naming a civilisation after its first
DISCOVERY AND HISTORY OF EXCAVATION
Indus Valley pottery, 2500–1900 BCE
Indus valley seals
with Bull , Elephant , and Rhinoceros , 2500–1900 BCE
The ruins of
Harappa were described in 1842 by
Charles Masson in his
Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan , Afghanistan, and the
Punjab, where locals talked of an ancient city extending "thirteen
cosses " (about 25 miles or 41 km). Archaeological Ruins at
Alexander Cunningham , later director-general of the
archaeological survey of northern India, visited
Harappa where the
British engineers John and
William Brunton were laying the East Indian
Railway Company line connecting the cities of
John wrote, "I was much exercised in my mind how we were to get
ballast for the line of the railway". They were told of an ancient
ruined city near the lines, called Brahminabad. Visiting the city, he
found it full of hard well-burnt bricks, and, "convinced that there
was a grand quarry for the ballast I wanted", the city of Brahminabad
was reduced to ballast. A few months later, further north, John's
brother William Brunton's "section of the line ran near another ruined
city, bricks from which had already been used by villagers in the
nearby village of
Harappa at the same site. These bricks now provided
ballast along 93 miles (150 km) of the railroad track running from
Karachi to Lahore".
In 1872–75, Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an
erroneous identification as Brahmi letters). More Harappan seals were
discovered in 1912 by
John Faithfull Fleet , prompting an
archaeological campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall . Marshall, Rai
Daya Ram Sahni and
Madho Sarup Vats began excavating Harappa
in 1921, finding buildings and artefacts indicative of an ancient
civilisation. These were soon complemented by discoveries at
Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee ,
Ernest J. H. Mackay , and
Marshall. By 1931, much of
Mohenjo-Daro had been excavated, but
excavations continued, such as that led by Sir
Mortimer Wheeler ,
director of the Archaeological Survey of
India in 1944. Among other
archaeologists who worked on IVC sites before the independence in 1947
Ahmad Hasan Dani , Brij Basi Lal , Nani Gopal Majumdar, and Sir
Aurel Stein .
Following independence, the bulk of the archaeological finds were
Pakistan where most of the IVC was based, and excavations
from this time include those led by Wheeler in 1949, archaeological
adviser to the Government of Pakistan. Outposts of the
civilisation were excavated as far west as
Sutkagan Dor in Pakistani
Balochistan , as far north as at
Shortugai on the Amu Darya (the
river's ancient name was
Oxus ) in current
Afghanistan , as far east
Alamgirpur , Uttar Pradesh,
India and as far south as at Malwan
, in modern-day
Surat , Gujarat, India.
In 2010, heavy floods hit
India and damaged the
archaeological site of
Jognakhera , where ancient copper smelting
furnaces were found dating back almost 5,000 years. The
Civilisation site was hit by almost 10 feet of water as the Sutlej
Yamuna link canal overflowed.
Main article: Periodisation of the
Indus Valley Civilisation
The cities of the
Indus Valley Civilisation had "social hierarchies,
their writing system, their large planned cities and their
long-distance trade mark them to archaeologists as a full-fledged
'civilisation.'" The mature phase of the Harappan civilisation lasted
from c. 2600 to 1900 BCE. With the inclusion of the predecessor and
successor cultures — Early Harappan and Late Harappan, respectively
— the entire
Indus Valley Civilisation may be taken to have lasted
from the 33rd to the 14th centuries BCE. It is part of the Indus
Valley Tradition, which also includes the pre-Harappan occupation of
Mehrgarh, the earliest farming site of the
Several periodisations are employed for the periodisation of the IVC.
The most commonly used classifies the
Indus Valley Civilisation into
Early, Mature and
Late Harappan Phase. An alternative approach by
Shaffer divides the broader
Indus Valley Tradition into four eras, the
pre-Harappan "Early Food Producing Era," and the Regionalisation,
Integration, and Localisation eras, which correspond roughly with the
Early Harappan, Mature Harappan, and
Late Harappan phases.
Mehrgarh I (aceramic Neolithic)
EARLY FOOD PRODUCING ERA
Mehrgarh II-VI (ceramic Neolithic)
c.4000-2500/2300 BCE (Shaffer)
c.5000-3200 BCE (Coningham
Hakra Ware )
Harappan 2 (
Kot Diji Phase,
MATURE HARAPPAN (INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION)
Harappan 3A (
Late Harappan (
Cemetery H );
Ochre Coloured Pottery Harappan 4
Painted Grey Ware
Painted Grey Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware (Iron Age)
Iron Age India
PRE-HARAPPAN - MEHRGARH
Haplogroup L-M20 has a high frequency in the
McElreavy "> Early Harappan Period, c. 3300–2600 BCE
The Early Harappan Ravi Phase, named after the nearby
Ravi River ,
lasted from c. 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE. It is related to the Hakra
Phase , identified in the
Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley to the west, and
Kot Diji Phase (2800–2600 BCE, Harappan 2), named after
a site in northern
Sindh , Pakistan, near Mohenjo Daro . The earliest
examples of the
Indus script date to the 3rd millennium BCE.
The mature phase of earlier village cultures is represented by Rehman
Dheri and Amri in Pakistan.
Kot Diji represents the phase leading up
to Mature Harappan, with the citadel representing centralised
authority and an increasingly urban quality of life. Another town of
this stage was found at
India on the
Trade networks linked this culture with related regional cultures and
distant sources of raw materials, including lapis lazuli and other
materials for bead-making. By this time, villagers had domesticated
numerous crops, including peas , sesame seeds , dates , and cotton, as
well as animals, including the water buffalo . Early Harappan
communities turned to large urban centres by 2600 BCE, from where the
mature Harappan phase started. The latest research shows that Indus
Valley people migrated from villages to cities.
Mature Harappan Period, c. 2600–1900 BCE
Granary and Great Hall on Mound F in
According to Giosan et al. (2012), the slow southward migration of
the monsoons across Asia initially allowed the
Indus Valley villages
to develop by taming the floods of the
Indus and its tributaries.
Flood-supported farming led to large agricultural surpluses, which in
turn supported the development of cities. The IVC residents did not
develop irrigation capabilities, relying mainly on the seasonal
monsoons leading to summer floods. Brooke further notes that the
development of advanced cities coincides with a reduction in rainfall,
which may have triggered a reorganisation into larger urban centers.
According to J. G. Shaffer and D. A. Lichtenstein, the Mature
Harappan Civilisation was "a fusion of the Bagor, Hakra, and Kot Diji
traditions or 'ethnic groups' in the Ghaggar-
Hakra valley on the
India and Pakistan".
By 2600 BCE, the Early Harappan communities turned into large urban
centres. Such urban centres include
Mohenjo-Daro in modern-day Pakistan, and
Rupar , and
Lothal in modern-day India. In total, more
than 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the
general region of the
Indus Rivers and their tributaries.
Computer-aided reconstruction of coastal Harappan settlement at
Sokhta Koh near Pasni ,
A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident
Indus Valley Civilisation making them the first urban centre in
the region. The quality of municipal town planning suggests the
knowledge of urban planning and efficient municipal governments which
placed a high priority on hygiene , or, alternatively, accessibility
to the means of religious ritual.
As seen in Harappa,
Mohenjo-Daro and the recently partially excavated
Rakhigarhi , this urban plan included the world's first known urban
sanitation systems: see hydraulic engineering of the
Civilisation . Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes
obtained water from wells . From a room that appears to have been set
aside for bathing, waste water was directed to covered drains, which
lined the major streets. Houses opened only to inner courtyards and
smaller lanes. The house-building in some villages in the region still
resembles in some respects the house-building of the Harappans.
Indus systems of sewerage and drainage that were
developed and used in cities throughout the
Indus region were far more
advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East
and even more efficient than those in many areas of
Pakistan and India
today. The advanced architecture of the Harappans is shown by their
impressive dockyards, granaries , warehouses, brick platforms, and
protective walls. The massive walls of
Indus cities most likely
protected the Harappans from floods and may have dissuaded military
conflicts. So-called "Priest King" statue,
Mohenjo-Daro , late
Mature Harappan period, National Museum, Karachi,
The purpose of the citadel remains debated. In sharp contrast to this
Mesopotamia and ancient
Egypt , no
large monumental structures were built. There is no conclusive
evidence of palaces or temples—or of kings, armies, or priests. Some
structures are thought to have been granaries. Found at one city is an
enormous well-built bath (the "
Great Bath "), which may have been a
public bath. Although the citadels were walled, it is far from clear
that these structures were defensive. They may have been built to
divert flood waters.
Most city dwellers appear to have been traders or artisans, who lived
with others pursuing the same occupation in well-defined
neighbourhoods. Materials from distant regions were used in the cities
for constructing seals, beads and other objects. Among the artefacts
discovered were beautiful glazed faïence beads.
Steatite seals have
images of animals, people (perhaps gods), and other types of
inscriptions, including the yet un-deciphered writing system of the
Indus Valley Civilisation . Some of the seals were used to stamp clay
on trade goods and most probably had other uses as well.
Although some houses were larger than others,
cities were remarkable for their apparent, if relative, egalitarianism
. All the houses had access to water and drainage facilities. This
gives the impression of a society with relatively low wealth
concentration , though clear social levelling is seen in personal
Dholavira Sophisticated Water Reservoir, evidence
for hydraulic sewage systems in the ancient
Indus Valley Civilisation
Toilets that used water were used in the
Indus Valley Civilisation.
The cities of
Mohenjo-daro had a flush toilet in almost
every house, attached to a sophisticated sewage system .
AUTHORITY AND GOVERNANCE
Archaeological records provide no immediate answers for a centre of
power or for depictions of people in power in Harappan society. But,
there are indications of complex decisions being taken and
implemented. For instance, the majority of the cities were constructed
in a highly uniform and well-planned grid pattern, suggesting they
were planned by a central authority; extraordinary uniformity of
Harappan artefacts as evident in pottery, seals, weights and bricks;
presence of public facilities and monumental architecture;
heterogeneity in the mortuary symbolism and in grave goods (items
included in burials).
These are the major theories:
* There was a single state, given the similarity in artefacts, the
evidence for planned settlements, the standardised ratio of brick
size, and the establishment of settlements near sources of raw
* There was no single ruler but several cities like
a separate ruler,
Harappa another, and so forth.
* Harappan society had no rulers, and everybody enjoyed equal
Further information: Indian mathematics § Prehistory Unicorn
Indian Museum Elephant seal of Indus
Indus Valley seals,
The people of the
Indus Civilisation achieved great accuracy in
measuring length, mass, and time. They were among the first to develop
a system of uniform weights and measures. A comparison of available
objects indicates large scale variation across the
Their smallest division, which is marked on an ivory scale found in
Lothal in Gujarat, was approximately 1.704 mm, the smallest division
ever recorded on a scale of the
Bronze Age . Harappan engineers
followed the decimal division of measurement for all practical
purposes, including the measurement of mass as revealed by their
These chert weights were in a ratio of 5:2:1 with weights of 0.05,
0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 units, with each
unit weighing approximately 28 grams, similar to the English Imperial
ounce or Greek uncia, and smaller objects were weighed in similar
ratios with the units of 0.871. However, as in other cultures, actual
weights were not uniform throughout the area. The weights and measures
later used in
Arthashastra (4th century BCE) are the same
as those used in
Harappans evolved some new techniques in metallurgy and produced
copper, bronze , lead, and tin . The engineering skill of the
Harappans was remarkable, especially in building docks.
In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh
, Pakistan, discovered that the people of the
Civilisation, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of
proto-dentistry . Later, in April 2006, it was announced in the
scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic)
evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e., in a living
person) was found in Mehrgarh. Eleven drilled molar crowns from nine
adults were discovered in a
Neolithic graveyard in
Mehrgarh that dates
from 7,500–9,000 years ago. According to the authors, their
discoveries point to a tradition of proto-dentistry in the early
farming cultures of that region.
A touchstone bearing gold streaks was found in
Banawali , which was
probably used for testing the purity of gold (such a technique is
still used in some parts of India).
ARTS AND CRAFTS
The "dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro " (replica) Chanhudaro.
Fragment of Large Deep Vessel, circa 2500 BCE. Red pottery with red
and black slip-painted decoration, 415/16×6⅛ in. (12.5×15.5 cm).
Various sculptures, seals, bronze vessels pottery , gold jewellery,
and anatomically detailed figurines in terracotta , bronze, and
steatite have been found at excavation sites.
A number of gold, terracotta and stone figurines of girls in dancing
poses reveal the presence of some dance form. These terracotta
figurines included cows, bears, monkeys, and dogs. The animal depicted
on a majority of seals at sites of the mature period has not been
clearly identified. Part bull, part zebra, with a majestic horn, it
has been a source of speculation. As yet, there is insufficient
evidence to substantiate claims that the image had religious or cultic
significance, but the prevalence of the image raises the question of
whether or not the animals in images of the IVC are religious symbols.
Sir John Marshall reacted with surprise when he saw the famous Indus
bronze statuette of a slender-limbed dancing girl in Mohenjo-Daro:
"When I first saw them I found it difficult to believe that they were
prehistoric; they seemed to completely upset all established ideas
about early art, and culture. Modeling such as this was unknown in the
ancient world up to the Hellenistic age of Greece, and I thought,
therefore, that some mistake must surely have been made; that these
figures had found their way into levels some 3000 years older than
those to which they properly belonged .... Now, in these statuettes,
it is just this anatomical truth which is so startling; that makes us
wonder whether, in this all-important matter, Greek artistry could
possibly have been anticipated by the sculptors of a far-off age on
the banks of the Indus".
Many crafts including, "shell working, ceramics, and agate and glazed
steatite bead making" were practised and the pieces were used in the
making of necklaces, bangles, and other ornaments from all phases of
Harappan culture. Some of these crafts are still practised in the
subcontinent today. Some make-up and toiletry items (a special kind
of combs (kakai), the use of collyrium and a special three-in-one
toiletry gadget) that were found in Harappan contexts still have
similar counterparts in modern India.
Terracotta female figurines
were found (ca. 2800–2600 BCE) which had red colour applied to the
"manga" (line of partition of the hair).
Seals have been found at
Mohenjo-Daro depicting a figure standing on
its head, and another sitting cross-legged in what some call a yoga
-like pose (see image, the so-called Pashupati, below). This figure,
sometimes known as a
Pashupati , has been variously identified. Sir
John Marshall identified a resemblance to the Hindu god, Shiva. If
this can be validated, it would be evidence that some aspects of
Hinduism predate the earliest texts, the Veda.
A harp-like instrument depicted on an
Indus seal and two shell
objects found at
Lothal indicate the use of stringed musical
instruments. The Harappans also made various toys and games, among
them cubical dice (with one to six holes on the faces), which were
found in sites like Mohenjo-Daro.
TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION
The docks of ancient
Lothal as they are today (2006) Further
Indus civilisation's economy appears to have depended
significantly on trade, which was facilitated by major advances in
transport technology. The IVC may have been the first civilisation to
use wheeled transport. These advances may have included bullock carts
that are identical to those seen throughout
South Asia today, as well
as boats. Most of these boats were probably small, flat-bottomed
craft, perhaps driven by sail, similar to those one can see on the
Indus River today; however, there is secondary evidence of sea-going
craft. Archaeologists have discovered a massive, dredged canal and
what they regard as a docking facility at the coastal city of Lothal
Gujarat state). An extensive canal network, used for
irrigation, has however also been discovered by H.-P. Francfort.
During 4300–3200 BCE of the chalcolithic period (copper age), the
Indus Valley Civilisation area shows ceramic similarities with
Turkmenistan and northern Iran which suggest considerable
mobility and trade. During the Early Harappan period (about
3200–2600 BCE), similarities in pottery, seals, figurines,
ornaments, etc. document intensive caravan trade with
Central Asia and
Iranian plateau .
Judging from the dispersal of
Indus civilisation artefacts, the trade
networks, economically, integrated a huge area, including portions of
Afghanistan , the coastal regions of
Persia , northern and western
India , and
Mesopotamia . Studies of tooth enamel from individuals
Harappa suggest that some residents had migrated to the city
from beyond the
Indus valley. There is some evidence that trade
contacts extended to
Crete and possibly to Egypt.
There was an extensive maritime trade network operating between the
Harappan and Mesopotamian civilisations as early as the middle
Harappan Phase, with much commerce being handled by "middlemen
merchants from Dilmun" (modern
Failaka located in the
Persian Gulf ). Such long-distance sea trade became feasible with the
development of plank-built watercraft, equipped with a single central
mast supporting a sail of woven rushes or cloth.
Several coastal settlements like Sotkagen-dor (astride Dasht River,
north of Jiwani),
Sokhta Koh (astride Shadi River, north of Pasni ),
Balakot (near Sonmiani) in
Pakistan along with
Lothal in western
India, testify to their role as Harappan trading outposts. Shallow
harbours located at the estuaries of rivers opening into the sea
allowed brisk maritime trade with Mesopotamian cities.
Some post-1980 studies indicate that food production was largely
indigenous to the
Indus Valley. It is known that the people of
Mehrgarh used domesticated wheats and barley , and the major
cultivated cereal crop was naked six-row barley, a crop derived from
two-row barley (see Shaffer and Liechtenstein 1995, 1999).
Jim G. Shaffer (1999: 245) writes that the
"demonstrates that food production was an indigenous South Asian
phenomenon" and that the data support interpretation of "the
prehistoric urbanisation and complex social organisation in South Asia
as based on indigenous, but not isolated, cultural developments".
Substratum in Vedic Sanskrit ,
Harappan language , and
Origins of Dravidian peoples
It has often been suggested that the bearers of the IVC corresponded
to proto-Dravidians linguistically, the break-up of proto-Dravidian
corresponding to the break-up of the
Late Harappan culture. Finnish
Asko Parpola concludes that the uniformity of the Indus
inscriptions precludes any possibility of widely different languages
being used, and that an early form of
Dravidian language must have
been the language of the
Indus people. Today, the Dravidian language
family is concentrated mostly in southern
India and northern and
Sri Lanka , but pockets of it still remain throughout the rest
Brahui language ), which lends credence to
According to Heggarty and Renfrew,
Dravidian languages may have
spread into the
Indian subcontinent with the spread of farming.
According to David McAlpin, the
Dravidian languages were brought to
India by immigration into
Elam . In earlier publications,
Renfrew also stated that proto-Dravidian was brought to
farmers from the Iranian part of the Fertile Crescent, but more
recently Heggarty and Renfrew note that "a great deal remains to be
done in elucidating the prehistory of Dravidian." They also note that
"McAlpin's analysis of the language data, and thus his claims, remain
far from orthodoxy." Heggarty and Renfrew conclude that several
scenarios are compatible with the data, and that "the linguistic jury
is still very much out."
POSSIBLE WRITING SYSTEM
Between 400 and as many as 600 distinct
Indus symbols have been
found on seals , small tablets, ceramic pots and more than a dozen
other materials, including a "signboard" that apparently once hung
over the gate of the inner citadel of the
Indus city of Dholavira.
Indus Signs, dubbed the
Indus inscriptions are no more than four or five characters
in length, most of which (aside from the
Dholavira "signboard") are
tiny; the longest on a single surface, which is less than 1 inch (2.54
cm) square, is 17 signs long; the longest on any object (found on
three different faces of a mass-produced object) has a length of 26
Indus Valley Civilisation is generally characterised as a
literate society on the evidence of these inscriptions, this
description has been challenged by Farmer, Sproat, and Witzel (2004)
who argue that the
Indus system did not encode language, but was
instead similar to a variety of non-linguistic sign systems used
extensively in the Near East and other societies, to symbolise
families, clans, gods, and religious concepts. Others have claimed on
occasion that the symbols were exclusively used for economic
transactions, but this claim leaves unexplained the appearance of
Indus symbols on many ritual objects, many of which were mass-produced
in moulds . No parallels to these mass-produced inscriptions are known
in any other early ancient civilisations.
In a 2009 study by P. N. Rao et al. published in Science , computer
scientists, comparing the pattern of symbols to various linguistic
scripts and non-linguistic systems, including DNA and a computer
programming language, found that the
Indus script's pattern is closer
to that of spoken words, supporting the hypothesis that it codes for
an as-yet-unknown language.
Farmer, Sproat, and Witzel have disputed this finding, pointing out
that Rao et al. did not actually compare the
Indus signs with
"real-world non-linguistic systems" but rather with "two wholly
artificial systems invented by the authors, one consisting of 200,000
randomly ordered signs and another of 200,000 fully ordered signs,
that they spuriously claim represent the structures of all real-world
non-linguistic sign systems". Farmer et al. have also demonstrated
that a comparison of a non-linguistic system like medieval heraldic
signs with natural languages yields results similar to those that Rao
et al. obtained with
Indus signs. They conclude that the method used
by Rao et al. cannot distinguish linguistic systems from
The messages on the seals have proved to be too short to be decoded
by a computer. Each seal has a distinctive combination of symbols and
there are too few examples of each sequence to provide a sufficient
context. The symbols that accompany the images vary from seal to seal,
making it impossible to derive a meaning for the symbols from the
images. There have, nonetheless, been a number of interpretations
offered for the meaning of the seals. These interpretations have been
marked by ambiguity and subjectivity. :69
Photos of many of the thousands of extant inscriptions are published
in the Corpus of
Indus Seals and Inscriptions (1987, 1991, 2010),
Asko Parpola and his colleagues. The final, third, volume,
republished photos taken in the 1920s and 1930s of hundreds of lost or
stolen inscriptions, along with many discovered in the last few
decades. Formerly, researchers had to supplement the materials in the
Corpus by study of the tiny photos in the excavation reports of
Marshall (1931), MacKay (1938, 1943), Wheeler (1947), or reproductions
in more recent scattered sources.
Edakkal caves in
Wayanad district of
Kerala contain drawings that
range over periods from as early as 5000 BCE to 1000 BCE. The youngest
group of paintings have been in the news for a possible connection to
Indus Valley Civilisation.
Female figure, possibly a fertility goddess, Harappan Phase,
2500-1900 BCE The
Pashupati seal , showing a seated and
possibly tricephalic figure, surrounded by animals. Further
The religion and belief system of the
Indus valley people have
received considerable attention, especially from the view of
identifying precursors to deities and religious practices of Indian
religions that later developed in the area. However, due to the
sparsity of evidence, which is open to varying interpretations, and
the fact that the
Indus script remains undeciphered, the conclusions
are partly speculative and largely based on a retrospective view from
a much later Hindu perspective. An early and influential work in the
area that set the trend for Hindu interpretations of archaeological
evidence from the Harapan sites was that of John Marshall , who in
1931 identified the following as prominent features of the Indus
religion: a Great Male God and a Mother Goddess; deification or
veneration of animals and plants; symbolic representation of the
phallus (linga ) and vulva (yoni ); and, use of baths and water in
religious practice. Marshall's interpretations have been much debated,
and sometimes disputed over the following decades. Swastika
Indus Valley Civilisation in
Indus valley seal shows a seated figure with a horned headdress,
possibly tricephalic and possibly ithyphallic , surrounded by animals.
Marshall identified the figure as an early form of the Hindu god Shiva
Rudra ), who is associated with asceticism, yoga , and linga;
regarded as a lord of animals; and often depicted as having three
eyes. The seal has hence come to be known as the
Pashupati Seal ,
Pashupati (lord of all animals), an epithet of Shiva. While
Marshall's work has earned some support, many critics and even
supporters have raised several objections. Doris Srinivasan has argued
that the figure does not have three faces, or yogic posture, and that
Rudra was not a protector of wild animals.
Herbert Sullivan and
Alf Hiltebeitel also rejected Marshall's
conclusions, with the former claiming that the figure was female,
while the latter associated the figure with Mahisha, the Buffalo God
and the surrounding animals with vahanas (vehicles) of deities for the
four cardinal directions. Writing in 2002, Gregory L. Possehl
concluded that while it would be appropriate to recognise the figure
as a deity, its association with the water buffalo, and its posture as
one of ritual discipline, regarding it as a proto-
Shiva would be going
too far. Despite the criticisms of Marshall's association of the seal
with a proto-
Shiva icon, it has been interpreted as the Tirthankara
Rishabhanatha by Jains and
Vilas Sangave or an early
Buddhists. Historians such as
Heinrich Zimmer and Thomas McEvilley
believe that there is a connection between first
Rishabhanatha and the
Indus Valley civilisation.
Marshall hypothesised the existence of a cult of Mother Goddess
worship based upon excavation of several female figurines, and thought
that this was a precursor of the Hindu sect of
Shaktism . However the
function of the female figurines in the life of
Indus Valley people
remains unclear, and Possehl does not regard the evidence for
Marshall's hypothesis to be "terribly robust". Some of the baetyls
interpreted by Marshall to be sacred phallic representations are now
thought to have been used as pestles or game counters instead, while
the ring stones that were thought to symbolise yoni were determined to
be architectural features used to stand pillars, although the
possibility of their religious symbolism cannot be eliminated. Many
Indus Valley seals show animals, with some depicting them being
carried in processions, while others show chimeric creations . One
seal from Mohen-jodaro shows a half-human, half-buffalo monster
attacking a tiger, which may be a reference to the Sumerian myth of
such a monster created by goddess Aruru to fight
In contrast to contemporary Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilisations,
Indus valley lacks any monumental palaces, even though excavated
cities indicate that the society possessed the requisite engineering
knowledge. This may suggest that religious ceremonies, if any, may
have been largely confined to individual homes, small temples, or the
open air. Several sites have been proposed by Marshall and later
scholars as possibly devoted to religious purpose, but at present only
Great Bath at
Mohenjo-daro is widely thought to have been so used,
as a place for ritual purification. The funerary practices of the
Harappan civilisation are marked by their diversity, with evidence of
supine burial, fractional burial (in which the body is reduced to
skeletal remains by exposure to the elements before final interment),
and even cremation.
Late Harappan Period, c. 1900–1300 BCE Late Harappa
figures from a hoard at
Daimabad , 2000 BCE
Around 1800 BCE signs of a gradual decline began to emerge, and by
around 1700 BCE most of the cities had been abandoned. Recent
examination of human skeletons from the site of
demonstrated that the end of the
Indus civilisation saw an increase in
inter-personal violence and in infectious diseases like leprosy and
In 1953 Sir
Mortimer Wheeler proposed that the invasion of an
Indo-European tribe from Central Asia, the "Aryans ", caused the
decline of the
Indus Civilisation. As evidence, he cited a group of 37
skeletons found in various parts of Mohenjo-Daro, and passages in the
Vedas referring to battles and forts. However, scholars soon started
to reject Wheeler's theory, since the skeletons belonged to a period
after the city's abandonment and none were found near the citadel.
Subsequent examinations of the skeletons by Kenneth Kennedy in 1994
showed that the marks on the skulls were caused by erosion, and not by
CLIMATE CHANGE AND DROUGHT
Suggested contributory causes for the localisation of the IVC include
changes in the course of the river, and climate change that is also
signalled for the neighbouring areas of the Middle East. As of 2016
many scholars believe that drought and a decline in trade with Egypt
Mesopotamia caused the collapse of the
Hakra system was rain-fed, and water-supply
depended on the monsoons. The
Indus valley climate grew significantly
cooler and drier from about 1800 BCE, linked to a general weakening of
the monsoon at that time. The Indian monsoon declined and aridity
increased, with the Ghaggar-
Hakra retracting its reach towards the
foothills of the Himalaya, leading to erratic and less extensive
floods that made inundation agriculture less sustainable.
Aridification reduced the water supply enough to cause the
civilisation's demise, and to scatter its population eastward.
According to Giosan et al. (2012), the IVC residents did not develop
irrigation capabilities, relying mainly on the seasonal monsoons
leading to summer floods. As the monsoons kept shifting south, the
floods grew too erratic for sustainable agricultural activities. The
residents then migrated towards the Ganges basin in the east, where
they established smaller villages and isolated farms. The small
surplus produced in these small communities did not allow development
of trade, and the cities died out.
Archaeological excavations indicate that the decline of
people eastward. After 1900 BCE the number of sites in India
increased from 218 to 853. Excavations in the Gangetic plain show that
urban settlement began around 1200 BCE, only a few centuries after the
Harappa and much earlier than previously expected.
Archaeologists have emphasised that, just as in most areas of the
world, there was a continuous series of cultural developments. These
link "the so-called two major phases of urbanisation in South Asia".
There is also a Harappan site called
Rajkot district of
Saurashtra . Its excavation started under an archaeological team from
Gujarat State Department of Archaeology and the Museum of the
University of Pennsylvania in 1982–83.
Iron Age India
Previously, scholars believed that the decline of the Harappan
civilisation led to an interruption of urban life in the Indian
subcontinent. However, the
Indus Valley Civilisation did not disappear
suddenly, and many elements of the
Indus Civilisation appear in later
Cemetery H culture may be the manifestation of the Late
Harappan over a large area in the south, and the Ochre Coloured
Pottery culture its successor. David Gordon White cites three other
mainstream scholars who "have emphatically demonstrated" that Vedic
religion derives partially from the
Indus Valley Civilisations.
As of 2016 , archaeological data suggests that the material culture
Late Harappan may have persisted until at least c.
1000–900 BCE and was partially contemporaneous with the Painted Grey
Ware culture. Harvard archaeologist Richard Meadow points to the late
Harappan settlement of
Pirak , which thrived continuously from 1800
BCE to the time of the invasion of
Alexander the Great in 325 BCE.
In the aftermath of the
Indus Civilisation's localisation, regional
cultures emerged, to varying degrees showing the influence of the
Indus Civilisation. In the formerly great city of Harappa, burials
have been found that correspond to a regional culture called the
Cemetery H culture . At the same time, the Ochre Coloured Pottery
culture expanded from
Rajasthan into the
Gangetic Plain . The Cemetery
H culture has the earliest evidence for cremation ; a practice
The mature (Harappan) phase of the IVC is contemporary to the Early
Bronze Age in the
Ancient Near East , in particular the Old
Elamite period , Early Dynastic to Ur III
Mesopotamia , Prepalatial
Old Kingdom to First Intermediate Period
The IVC has been compared in particular with the civilisations of
Elam (also in the context of the
Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis) and with
Crete (because of isolated cultural parallels such as the
ubiquitous goddess worship and depictions of bull-leaping ). The IVC
has been tentatively identified with the toponym
Meluhha known from
Sumerian records; the Sumerians called them Meluhhaites.
Shahr-i-Sokhta , located in southeastern Iran shows trade route with
Mesopotamia . A number of seals with
Indus script have been also
found in Mesopotamian sites.
After the discovery of the IVC in the 1920s, it was immediately
associated with the indigenous
Dasyu inimical to the Rigvedic tribes
in numerous hymns of the
Mortimer Wheeler interpreted the
presence of many unburied corpses found in the top levels of
Mohenjo-Daro as the victims of a warlike conquest, and famously stated
Indra stands accused" of the destruction of the IVC. The
association of the IVC with the city-dwelling Dasyus remains alluring
because the assumed timeframe of the first
Indo-Aryan migration into
India corresponds neatly with the period of decline of the IVC seen in
the archaeological record. The discovery of the advanced, urban IVC
however changed the 19th-century view of early
Indo-Aryan migration as
an "invasion" of an advanced culture at the expense of a "primitive"
aboriginal population to a gradual acculturation of nomadic
"barbarians" on an advanced urban civilisation, comparable to the
Germanic migrations after the
Fall of Rome
Fall of Rome , or the Kassite invasion
Babylonia . This move away from simplistic "invasionist" scenarios
parallels similar developments in thinking about language transfer and
population movement in general, such as in the case of the migration
of the proto-Greek speakers into Greece, or the Indo-Europeanization
of Western Europe.
Proto-Munda (or Para -Munda) and a "lost phylum" (perhaps related or
ancestral to the
Nihali language ) have been proposed as other
candidates for the language of the IVC.
Michael Witzel suggests an
underlying, prefixing language that is similar to
notably Khasi ; he argues that the
Rigveda shows signs of this
hypothetical Harappan influence in the earliest historic level, and
Dravidian only in later levels, suggesting that speakers of
Austroasiatic were the original inhabitants of
Punjab and that the
Indo-Aryans encountered speakers of Dravidian only in later times.
* List of
Indus Valley Civilisation sites
* List of inventions and discoveries of the
* Cradle of civilisation
* History of
* History of
Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures
* ^ Wright: "The
Indus civilisation is one of three in the 'Ancient
East' that, along with
Mesopotamia and Pharaonic Egypt, was a cradle
of early civilisation in the
Old World (Childe 1950).
Egypt were longer lived, but coexisted with
Indus civilisation during
its florescence between 2600 and 1900 B.C. Of the three, the
the most expansive, extending from today's northeast
Pakistan and India."
* ^ A B C Giosan: "Numerous speculations have advanced the idea
that the Ghaggar-
Hakra fluvial system, at times identified with the
lost mythical river of Sarasvati (e.g., 4, 5, 7, 19), was a large
glacier fed Himalayan river. Potential sources for this river include
the Yamuna River, the Sutlej River, or both rivers. However, the lack
of large-scale incision on the interfluve demonstrates that large,
glacier-fed rivers did not flow across the Ghaggar-
Hakra region during
the Holocene The present Ghaggar-
Hakra valley and its tributary
rivers are currently dry or have seasonal flows. Yet rivers were
undoubtedly active in this region during the Urban Harappan Phase. We
recovered sandy fluvial deposits approximately 5;400 y old at Fort
Pakistan (SI Text), and recent work (33) on the upper
Hakra interfluve in
India also documented Holocene channel
sands that are approximately 4;300 y old. On the upper interfluve,
fine-grained floodplain deposition continued until the end of the Late
Harappan Phase, as recent as 2,900 y ago (33) (Fig. 2B). This
widespread fluvial redistribution of sediment suggests that reliable
monsoon rains were able to sustain perennial rivers earlier during the
Holocene and explains why Harappan settlements flourished along the
Hakra system without access to a glacier-fed river."
* ^ A B C Broke: "The story in Harappan
India was somewhat
different (see Figure 111.3). The
Bronze Age village and urban
societies of the
Indus Valley are some-thing of an anomaly, in that
archaeologists have found little indication of local defense and
regional warfare. It would seem that the bountiful monsoon rainfall of
the Early to Mid-Holocene had forged a condition of plenty for all,
and that competitive energies were channeled into commerce rather than
conflict. Scholars have long argued that these rains shaped the
origins of the urban Harappan societies, which emerged from Neolithic
villages around 2600 BC. It now appears that this rainfall began to
slowly taper off in the third millennium, at just the point that the
Harappan cities began to develop. Thus it seems that this "first
South Asia was the initial response of the Indus
Valley peoples to the beginning of Late Holocene aridification. These
cities were maintained for 300 to 400 years and then gradually
abandoned as the Harappan peoples resettled in scattered villages in
the eastern range of their territories, into the
Punjab and the Ganges
a)Liviu Giosan et al., "Fluvial Landscapes of the Harappan
Civilization," PNAS, 102 (2012), E1688—E1694;
(b) Camilo Ponton, "Holocene
Aridification of India," GRL 39 (2012),
(c) Harunur Rashid et al., "Late Glacial to Holocene Indian Summer
Monsoon Variability Based upon Sediment Records Taken from the Bay of
Bengal," Terrestrial, Atmospheric, and Oceanic Sciences 22 (2011),
(d) Marco Madella and Dorian Q. Fuller, "Paleoecology and the
Civilization of South Asia: A Reconsideration," Quaternary
Science Reviews 25 (2006), 1283-301. Compare with the very different
interpretations in Possehl, Gregory L. (2002), The
A Contemporary Perspective, Rowman Altamira, pp. 237–245, ISBN
978-0-7591-0172-2 , and Michael Staubwasser et al., "Climate Change
at the 4.2 ka BP Termination of the
Holocene South Asian
Monsoon Variability," GRL 30 (2003), 1425.
Bar-Matthews and Avner Ayalon, "Mid-Holocene Climate Variations." * ^
Masson: "A long march preceded our arrival at Haripah, through jangal
of the closest description.... When I joined the camp I found it in
front of the village and ruinous brick castle. Behind us was a large
circular mound, or eminence, and to the west was an irregular rocky
height, crowned with the remains of buildings, in fragments of walls,
with niches, after the eastern manner.... Tradition affirms the
existence here of a city, so considerable that it extended to Chicha
Watni, thirteen cosses distant, and that it was destroyed by a
particular visitation of Providence, brought down by the lust and
crimes of the sovereign." Note that the coss , a measure of distance
Vedic period to Mughal times, is approximately 2 miles (3.2
* ^ See also:* This map from Sahoo et al. (2006), A prehistory of
Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios
* Sengupta et al. (2006), Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution
Y-Chromosome Distributions in
India Identify Both Indigenous and
Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central
* ^ Excavations at
Bhirrana , Haryana, in
India between 2006 and
2009, by archaeologist K. N. Dikshit, provided six artefacts,
including "relatively advanced pottery," so-called
Hakra ware, which
were dated at a time bracket between 7380 and 6201 BCE. These
dates compete with
Mehrgarh for being the oldest site for cultural
remains in the area.
Yet, Dikshit and Mani clarify that this time-bracket concerns only
charcoal samples, which were radio-carbon dated at respectively
7570-7180 BCE (sample 2481) and 6689-6201 BCE (sample 2333). Dikshit
further writes that the earliest phase concerns 14 shallow
dwelling-pits which "could accommodate about 3-4 people." According
to Dikshit, in the lowest level of these pits wheel-made
was found which was "not well finished," together with other wares.
* ^ Gallego romero et al. (2011) refer to (Meadow 1993): Meadow RH.
1993. Animal domestication in the Middle East: a revised view from the
eastern margin. In: Possehl G, editor. Harappan civilization. New
Delhi (India): Oxford University Press and
India Book House. p
* ^ They further noted that "the direct lineal descendents of the
Neolithic inhabitants of
Mehrgarh are to be found to the south and the
east of Mehrgarh, in northwestern
India and the western edge of the
Deccan plateau," with neolithic
Mehrgarh showing greater affinity with
Inamgaon , south of Mehrgarh, than with chalcolithic
* ^ See:
* David McAlpin, "Toward Proto-Elamo-Dravidian", Language vol. 50
no. 1 (1974);
* David McAlpin: "Elamite and Dravidian, Further Evidence of
Relationships", Current Anthropology vol. 16 no. 1 (1975);
* David McAlpin: "Linguistic prehistory: the Dravidian situation",
in Madhav M. Deshpande and Peter Edwin Hook: Aryan and Non-Aryan in
India, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor (1979);
* David McAlpin, "Proto-Elamo-Dravidian: The Evidence and its
Implications", Transactions of the American Philosophical Society vol.
71 pt. 3, (1981)
* ^ See also:
* Mukherjee (2001): "More recently, about 15,000-10,000 years before
present (ybp), when agriculture developed in the Fertile Crescent
region that extends from Israel through northern Syria to western
Iran, there was another eastward wave of human migration
(Cavalli-Sforza et al., 1994; Renfrew 1987), a part of which also
appears to have entered India. This wave has been postulated to have
Dravidian languages into
India (Renfrew 1987).
Subsequently, the Indo-European (Aryan) language family was introduced
India about 4,000 ybp."
* Derenko: "The spread of these new technologies has been associated
with the dispersal of Dravidian and Indo-European languages in
southern Asia. It is hypothesized that the proto-Elamo-Dravidian
language, most likely originated in the
Elam province in southwestern
Iran, spread eastwards with the movement of farmers to the Indus
Valley and the Indian sub-continent."
Derenko refers to:
* Renfrew (1987), Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of
* Renfrew (1996), Language families and the spread of farming. In:
Harris DR, editor, The origins and spread of Agriculture and
Pastoralism in Eurasia, pp. 70–92
* Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi, Piazza (1994), The History and Geography
of Human Genes.
* ^ Kumar: "The analysis of two Y chromosome variants, Hgr9 and
Hgr3 provides interesting data (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001).
Microsatellite variation of Hgr9 among Iranians, Pakistanis and
Indians indicate an expansion of populations to around 9000
Iran and then to 6,000
YBP in India. This migration originated in what
was historically termed
Elam in south-west Iran to the
and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian languages
from south-west Iran (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001)."
* ^ Nevertheless, Kivisild et al. (1999) note that "a small
fraction of the West Eurasian mtDNA lineages found in Indian
populations can be ascribed to a relatively recent admixture." at ca.
9,300 ± 3,000 years before present, which coincides with "the
India of cereals domesticated in the
Fertile Crescent " and
"lends credence to the suggested linguistic connection between the
Elamite and Dravidic populations." According to Kumar (2004),
referring to Quintan-Murci et al. (2001), "microsatellite variation of
Hgr9 among Iranians, Pakistanis and Indians indicate an expansion of
populations to around 9000
YBP in Iran and then to 6,000
YBP in India.
This migration originated in what was historically termed
south-west Iran to the
Indus valley, and may have been associated with
the spread of
Dravidian languages from south-west Iran." According
to Palanichamy et al. (2015), "The presence of mtDNA haplogroups (HV14
and U1a) and Y-chromosome haplogroup (L1 ) in Dravidian populations
indicates the spread of the
Dravidian language into
India from west
* ^ Geological research by a group led by
Peter Clift investigated
how the courses of rivers have changed in this region since 8000 years
ago, to test whether climate or river reorganisations caused the
decline of the Harappan. Using U-Pb dating of zircon sand grains they
found that sediments typical of the Beas, Sutlej and Yamuna rivers
(Himalayan tributaries of the Indus) are actually present in former
Hakra channels. However, sediment contributions from these
glacial-fed rivers stopped at least by 10,000 years ago, well before
the development of the
* ^ Tripathi et al. (2004) found that the isotopes of sediments
carried by the Ghaggar-
Hakra system over the last 20 thousand years do
not come from the glaciated Higher Himalaya but have a sub-Himalayan
source, and concluded that the river system was rain-fed. They also
concluded that this contradicted the idea of a Harappan-time mighty
* ^ Wright 2009 , p. 1.
* ^ A B Wright 2010 .
* ^ A B Wright 2010 , p. 1.
* ^ A B Maemoku, Hideaki; Shitaoka, Yorinao; Nagatomo, Tsuneto;
Yagi, Hiroshi (2013), "Geomorphological Constraints on the Ghaggar
River Regime During the
Mature Harappan Period", in Giosan, Liviu;
Fuller, Dorian Q.; Nicoll, Kathleen, Climates, Landscapes, and
Civilizations, American Geophysical Union Monograph Series 198, John
Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-1-118-70443-1
* ^ A B C D E F G H Giosan, L.; et al. (2012). "Fluvial landscapes
of the Harappan Civilization". Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America. 109 (26): E1688–E1694. PMC
3387054 . PMID 22645375 . doi :10.1073/pnas.1112743109 .
* ^ A B Madella, Marco; Fuller, Dorian (2006). "Palaeoecology and
the Harappan Civilisation of South Asia: a reconsideration".
Quaternary Science Reviews. 25 (11–12): 1283–1301. doi
* ^ A B MacDonald, Glen (2011). "Potential influence of the Pacific
Ocean on the Indian summer monsoon and Harappan decline". Quaternary
International. 229: 140–148. doi :10.1016/j.quaint.2009.11.012 .
* ^ A B C D Brooke, John L. (2014), Climate Change and the Course
of Global History: A Rough Journey, Cambridge University Press, p.
296, ISBN 978-0-521-87164-8
* ^ McIntosh, Jane (2008), The Ancient
Indus Valley: New
Perspectives, ABC-CLIO, p. 387, ISBN 978-1-57607-907-2
* ^ Wright 2010 , pp. 115–125.
* ^ Beck, Roger B.; Linda Black; Larry S. Krieger; Phillip C.
Naylor; Dahia Ibo Shabaka (1999). World History: Patterns of
Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell. ISBN 0-395-87274-X .
* ^ Wright 2010 , p. 2.
* ^ "\'Earliest writing\' found". BBC News. 4 May 1999. Retrieved
* ^ A B Shaffer 1992 , I:441–464, II:425–446.
* ^ A B C Kenoyer 1991 .
* ^ Morrison, Kathleen D.; Junker, Laura L., eds. (2002).
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* ^ Wright 2010 , p. 107: Quote: "Five major
Indus cities are
discussed in this chapter. During the Urban period, the early town of
Harappa expanded in size and population and became a major center in
the Upper Indus. Other cities emerging during the Urban period include
Mohenjo-daro in the Lower Indus,
Dholavira to the south on the western
edge of peninsular
India in Kutch, Ganweriwala in Cholistan, and a
fifth city, Rakhigarhi, on the Ghaggar-Hakra.
Rakhigarhi will be
discussed briefly in view of the limited published material."
* ^ Ratnagar, Shereen (2006). Trading Encounters: From the
Euphrates to the
Indus in the
Bronze Age (2nd ed.). India: Oxford
University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-19-566603-8 .
* ^ Lockard, Craig (2010). Societies, Networks, and Transitions,
Volume 1: To 1500 (2nd ed.). India: Cengage Learning. p. 40. ISBN
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* ^ Rao, Shikaripura Ranganatha (1973).
Lothal and the Indus
civilization. London: Asia Publishing House. ISBN 0-210-22278-6 .
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* ^ A B Possehl, Gregory L. (1990). "Revolution in the Urban
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