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The INDUS RIVER (Urdu : دریائے سندھ‎; Hindi :सिंधु; Chinese : 印度河) also called SINDHū or ABāSīN, is a major south-flowing river in South Asia
South Asia
. It is the namesake of the modern nation of India
India
. The total length of the river is 3,610 km (1,988mi) which makes it one of the longest rivers in Asia . Originating in the western part of Tibet
Tibet
in the vicinity of Mount Kailash and Lake Manasarovar , the river runs a course through Ladakh , Gilgit-Baltistan , and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
, and then flows along the entire length of Punjab
Punjab
to merge into the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
near the city of Thatta in Sindh
Sindh
. It is the longest river and national river of Pakistan
Pakistan
.

The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 sq mi). Its estimated annual flow stands at around 243 km3 (58 cu mi), twice that of the Nile River and three times that of the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates rivers combined, making it the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow. The Zanskar is its left bank tributary in Ladakh . In the plains, its left bank tributary is the Chenab which itself has four major tributaries, namely, the Jhelum , the Ravi , the Beas , and the Sutlej . Its principal right bank tributaries are the Shyok , the Gilgit
Gilgit
, the Kabul , the Gomal , and the Kurram . Beginning in a mountain spring and fed with glaciers and rivers in the Himalayas
Himalayas
, the river supports ecosystems of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside.

The Indus forms the delta of present-day Pakistan
Pakistan
mentioned in the Vedic Rigveda
Rigveda
as Sapta Sindhu and the Iranian Zend Avesta as Hapta Hindu (both terms meaning "seven rivers"). The river has been a source of wonder since the Classical Period, with King Darius of Persia sending his Greek subject Scylax of Caryanda to explore the river as early as 510 BC.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology and names

* 1.1 Indus and the country of \'India\' * 1.2 Rigveda
Rigveda
and the Indus * 1.3 Other names

* 2 Description * 3 History

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Tributaries

* 5 Geology * 6 Wildlife

* 7 Mammals

* 7.1 Fish

* 8 Economy * 9 People

* 10 Modern issues

* 10.1 Effects of climate change on the river * 10.2 Pollution * 10.3 2010 floods * 10.4 2011 floods

* 11 Barrages, Bridges and Dams

* 11.1 Gallery

* 12 See also

* 13 References

* 13.1 Citations * 13.2 Sources

* 14 External links

ETYMOLOGY AND NAMES

This river was known to the ancient Iranians in Avestan , in Sanskrit as Sindhu, to Assyrians (as early as the 7th century BC) as Sinda, to the Persians as Ab-e-sind, to the Greeks
Greeks
as Indos, to the Romans as Indus, to the Pashtuns as Abasind, to the Arabs as Al-Sind, to the Chinese as Sintow, and to the Javanese as Santri . In Pali
Pali
, Síndhu means "river, stream" and refers to the Indus River
Indus River
in particular.

The word "Indus" is the romanised form of the ancient Greek word "Indós" (Ἰνδός), borrowed from the old Persian word "Hinduš " which is in turn borrowed from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word "Sindhu".

Megasthenes\'s book Indica derives its name from the river's Greek name, "Indós" (Ἰνδός), and describes Nearchus\'s contemporaneous account of how Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
crossed the river. The ancient Greeks
Greeks
referred to the Indians (people of present-day northwest India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
) as "Indói" (Ἰνδοί), literally meaning "the people of the Indus".

INDUS AND THE COUNTRY OF \'INDIA\'

India
India
is a Greek and Latin term for ‘the country of the River Indus’, with Indus probably coming from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word sindhu, ‘the sea’. Elsewhere, the Pakistani province of Sindh
Sindh
also owes its name to the river.

RIGVEDA AND THE INDUS

Rigveda
Rigveda
also describes several mythical rivers , including one named "Sindhu". The Rigvedic "Sindhu" is thought to be the present-day Indus river and is attested 176 times in its text – 95 times in the plural, more often used in the generic meaning. In the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, as in the list of rivers mentioned in the hymn of Nadistuti sukta . The Rigvedic hymns apply a feminine gender to all the rivers mentioned therein but "Sindhu" is the only river attributed with a masculine gender. Sindhu is seen as a strong warrior amongst other rivers which are seen as goddesses and compared to cows and mares yielding milk and butter.

OTHER NAMES

In other languages of the region, the river is known as सिन्धु नद (Sindhu Nad) in Hindi
Hindi
and Nepali , سنڌو (Sindhu) in Sindhi , سندھ (Sindh) in Shahmukhi Punjabi , ਸਿੰਧ ਨਦੀ ( Sindh
Sindh
Nadī) in Gurmukhī Punjabi , اباسين (Abāsin lit. "Father of Rivers") in Pashto
Pashto
, نهر السند (Nahar al-Sind) in Arabic
Arabic
, སེང་གེ་གཙང་པོ། (seng ge gtsang po lit. "Lion River" or Lion Spring) in Tibetan , 印度 (Yìndù) in Chinese , and Nilab in Turki .

DESCRIPTION

Babur crossing the Indus River.

The Indus River
Indus River
provides key water resources for Pakistan\'s economy – especially the breadbasket of Punjab
Punjab
province , which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. The word Punjab
Punjab
means "land of five rivers" and the five rivers are Jhelum , Chenab , Ravi , Beas and Sutlej , all of which finally flow into the Indus. The Indus also supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan.

The ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet
Tibet
; the river begins at the confluence of the Sengge Zangbo and Gar Tsangpo rivers that drain the Nganglong Kangri and Gangdise Shan (Gang Rinpoche, Mt. Kailas) mountain ranges. The Indus then flows northwest through Ladakh and Baltistan into Gilgit
Gilgit
, just south of the Karakoram
Karakoram
range. The Shyok , Shigar
Shigar
and Gilgit
Gilgit
rivers carry glacial waters into the main river. It gradually bends to the south, coming out of the hills between Peshawar and Rawalpindi . The Indus passes gigantic gorges 4,500–5,200 metres (15,000–17,000 feet) deep near the Nanga Parbat massif . It flows swiftly across Hazara and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir . The Kabul River joins it near Attock . The remainder of its route to the sea is in the plains of the Punjab
Punjab
and Sindh, where the flow of the river becomes slow and highly braided. It is joined by the Panjnad at Mithankot . Beyond this confluence, the river, at one time, was named the SATNAD RIVER (sat = "seven", nadī = "river"), as the river now carried the waters of the Kabul River , the Indus River
Indus River
and the five Punjab
Punjab
rivers. Passing by Jamshoro , it ends in a large delta to the east of Thatta .

The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world to exhibit a tidal bore . The Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Himalayas
Himalayas
, Karakoram
Karakoram
and the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
ranges of Tibet, the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
and Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
and Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons – it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September. There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times – it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch
and adjoining Banni grasslands after the 1816 earthquake .

The traditional source of the river is the Senge Khabab or "Lion's Mouth", a perennial spring, not far from the sacred Mount Kailash marked by a long low line of Tibetan chortens . There are several other tributaries nearby, which may possibly form a longer stream than Senge Khabab, but unlike the Senge Khabab, are all dependent on snowmelt . The Zanskar River , which flows into the Indus in Ladakh, has a greater volume of water than the Indus itself before that point. "That night in the tent I ask Sonmatering which of the Indus tributaries which we crossed this morning is the longest. All of them, he says, start at least a day's walk away from here. The Bukhar begins near the village of Yagra . The Lamolasay's source is in a holy place: there is a monastery there. The Dorjungla is a very difficult and long walk, three days perhaps, and there are many sharp rocks; but it its water is clear and blue, hence the tributary's other name, Zom-chu, which Karma Lama translates as 'Blue Water'. The Rakmajang rises from a dark lake called the Black Sea. One of the longest tributaries – and thus a candidate for the river's technical source – is the Kla-chu, the river we crossed yesterday by bridge. Also known as the Lungdep Chu, it flows into the Indus from the south-east, and rises a day's walk from Darchen. But Sonamtering insists that the Dorjungla is the longest of the 'three types of water' that fall into the Seng Tsanplo ."

HISTORY

Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation
3000 BC Main articles: Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
and History of Sindh
Sindh

Paleolithic
Paleolithic
sites have been discovered in Pothohar
Pothohar
near Pakistan's capital Islamabad
Islamabad
, with the stone tools of the Soan Culture . In ancient Gandhara , near Islamabad
Islamabad
, evidence of cave dwellers dated 15,000 years ago has been discovered at Mardan
Mardan
.

The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation
, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro , date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. The Indus Valley Civilisation extended from across Pakistan
Pakistan
and northwest India, with an upward reach from east of Jhelum River
Jhelum River
to Ropar on the upper Sutlej. The coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor at the Pakistan, Iran
Iran
border to Kutch in modern Gujarat
Gujarat
, India. There is an Indus site on the Amu Darya at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, and the Indus site Alamgirpur at the Hindon River is located only 28 km (17 mi) from Delhi
Delhi
. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centres of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal
Lothal
, Dholavira , Ganeriwala , and Rakhigarhi . Only 90–96 of more than 800 known Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries. The Sutlej , now a tributary of the Indus, in Harappan times flowed into the Ghaggar-Hakra River, in the watershed of which were more Harappan sites than along the Indus.

Most scholars believe that settlements of Gandhara grave culture of the early Indo-Aryans flourished in Gandhara from 1700 BC to 600 BC, when Mohenjo-daro and Harappa had already been abandoned.

The word "India" is derived from the Indus River. In ancient times, "India" initially referred to those regions immediately along the east bank of the Indus, but by 300 BC, Greek writers including Herodotus and Megasthenes
Megasthenes
were applying the term to the entire subcontinent that extends much farther eastward.

The lower basin of the Indus forms a natural boundary between the Iranian Plateau and the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
; this region embraces all or parts of the Pakistani provinces Balochistan , Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
, Punjab
Punjab
and Sindh
Sindh
and the countries Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and India. It was crossed by the invading armies of Alexander , but after his Macedonians conquered the west bank—joining it to the Hellenic Empire, they elected to retreat along the southern course of the river, ending Alexander's Asian campaign. The Indus plains were later dominated by the Persian empire
Persian empire
and then the Kushan empire
Kushan empire
. Over several centuries Muslim
Muslim
armies of Muhammad bin Qasim , Mahmud of Ghazni , Mohammed Ghori , Tamerlane and Babur crossed the river to invade the inner regions of the Punjab
Punjab
and points farther south and east

GEOGRAPHY

The Indus River
Indus River
near Leh, Ladakh , India
India

TRIBUTARIES

* Beas River * Chenab River * Gar River * Gilgit River * Gomal River
Gomal River
* Hunza River
Hunza River
* Jhelum River
Jhelum River
* Kabul River * Kunar River * Kurram River * Panjnad River * Ravi River * Shyok River * Soan River * Suru River * Sutlej River * Swat River * Zanskar River * Zhob River

GEOLOGY

Indus River
Indus River
viewed from the Karakoram
Karakoram
Highway . Indus River near Leh, India, 2014 Confluence of Indus and Zanskar rivers. The Indus is at the bottom of the picture, flowing left-to-right; the Zanskar, carrying more water, comes in from the middle left of the picture.

The Indus river feeds the Indus submarine fan, which is the second largest sediment body on the Earth at around 5 million cubic kilometres of material eroded from the mountains. Studies of the sediment in the modern river indicate that the Karakoram
Karakoram
Mountains in northern Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
are the single most important source of material, with the Himalayas
Himalayas
providing the next largest contribution, mostly via the large rivers of the Punjab
Punjab
(Jhelum, Ravi, Chenab, Beas and Sutlej). Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab
Punjab
rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganges
Ganges
and were captured after that time. Earlier work showed that sand and silt from western Tibet
Tibet
was reaching the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
by 45 million years ago, implying the existence of an ancient Indus River
Indus River
by that time. The delta of this proto-Indus river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan- Pakistan
Pakistan
border.

In the Nanga Parbat region, the massive amounts of erosion due to the Indus river following the capture and rerouting through that area is thought to bring middle and lower crustal rocks to the surface.

In November 2011, satellite images showed that the Indus river had re-entered India
India
, feeding Great Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch
, Little Rann of Kutch and a lake near Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
known as Nal Sarovar . Heavy rains had left the river basin along with the Lake Manchar , Lake Hemal and Kalri Lake (all in modern-day Pakistan) inundated. This happened two centuries after the Indus river shifted its course westwards following the 1819 Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch
earthquake .

The Induan Age at start of the Triassic
Triassic
Period of geological time is named for the Indus region.

WILDLIFE

Footbridge on the Indus River
Indus River
in Pakistan
Pakistan
Fishermen on the Indus River, c. 1905

Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region, which has now considerably receded. The Mughal Emperor Babur writes of encountering rhinoceroses along its bank in his memoirs (the Baburnama ). Extensive deforestation and human interference in the ecology of the Shivalik Hills has led to a marked deterioration in vegetation and growing conditions. The Indus valley regions are arid with poor vegetation. Agriculture is sustained largely due to irrigation works. The Indus river and its watershed has a rich biodiversity. It is home to around 25 amphibian species and 147 species, 22 of which are only found in the Indus.

MAMMALS

The blind Indus River Dolphin (Platanista indicus minor) is a sub-species of dolphin found only in the Indus River. It formerly also occurred in the tributaries of the Indus river. According to the World Wildlife Fund it is one of the most threatened cetaceans with only about 1,000 still existing.

FISH

Palla fish Tenualosa ilisha of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. The population of fish in the river is moderately high, with Sukkur , Thatta and Kotri being the major fishing centres – all in the lower Sindh
Sindh
course. But damming and irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity. Located southeast of Karachi, the large delta has been recognised by conservationists as one of the world's most important ecological regions. Here the river turns into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. Here marine fishes are found in abundance, including pomfret and prawns .

ECONOMY

The Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab
Punjab
and Sindh
Sindh
plains – it forms the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. The river is especially critical since rainfall is meagre in the lower Indus valley. Irrigation canals were first built by the people of the INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION , and later by the engineers of the Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
and the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
. Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India
India
Company in 1850 – the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. The British supervised the construction of one of the most complex irrigation networks in the world. The Guddu Barrage
Guddu Barrage
is 1,350 m (4,430 ft) long – irrigating Sukkur , Jacobabad , Larkana and Kalat . The Sukkur Barrage serves over 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi).

After Pakistan
Pakistan
came into existence, a water control treaty signed between India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1960 guaranteed that Pakistan
Pakistan
would receive water from the Indus River
Indus River
and its two tributaries the Jhelum River "> The Indus River
Indus River
near Skardu , in Gilgit– Baltistan . The Dubair Khwarr, a tributary of the Indus, near Shaikhdara , in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
.

The inhabitants of the regions that are mainly Islam
Islam
as Pakistan
Pakistan
is an Islamic country through which the Indus river passes and forms a major natural feature and resource are diverse in ethnicity, religion, national and linguistic backgrounds. On the northern course of the river in the state of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
in India, live the Buddhist people of Ladakh , of Tibetan stock, and the Dards of Indo-Aryan or Dardic stock and practising Buddhism
Buddhism
and Islam
Islam
. Then it descends into Baltistan, northern Pakistan
Pakistan
passing the main Balti city of Skardu . A river from Dubair Bala also drains into it at Dubair Bazar. People living in this area are mainly Kohistani and speak the Kohistani language. Major areas through which the Indus river passes in Kohistan are Dasu , Pattan and Dubair. As it continues through Pakistan, the Indus river forms a distinctive boundary of ethnicity and cultures – upon the western banks the population is largely Pashtun , Baloch , and of other Iranian stock. The eastern banks are largely populated by people of Indo-Aryan stock, such as the Punjabis and the Sindhis . In northern Punjab
Punjab
and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, ethnic Pashtun tribes live alongside Dardic people in the hills (Khowar , Kalash , Shina , etc.), Burushos (in Hunza ), and Punjabi people .

The people living along the Indus river speak Punjabi and Sindhi on the eastern side (in Punjab
Punjab
and Sindh
Sindh
provinces respectively), Pushto plus Balochi as well as Barohi (in Khyber Pakhtoonkha and Baluchistan provinces). In the province of Sindh, the upper third of the river is inhabited by people speaking Saraiki; which is a somewhat transitional dialect of the Punjabi and Sindhi languages.

MODERN ISSUES

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Satellite images of the upper Indus River
Indus River
valley, comparing water-levels on 1 August 2009 (top) and 31 July 2010 (bottom)

The Indus is a strategically vital resource for Pakistan's economy and society. After Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
declared Independence from the British Raj
British Raj
, also known as Indian Empire , the use of the waters of the Indus and its five eastern tributaries became a major dispute between India
India
and Pakistan. The irrigation canals of the Sutlej valley and the Bari Doab were split – with the canals lying primarily in Pakistan
Pakistan
and the headwork dams in India
India
disrupting supply in some parts of Pakistan. The concern over India
India
building large dams over various Punjab
Punjab
rivers that could undercut the supply flowing to Pakistan, as well as the possibility that India
India
could divert rivers in the time of war, caused political consternation in Pakistan. Holding diplomatic talks brokered by the World Bank
World Bank
, India
India
and Pakistan signed the Indus Waters Treaty in 1960. The treaty gave India
India
control of the three easternmost rivers of the Punjab, the Sutlej , the Beas and the Ravi , while Pakistan
Pakistan
gained control of the three western rivers, the Jhelum , the Chenab and the Indus. India
India
retained the right to use of the western rivers for non-irrigation projects. (See discussion regarding a recent dispute about a hydroelectric project on the Chenab (not Indus) known as the Baglihar Project).

There are concerns that extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming are affecting the vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta, while affecting agricultural production as well. There are also concerns that the Indus river may be shifting its course westwards – although the progression spans centuries. On numerous occasions, sediment clogging owing to poor maintenance of canals has affected agricultural production and vegetation. In addition, extreme heat has caused water to evaporate, leaving salt deposits that render lands useless for cultivation.

Recently, India's construction of dams on the river, which Pakistan claims is in violation of the Indus Waters Treaty reducing water flow into Pakistan, has caused Pakistan
Pakistan
to take the issue to the international courts for arbitration.

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE RIVER

The Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
contains the world's third-largest store of ice. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China
China
Meteorological Administration, said the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term, but issued a strong warning: "Temperatures are rising four times faster than elsewhere in China, and the Tibetan glaciers are retreating at a higher speed than in any other part of the world... In the short term, this will cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows.. In the long run, the glaciers are vital lifelines of the Indus River. Once they vanish, water supplies in Pakistan
Pakistan
will be in peril."

"There is insufficient data to say what will happen to the Indus," says David Grey, the World Bank's senior water advisor in South Asia. "But we all have very nasty fears that the flows of the Indus could be severely, severely affected by glacier melt as a consequence of climate change," and reduced by perhaps as much as 50 percent. "Now what does that mean to a population that lives in a desert , without the river, there would be no life? I don't know the answer to that question," he says. "But we need to be concerned about that. Deeply, deeply concerned."

POLLUTION

Over the years factories on the banks of the Indus River
Indus River
have increased levels of water pollution in the river and the atmosphere around it. High levels of pollutants in the river have led to the deaths of endangered Indus River
Indus River
Dolphin. The Sindh
Sindh
Environmental Protection Agency has ordered polluting factories around the river to shut down under the Pakistan
Pakistan
Environmental Protection Act, 1997. Death of the Indus River Dolphin has also been attributed to fishermen using poison to kill fish and scooping them up. As a result, the government banned fishing from Guddu Barrage
Guddu Barrage
to Sukkur .

2010 FLOODS

Affected areas as of 26 August 2010 Main article: 2010 Pakistan
Pakistan
floods

In July 2010, following abnormally heavy monsoon rains, the Indus River rose above its banks and started flooding. The rain continued for the next two months, devastating large areas of Pakistan. In Sindh , the Indus burst its banks near Sukkur on 8 August, submerging the village of Mor Khan Jatoi. In early August, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus River
Indus River
from severely affected northern regions toward western Punjab
Punjab
, where at least 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of cropland was destroyed, and the southern province of Sindh. As of September 2010 , over two thousand people had died and over a million homes had been destroyed since the flooding began.

2011 FLOODS

Main article: 2011 Sindh
Sindh
floods

The 2011 Sindh
Sindh
floods began during the Pakistani monsoon season in mid-August 2011, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in Sindh, eastern Balochistan, and southern Punjab. The floods caused considerable damage; an estimated 434 civilians were killed, with 5.3 million people and 1,524,773 homes affected. Sindh
Sindh
is a fertile region and often called the "breadbasket" of the country; the damage and toll of the floods on the local agrarian economy was said to be extensive. At least 1.7 million acres (690,000 ha ; 2,700 sq mi ) of arable land were inundated. The flooding followed the previous year's floods, which devastated a large part of the country. Unprecedented torrential monsoon rains caused severe flooding in 16 districts of Sindh.

BARRAGES, BRIDGES AND DAMS

In Pakistan
Pakistan
currently there are three barrages on Indus River, Guddu barrage, Sukkur Barrage, Kotri barrage (a.k.a. Ghulam Muhammad barrage). There are some bridges on river Indus, such as, Dadu Moro Bridge, Larkana Khairpur Indus River
Indus River
Bridge, Thatta-Sujawal bridge, Jhirk-Mula Katiar bridge and recently planned Kandhkot-Ghotki bridge over river Indus.

Kala Bagh Barrage, Chasma Barrage , Taunsa Barrage are also built in Punjab
Punjab
on Indus river.

Tarbela Dam located in Pakistan
Pakistan
is constructed on the Indus River, whereas, the controversial Kalabagh dam is also being constructed on Indus river.

GALLERY

* Play media

Video of River Indus at Kotri Barrage, Sindh, Pakistan
Pakistan

SEE ALSO

* 1974 Hunza earthquake * Chura Sharif * Ghaggar-Hakra River * HMS Indus , ships named after the Indus River * Hindustan * Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation
* Indus Waters Treaty * Sarasvati River * Sind Sagar Doab * Sindhology * Sindhu Darshan Festival * Sindhu Pushkaram
Sindhu Pushkaram
* Rigvedic rivers

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ G.P. Malalasekera 2003 , p. 1137. * ^ Kuiper 2010 , p. 86. * ^ "An A-Z of country name origins OxfordWords blog". OxfordWords blog. 2016-05-17. Retrieved 2017-06-23. * ^ 70% of cattle-breeders desert Banni; by Narandas Thacker, TNN, 14 February 2002; The Times of India * ^ "564 Charul Bharwada & Vinay Mahajan, Lost and forgotten: grasslands and pastoralists of Gujarat". * ^ A B Albinia (2008), p. 307. * ^ Henry Yule
Henry Yule
: India, Indies. In Hobson-Jobson : A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, historical, geographical and discursive. New ed. edited by William Crooke, B.A. London: J. Murray, 1903 * ^ "Was the Ramayana actually set in and around today\'s Afghanistan?". * ^ Clift, Peter D.; Blusztajn, Jerzy (15 December 2005). "Reorganization of the western Himalayan river system after five million years ago". Nature. 438 (7070): 1001–1003. PMID 16355221 . doi :10.1038/nature04379 . * ^ Clift, Peter D.; Shimizu, N.; Layne, G.D.; Blusztajn, J.S.; Gaedicke, C.; Schlüter, H.-U.; Clark, M.K.; Amjad, S. (August 2001). "Development of the Indus Fan and its significance for the erosional history of the Western Himalaya and Karakoram". GSA Bulletin. 113 (8): 1039–1051. doi :10.1130/0016-7606(2001)1132.0.CO;2 . * ^ Zeitler, Peter K.; Koons, Peter O.; Bishop, Michael P.; Chamberlain, C. Page; Craw, David; Edwards, Michael A.; Hamidullah, Syed; Jam, Qasim M.; Kahn, M. Asif; Khattak, M. Umar Khan; Kidd, William S. F.; Mackie, Randall L.; Meltzer, Anne S.; Park, Stephen K.; Pecher, Arnaud; Poage, Michael A.; Sarker, Golam; Schneider, David A.; Seeber, Leonardo; Shroder, John F. (October 2001). "Crustal reworking at Nanga Parbat, Pakistan: Metamorphic consequences of thermal-mechanical coupling facilitated by erosion". Tectonics. 20 (5): 712–728. doi :10.1029/2000TC001243 . * ^ "Indus re-enters India
India
after two centuries, feeds Little Rann, Nal Sarovar". India
India
Today. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-07. * ^ "Indus River" (PDF). World' top 10 rivers at risk. WWF. Retrieved 11 July 2012. * ^ "WWF – Indus River
Indus River
Dolphin". Wwf.panda.org. Retrieved 2012-09-22. * ^ "Tarabela Dam". www.structurae.the cat in the hat. Retrieved 2007-07-09. * ^ "Indus Basin Project". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-07-09. * ^ " Global warming
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* ^ A B "Floods worsen, 270 killed: officials". The Express Tribune. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2011. * ^ Government of Pakistan
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SOURCES

* G.P. Malalasekera (1 September 2003), Dictionary of Pali
Pali
Proper Names, Volume 1, Asian Educational Services, ISBN 978-81-2061-823-7 * Albinia, Alice. (2008) Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River. First American Edition (20101) W. W. Norton & Company, New York. ISBN 978-0-393-33860-7 . * This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. * World Atlas, Millennium Edition, p. 265. * Jean Fairley, "The Lion River", Karachi, 1978.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: INDUS RIVER (category)

* Blankonthemap The Northern Kashmir Website * Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law Peace

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