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The Indus River
Indus River
(also called the Sindhū or Abāsīn) is one of the longest rivers in Asia. Originating in the Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar
Lake Manasarovar
(China), the river runs a course through the Ladakh
Ladakh
region of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
(India), towards Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan
and the Hindukush ranges, and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan
Pakistan
to merge into the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
near the port city of Karachi
Karachi
in Sindh.[1][2] It is the longest river and national river of Pakistan.[3] The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 sq mi). Its estimated annual flow stands at around 243 km3 (58 cu mi), twice that of the Nile River
Nile River
and three times that of the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates
Euphrates
rivers combined, making it the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow.[4] The Zanskar is its left bank tributary in Ladakh. In the plains, its left bank tributary is the Panjnad which itself has five major tributaries, namely, the Chenab, Jhelum, the Ravi, the Beas, and the Sutlej. Its principal right bank tributaries are the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Kabul, the Gomal, and the Kurram. Beginning in a mountain spring and fed with glaciers and rivers in the Himalayas, the river supports ecosystems of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. The northern part of the Indus Valley, with its tributaries, forms the Punjab
Punjab
region, while the lower course of the Indus is known as Sindh and ends in a large delta. The river has historically been important to many cultures of the region. The 3rd millennium BC saw the rise of a major urban civilization of the Bronze Age. During the 2nd millennium BC, the Punjab
Punjab
region was mentioned in the hymns of the Hindu
Hindu
Rigveda
Rigveda
as Sapta Sindhu
Sapta Sindhu
and the Zoroastrian Avesta
Avesta
as Hapta Hindu
Hindu
(both terms meaning "seven rivers"). Early historical kingdoms that arose in the Indus Valley include Gandhāra, and the Ror dynasty of Sauvīra. The Indus River
Indus River
came into the knowledge of the West early in the Classical Period, when King Darius of Persia
Persia
sent his Greek subject Scylax of Caryanda to explore the river, ca. 515 BC.

Contents

1 Etymology and names

1.1 Indus and the name of India 1.2 Rigveda
Rigveda
and the Indus 1.3 Other names

2 Description 3 History 4 Geography

4.1 Tributaries

5 Geology 6 Wildlife 7 Mammals

7.1 Fish

8 Economy 9 People 10 Modern issues

10.1 Effects of climate change on the river 10.2 Pollution 10.3 2010 floods 10.4 2011 floods

11 Barrages, bridges and dams

11.1 Gallery

12 See also 13 References

13.1 Citations 13.2 Sources

14 External links

Etymology and names[edit] This river was known to the ancient Indians in Sanskrit as Sindhu, which is literally interpreted to mean "large body of water, sea, or ocean".[5] The Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola,[6] causing its Avestan name to become Hendu,[7] From Iran, the name passed to the Greeks
Greeks
as Indós ("Ἰνδός") and to the Romans as Indus. The Persian name for the river was Darya,[8] which similarly has the connotations of large body of water and sea. However, linguists state that the original meaning of Sindhu/ Hindu
Hindu
was not a body of water, but rather a frontier or bank. The Indus river formed the frontier between the Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
and Indo-Aryan peoples.[9][10][11] Other variants of the name Sindhu include Assyrian Sinda (as early as the 7th century BC), Persian Ab-e-sind, Pashtun Abasind, Arab Al-Sind, Chinese Sintow, and Javanese Santri.[citation needed] Indus and the name of India[edit] India
India
is a Greek and Latin term for "the country of the River Indus". Elsewhere, the Pakistani province of Sindh
Sindh
also owes its name to the river (Sanskrit Sindhu).[12] Megasthenes's book Indica derives its name from the river's Greek name, "Indós" (Ἰνδός), and describes Nearchus's contemporaneous account of how Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
crossed the river. The ancient Greeks
Greeks
referred to the Indians (people of present-day northwest India and Pakistan) as "Indói" (Ἰνδοί), literally meaning "the people of the Indus".[13] Rigveda
Rigveda
and the Indus[edit] Rigveda
Rigveda
also describes several mythical rivers, including one named "Sindhu". The Rigvedic "Sindhu" is thought to be the present-day Indus river and is attested 176 times in its text – 95 times in the plural, more often used in the generic meaning. In the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, as in the list of rivers mentioned in the hymn of Nadistuti sukta. The Rigvedic hymns apply a feminine gender to all the rivers mentioned therein but "Sindhu" is the only river attributed the masculine gender which means Sindhu is the warrior and greatest amoung all other rivers in whole world Other names[edit] In other languages of the region, the river is known as सिन्धु (Sindhu) in Hindi and Nepali, سنڌو (Sindhu) in Sindhi, سندھ‬ (Sindh) in Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
Punjabi, ਸਿੰਧ ਨਦੀ ( Sindh
Sindh
Nadī) in Gurmukhī
Gurmukhī
Punjabi, اباسين (Abāsin lit. "Father of Rivers") in Pashto, نهر السند (Nahar al-Sind) in Arabic, སེང་གེ་གཙང་པོ། (seng ge gtsang po lit. "Lion River" or Lion Spring) in Tibetan, 印度 (Yìndù) in Chinese, and Nilab in Turki.[citation needed] Description[edit]

Babur
Babur
crossing the Indus River.

The Indus River
Indus River
provides key water resources for Pakistan's economy – especially the breadbasket of Punjab
Punjab
province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. The word Punjab
Punjab
means "land of five rivers" and the five rivers are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, all of which finally flow into the Indus. The Indus also supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan. The ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet; the river begins at the confluence of the Sengge Zangbo and Gar Tsangpo rivers that drain the Nganglong Kangri and Gangdise Shan (Gang Rinpoche, Mt. Kailas) mountain ranges. The Indus then flows northwest through Ladakh
Ladakh
and Baltistan
Baltistan
into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram
Karakoram
range. The Shyok, Shigar
Shigar
and Gilgit
Gilgit
rivers carry glacial waters into the main river. It gradually bends to the south, coming out of the hills between Peshawar and Rawalpindi. The Indus passes gigantic gorges 4,500–5,200 metres (15,000–17,000 feet) deep near the Nanga Parbat
Nanga Parbat
massif. It flows swiftly across Hazara and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir. The Kabul River
Kabul River
joins it near Attock. The remainder of its route to the sea is in the plains of the Punjab[14] and Sindh, where the flow of the river becomes slow and highly braided. It is joined by the Panjnad at Mithankot. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one time, was named the Satnad River (sat = "seven", nadī = "river"), as the river now carried the waters of the Kabul River, the Indus River
Indus River
and the five Punjab
Punjab
rivers. Passing by Jamshoro, it ends in a large delta to the east of Thatta. The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world to exhibit a tidal bore. The Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Himalayas, Karakoram
Karakoram
and the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
ranges of Tibet, the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
and Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
and Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons – it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September. There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times – it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch
Kutch
and adjoining Banni grasslands
Banni grasslands
after the 1816 earthquake.[15][16] Presently, Indus water flows in to the Rann of Kutch
Kutch
during its floods breaching flood banks.[17] The traditional source of the river is the Senge Khabab or "Lion's Mouth", a perennial spring, not far from the sacred Mount Kailash marked by a long low line of Tibetan chortens. There are several other tributaries nearby, which may possibly form a longer stream than Senge Khabab, but unlike the Senge Khabab, are all dependent on snowmelt. The Zanskar River, which flows into the Indus in Ladakh, has a greater volume of water than the Indus itself before that point.[18]

That night in the tent [next to Senge Khabab] I ask Sonmatering which of the Indus tributaries which we crossed this morning is the longest. All of them, he says, start at least a day's walk away from here. The Bukhar begins near the village of Yagra. The Lamolasay's source is in a holy place: there is a monastery there. The Dorjungla is a very difficult and long walk, three days perhaps, and there are many sharp rocks; but its water is clear and blue, hence the tributary's other name, Zom-chu, which Karma Lama translates as "Blue Water". The Rakmajang rises from a dark lake called the Black Sea. One of the longest tributaries – and thus a candidate for the river's technical source – is the Kla-chu, the river we crossed yesterday by bridge. Also known as the Lungdep Chu, it flows into the Indus from the south-east, and rises a day's walk from Darchen. But Sonamtering insists that the Dorjungla is the longest of the "three types of water" that fall into the Seng Tsanplo ["Lion River" or Indus].[18]

History[edit]

Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation
3000 BC

Main articles: Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
and History of Sindh The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Harappa
Harappa
and Mohenjo-daro, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. The Indus Valley Civilisation extended from across northeast Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to Pakistan and northwest India,[19] with an upward reach from east of Jhelum River to Ropar
Ropar
on the upper Sutlej. The coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor
Sutkagan Dor
at the Pakistan, Iran
Iran
border to Kutch
Kutch
in modern Gujarat, India. There is an Indus site on the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, and the Indus site Alamgirpur
Alamgirpur
at the Hindon River is located only 28 km (17 mi) from Delhi. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River
Ghaggar-Hakra River
and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centres of Harappa
Harappa
and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi. Only 90–96 of more than 800 known Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries.[citation needed] The Sutlej, now a tributary of the Indus, in Harappan times flowed into the Ghaggar-Hakra River, in the watershed of which were more Harappan sites than along the Indus. Most scholars believe that settlements of Gandhara
Gandhara
grave culture of the early Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
flourished in Gandhara
Gandhara
from 1700 BC to 600 BC, when Mohenjo-daro
Mohenjo-daro
and Harappa
Harappa
had already been abandoned. The word "India" is derived from the Indus River. In ancient times, "India" initially referred to those regions immediately along the east bank of the Indus, but by 300 BC, Greek writers including Herodotus
Herodotus
and Megasthenes
Megasthenes
were applying the term to the entire subcontinent that extends much farther eastward.[20][21] The lower basin of the Indus forms a natural boundary between the Iranian Plateau
Iranian Plateau
and the Indian subcontinent; this region embraces all or parts of the Pakistani provinces Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab
Punjab
and Sindh
Sindh
and the countries Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and India. It was crossed by the invading armies of Alexander, but after his Macedonians conquered the west bank—joining it to the Hellenic Empire, they elected to retreat along the southern course of the river, ending Alexander's Asian campaign. The Indus plains were later dominated by the Persian empire
Persian empire
and then the Kushan empire. Over several centuries Muslim
Muslim
armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mohammed Ghori, Tamerlane
Tamerlane
and Babur
Babur
crossed the river to invade the inner regions of the Punjab
Punjab
and points farther south and east Geography[edit]

The Indus River
Indus River
near Leh, Ladakh, India

Tributaries[edit]

Beas River Chenab River Gar River Gilgit
Gilgit
River Gomal River Hunza River Jhelum River Kabul River Kunar River Kurram River Panjnad River Ravi River Shyok River Soan River Suru River Satluj River Swat River Zanskar River Zhob River

Geology[edit]

Indus River
Indus River
viewed from the Karakoram
Karakoram
Highway.

Indus River
Indus River
near Leh, India, 2014

Confluence of Indus and Zanskar rivers. The Indus is at the bottom of the picture, flowing left-to-right; the Zanskar, carrying more water, comes in from the middle left of the picture.

The Indus river feeds the Indus submarine fan, which is the second largest sediment body on the Earth.[22] It consists of around 5 million cubic kilometres of material eroded from the mountains. Studies of the sediment in the modern river indicate that the Karakoram
Karakoram
Mountains in northern Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
are the single most important source of material, with the Himalayas
Himalayas
providing the next largest contribution, mostly via the large rivers of the Punjab (Jhelum, Ravi, Chenab, Beas and Sutlej). Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab
Punjab
rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganges
Ganges
and were captured after that time.[23] Earlier work showed that sand and silt from western Tibet
Tibet
was reaching the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
by 45 million years ago, implying the existence of an ancient Indus River
Indus River
by that time.[24] The delta of this proto-Indus river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan- Pakistan
Pakistan
border. In the Nanga Parbat
Nanga Parbat
region, the massive amounts of erosion due to the Indus river following the capture and rerouting through that area is thought to bring middle and lower crustal rocks to the surface.[25] In November 2011, satellite images showed that the Indus river had re-entered India, feeding Great Rann of Kutch, Little Rann of Kutch and a lake near Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
known as Nal Sarovar.[17] Heavy rains had left the river basin along with the Lake Manchar, Lake Hemal and Kalri Lake (all in modern-day Pakistan) inundated. This happened two centuries after the Indus river shifted its course westwards following the 1819 Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch
earthquake. The Induan
Induan
Age at start of the Triassic
Triassic
Period of geological time is named for the Indus region. Wildlife[edit]

Footbridge on the Indus River
Indus River
in Pakistan

Fishermen on the Indus River, c. 1905

Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region, which has now considerably receded. The Mughal Emperor Babur
Babur
writes of encountering rhinoceroses along its bank in his memoirs (the Baburnama). Extensive deforestation and human interference in the ecology of the Shivalik Hills has led to a marked deterioration in vegetation and growing conditions. The Indus valley regions are arid with poor vegetation. Agriculture is sustained largely due to irrigation works. The Indus river and its watershed has a rich biodiversity. It is home to around 25 amphibian species and 147 species, 22 of which are only found in the Indus.[26] Mammals[edit] The blind Indus River Dolphin
Indus River Dolphin
(Platanista indicus minor) is a sub-species of dolphin found only in the Indus River. It formerly also occurred in the tributaries of the Indus river. According to the World Wildlife Fund it is one of the most threatened cetaceans with only about 1,000 still existing.[27] Fish[edit] Palla fish Tenualosa ilisha
Tenualosa ilisha
of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. The population of fish in the river is moderately high, with Sukkur, Thatta
Thatta
and Kotri
Kotri
being the major fishing centres – all in the lower Sindh
Sindh
course. But damming and irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity. Located southeast of Karachi, the large delta has been recognised by conservationists as one of the world's most important ecological regions. Here the river turns into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. Here marine fishes are found in abundance, including pomfret and prawns. Economy[edit] The Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab
Punjab
and Sindh
Sindh
plains – it forms the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. The river is especially critical since rainfall is meagre in the lower Indus valley. Irrigation canals were first built by the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation, and later by the engineers of the Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
and the Mughal Empire. Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India
India
Company in 1850 – the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. The British supervised the construction of one of the most complex irrigation networks in the world. The Guddu Barrage
Guddu Barrage
is 1,350 m (4,430 ft) long – irrigating Sukkur, Jacobabad, Larkana
Larkana
and Kalat. The Sukkur
Sukkur
Barrage serves over 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi). After Pakistan
Pakistan
came into existence, a water control treaty signed between India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1960 guaranteed that Pakistan
Pakistan
would receive water from the Indus River
Indus River
and its two tributaries the Jhelum River & the Chenab River
Chenab River
independently of upstream control by India.[28] The Indus Basin Project
Indus Basin Project
consisted primarily of the construction of two main dams, the Mangla Dam
Mangla Dam
built on the Jhelum River
Jhelum River
and the Tarbela Dam constructed on the Indus River, together with their subsidiary dams.[29] The Pakistan
Pakistan
Water and Power Development Authority undertook the construction of the Chashma-Jhelum link canal – linking the waters of the Indus and Jhelum rivers – extending water supplies to the regions of Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
and Multan. Pakistan
Pakistan
constructed the Tarbela Dam near Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
– standing 2,743 metres (9,000 ft) long and 143 metres (470 ft) high, with an 80-kilometre (50 mi) long reservoir. The Kotri
Kotri
Barrage near Hyderabad is 915 metres (3,000 ft) long and provides additional supplies for Karachi. It support the Chashma barrage near Dera Ismail Khan
Dera Ismail Khan
use for irrigation and flood control. for The Taunsa Barrage
Taunsa Barrage
near Dera Ghazi Khan produces 100,000 kilowatts of electricity. The extensive linking of tributaries with the Indus has helped spread water resources to the valley of Peshawar, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The extensive irrigation and dam projects provide the basis for Pakistan's large production of crops such as cotton, sugarcane and wheat. The dams also generate electricity for heavy industries and urban centres. People[edit]

The Indus River
Indus River
near Skardu, in Gilgit–Baltistan.

The Dubair Khwarr, a tributary of the Indus, near Shaikhdara, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

The inhabitants of the regions are mainly Muslim
Muslim
as Pakistan
Pakistan
is an Islamic country through which the Indus river passes and forms a major natural feature and resource are diverse in ethnicity, religion, national and linguistic backgrounds. On the northern course of the river in the state of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
in India, live the Buddhist people of Ladakh, of Tibetan stock, and the Dards
Dards
of Indo-Aryan or Dardic stock and practising Islam. Then it descends into Baltistan, northern Pakistan
Pakistan
passing the main Balti city of Skardu. A river from Dubair Bala also drains into it at Dubair Bazar. People living in this area are mainly Kohistani and speak the Kohistani language. Major areas through which the Indus river passes in Kohistan are Dasu, Pattan
Pattan
and Dubair. As it continues through Pakistan, the Indus river forms a distinctive boundary of ethnicity and cultures – upon the western banks the population is largely Pashtun, Baloch, and of other Iranian stock. The eastern banks are largely populated by people of Indo-Aryan stock, such as the Punjabis
Punjabis
and the Sindhis. In northern Punjab
Punjab
and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, ethnic Pashtun tribes live alongside Dardic people in the hills (Khowar, Kalash, Shina, etc.), Burushos (in Hunza), and Punjabi people. The people living along the Indus river speak Punjabi and Sindhi on the eastern side (in Punjab
Punjab
and Sindh
Sindh
provinces respectively), Pushto plus Balochi as well as Barohi (in Khyber Pakhtoonkha and Baluchistan provinces). In the province of Sindh, the upper third of the river is inhabited by people speaking Saraiki; which is a somewhat transitional dialect of the Punjabi and Sindhi languages. Modern issues[edit]

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Satellite images of the upper Indus River
Indus River
valley, comparing water-levels on 1 August 2009 (top) and 31 July 2010 (bottom)

The Indus is a strategically vital resource for Pakistan's economy and society. After Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
declared Independence from the British Raj, also known as Indian Empire, the use of the waters of the Indus and its five eastern tributaries became a major dispute between India
India
and Pakistan. The irrigation canals of the Sutlej
Sutlej
valley and the Bari Doab
Bari Doab
were split – with the canals lying primarily in Pakistan and the headwork dams in India
India
disrupting supply in some parts of Pakistan. The concern over India
India
building large dams over various Punjab
Punjab
rivers that could undercut the supply flowing to Pakistan, as well as the possibility that India
India
could divert rivers in the time of war, caused political consternation in Pakistan. Holding diplomatic talks brokered by the World Bank, India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
signed the Indus Waters Treaty in 1960. The treaty gave India
India
control of the three easternmost rivers of the Punjab, the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi, while Pakistan
Pakistan
gained control of the three western rivers, the Jhelum, the Chenab and the Indus. India
India
retained the right to use of the western rivers for non-irrigation projects.[30] There are concerns that extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming are affecting the vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta, while affecting agricultural production as well. There are also concerns that the Indus river may be shifting its course westwards – although the progression spans centuries. On numerous occasions, sediment clogging owing to poor maintenance of canals has affected agricultural production and vegetation. In addition, extreme heat has caused water to evaporate, leaving salt deposits that render lands useless for cultivation. Effects of climate change on the river[edit] The Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
contains the world's third-largest store of ice. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China
China
Meteorological Administration, said the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term, but issued a strong warning:

"Temperatures are rising four times faster than elsewhere in China, and the Tibetan glaciers are retreating at a higher speed than in any other part of the world... In the short term, this will cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows.. In the long run, the glaciers are vital lifelines of the Indus River. Once they vanish, water supplies in Pakistan
Pakistan
will be in peril."[31]

"There is insufficient data to say what will happen to the Indus," says David Grey, the World Bank's senior water advisor in South Asia. "But we all have very nasty fears that the flows of the Indus could be severely, severely affected by glacier melt as a consequence of climate change," and reduced by perhaps as much as 50 percent. "Now what does that mean to a population that lives in a desert [where], without the river, there would be no life? I don't know the answer to that question," he says. "But we need to be concerned about that. Deeply, deeply concerned."[32] Pollution[edit] Over the years factories on the banks of the Indus River
Indus River
have increased levels of water pollution in the river and the atmosphere around it. High levels of pollutants in the river have led to the deaths of endangered Indus River
Indus River
Dolphin. The Sindh
Sindh
Environmental Protection Agency has ordered polluting factories around the river to shut down under the Pakistan
Pakistan
Environmental Protection Act, 1997.[33] Death of the Indus River Dolphin
Indus River Dolphin
has also been attributed to fishermen using poison to kill fish and scooping them up.[34][35] As a result, the government banned fishing from Guddu Barrage
Guddu Barrage
to Sukkur.[36] 2010 floods[edit]

Affected areas as of 26 August 2010

Main article: 2010 Pakistan
Pakistan
floods In July 2010, following abnormally heavy monsoon rains, the Indus River rose above its banks and started flooding. The rain continued for the next two months, devastating large areas of Pakistan. In Sindh, the Indus burst its banks near Sukkur
Sukkur
on 8 August, submerging the village of Mor Khan Jatoi.[37] In early August, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus River
Indus River
from severely affected northern regions toward western Punjab, where at least 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of cropland was destroyed, and the southern province of Sindh.[38] As of September 2010[update], over two thousand people had died and over a million homes had been destroyed since the flooding began.[39][40] 2011 floods[edit] Main article: 2011 Sindh
Sindh
floods The 2011 Sindh
Sindh
floods began during the Pakistani monsoon season in mid-August 2011, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in Sindh, eastern Balochistan, and southern Punjab.[41] The floods caused considerable damage; an estimated 434 civilians were killed, with 5.3 million people and 1,524,773 homes affected.[42] Sindh
Sindh
is a fertile region and often called the "breadbasket" of the country; the damage and toll of the floods on the local agrarian economy was said to be extensive. At least 1.7 million acres (690,000 ha; 2,700 sq mi) of arable land were inundated. The flooding followed the previous year's floods, which devastated a large part of the country.[42] Unprecedented torrential monsoon rains caused severe flooding in 16 districts of Sindh.[43] Barrages, bridges and dams[edit] In Pakistan
Pakistan
currently there are three barrages on the Indus: Guddu barrage, Sukkur
Sukkur
Barrage, and Kotri
Kotri
barrage (also called Ghulam Muhammad barrage). There are some bridges on river Indus, such as, Dadu Moro Bridge, Larkana
Larkana
Khairpur Indus River
Indus River
Bridge, Thatta-Sujawal bridge, Jhirk-Mula Katiar bridge and recently planned Kandhkot-Ghotki bridge.[44] Kala Bagh Barrage, Chasma Barrage, and Taunsa Barrage
Taunsa Barrage
are also built in Punjab
Punjab
on the Indus. Tarbela Dam
Tarbela Dam
in Pakistan
Pakistan
is constructed on the Indus River, while the controversial Kalabagh dam is also being constructed on Indus river. Gallery[edit]

Play media

Video of River Indus at Kotri
Kotri
Barrage, Sindh, Pakistan.

Frozen Indus, Near Nyoma

Indus at Skardu

See also[edit]

1974 Hunza earthquake Chura Sharif Ghaggar-Hakra River HMS Indus Hindustan Indus Valley Civilisation Rivers of Jammu and Kashmir Sarasvati River Sind Sagar Doab Sindhology Sindhu Darshan Festival Sindhu Pushkaram Rigvedic rivers

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Swain, Ashok (2004). Managing Water Conflict: Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Routledge. p. 46. ISBN 1135768838. 1,800 miles long river after flowing out of Tibet
Tibet
through the Himalayas
Himalayas
enters Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
in India
India
and then moves into Pakistan  ^ The Indus Basin of Pakistan: The Impacts of Climate Risks on Water and Agriculture. World Bank
World Bank
publications. p. 59. ISBN 9780821398753.  ^ "Geography: The rivers of Pakistan". Dawn. 26 September 2009. Retrieved 15 August 2017.  ^ "Indus water flow data in to reservoirs of Pakistan". Retrieved 15 August 2017.  ^ Mountjoy, Shane (2004), The Indus River, Infobase Publishing, pp. 8–, ISBN 978-1-4381-2003-4  ^ Parpola 2015, Chapter 9. ^ Prasad, R.U.S. (25 May 2017), River and Goddess Worship in India: Changing Perceptions and Manifestations of Sarasvati, Taylor & Francis, pp. 23–, ISBN 978-1-351-80655-8  ^ Possehl, Gregory L. (1999), Indus age: the beginnings, University of Pennsylvania Press  ^ * Thieme, P. (1970), "Sanskrit sindu-/Sindhu- and Old Iranian hindu-/Hindu-", in Mary Boyce; Ilya Gershevitch, W. B. Henning memorial volume, Lund Humphries, pp. 447–450 : "...no objection based on an argumentum ex silentio could possibly invalidate the clear semantic testimony for an Iranian hindu- `natural frontier'." With Darius Hindu- is the name not of India, but of the easternmost province of his realm." ^ Boyce, Mary (1989), A History of Zoroastrianism: The Early Period, BRILL, pp. 136–, ISBN 90-04-08847-4 : "The word hindu- (Skt. sindhu-), used thus to mean a river-frontier of the inhabited world, was also applied generally, it seems, to any big river which, like the Indus, formed a natural fronteir between peoples or lands." ^ Bailey, H. W. (1975), "Indian Sindhu-, Iranian Hindu- (Notes and Communications)", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 38 (3): 610–611, JSTOR 613711 : "The word sindhu- is used of a 'mass of water' (samudra-), not therefore primarily 'flowing' water. Hence the second derivation of 'enclosed banks' is clearly preferable." ^ "An A-Z of country name origins OxfordWords blog". OxfordWords blog. 2016-05-17. Retrieved 2017-06-23.  ^ Kuiper 2010, p. 86. ^  Holdich, Thomas Hungerford (1911). "Indus". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 507–508.  ^ 70% of cattle-breeders desert Banni; by Narandas Thacker, TNN, 14 February 2002; The Times of India ^ "564 Charul Bharwada & Vinay Mahajan, Lost and forgotten: grasslands and pastoralists of Gujarat".  ^ a b "Indus re-enters India
India
after two centuries, feeds Little Rann, Nal Sarovar". Retrieved 22 December 2017.  ^ a b Albinia (2008), p. 307. ^ Williams, Brian (2016). Daily Life in the Indus Valley Civilization. Raintree. p. 6. ISBN 1406298573.  ^ Henry Yule: India, Indies Archived 28 June 2012 at Archive.is. In Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, historical, geographical and discursive. New ed. edited by William Crooke, B.A. London: J. Murray, 1903 ^ "Was the Ramayana actually set in and around today's Afghanistan?".  ^ Clift; Gaedicke; Edwards; Lee; Hildebrand; Amjad; White; and Schlüter (2002). "The stratigraphic evolution of the Indus Fan and the history of sedimentation in the Arabian Sea". Marine Geophysical Researches. 23 (3): 223–245. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Clift, Peter D.; Blusztajn, Jerzy (15 December 2005). "Reorganization of the western Himalayan river system after five million years ago". Nature. 438 (7070): 1001–1003. doi:10.1038/nature04379. PMID 16355221.  ^ Clift, Peter D.; Shimizu, N.; Layne, G.D.; Blusztajn, J.S.; Gaedicke, C.; Schlüter, H.-U.; Clark, M.K.; Amjad, S. (August 2001). "Development of the Indus Fan and its significance for the erosional history of the Western Himalaya and Karakoram". GSA Bulletin. 113 (8): 1039–1051. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(2001)113<1039:DOTIFA>2.0.CO;2.  ^ Zeitler, Peter K.; Koons, Peter O.; Bishop, Michael P.; Chamberlain, C. Page; Craw, David; Edwards, Michael A.; Hamidullah, Syed; Jam, Qasim M.; Kahn, M. Asif; Khattak, M. Umar Khan; Kidd, William S. F.; Mackie, Randall L.; Meltzer, Anne S.; Park, Stephen K.; Pecher, Arnaud; Poage, Michael A.; Sarker, Golam; Schneider, David A.; Seeber, Leonardo; Shroder, John F. (October 2001). "Crustal reworking at Nanga Parbat, Pakistan: Metamorphic consequences of thermal-mechanical coupling facilitated by erosion". Tectonics. 20 (5): 712–728. doi:10.1029/2000TC001243.  ^ "Indus River" (PDF). World' top 10 rivers at risk. WWF. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2012.  ^ "WWF – Indus River
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Dolphin". Wwf.panda.org. Retrieved 2012-09-22.  ^ "Tarabela Dam". www.structurae.the cat in the hat. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ "Indus Basin Project". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ "Harnessing gigantic hydro power potential of Indus, Jhelum and Chenab rivers in India". Retrieved 30 November 2017.  ^ " Global warming
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benefits to Tibet: Chinese official. Reported 18 August 2009". Google.com. 17 August 2009. Retrieved 2012-12-04.  ^ Pulitzercenter.org[dead link] ^ "SEPA orders polluting factory to stop production". Dawn. 3 Dec 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2012.  ^ "Fishing poison killing Indus dolphins, PA told". Dawn. 8 Mar 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2016.  ^ "'18 dolphins died from poisoning in Jan'". Dawn. 1 May 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012.  ^ "Threat to dolphin: Govt bans fishing between Guddu and Sukkur". The Express Tribune. 9 Mar 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012.  ^ Bodeen, Christopher (8 August 2010). "Asia flooding plunges millions into misery". Associated Press. Retrieved 8 August 2010.  ^ Guerin, Orla (7 August 2010). " Pakistan
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Sources[edit]

G.P. Malalasekera (1 September 2003), Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, Volume 1, Asian Educational Services, ISBN 978-81-2061-823-7  Albinia, Alice. (2008) Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River. First American Edition (20101) W. W. Norton & Company, New York. ISBN 978-0-393-33860-7. World Atlas, Millennium Edition, p. 265. Jean Fairley, "The Lion River", Karachi, 1978.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
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has media related to: Indus River
Indus River
(category)

Blankonthemap The Northern Kashmir Website Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law Peace Palace Library Northern Areas Development Gateway The Mountain Areas Conservancy Project Indus River
Indus River
watershed map (World Resources Institute) Indus Treaty Baglihar Dam
Baglihar Dam
issue Indus Indus Wildlife at the Wayback Machine
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(archived 7 October 2006) First raft and kayak descents of the Indus headwaters in Tibet Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting's project on water issues in South Asia

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