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(i)

INDONESIAN (bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
) is the official language of Indonesia . It is a standardized register of Malay , an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Indonesia
Indonesia
is the fourth most populous nation in the world. Of its large population, the majority speak Indonesian, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world.

Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are fluent in any of more than 700 indigenous local languages ; examples include Javanese , Sundanese and Balinese , which are commonly used at home and within the local community. However, most formal education , and nearly all national mass media , governance , administration , judiciary , and other forms of communication, are conducted in Indonesian.

The Indonesian name for the language is bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
(literally "the language of Indonesia"). This term is also occasionally found in English and other languages.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Early kingdoms era * 1.2 Old Malay as lingua franca * 1.3 Dutch colonial era * 1.4 Birth of Indonesian language
Indonesian language
* 1.5 Adopted as national language * 1.6 Modern and colloquial Indonesian

* 2 Classification and related languages * 3 Geographical distribution * 4 Official status

* 5 Phonology

* 5.1 Vowels

* 5.1.1 Diphthongs

* 5.2 Consonants * 5.3 Stress * 5.4 Rhythm

* 6 Grammar

* 6.1 Affixes

* 6.1.1 Noun affixes * 6.1.2 Verb affixes * 6.1.3 Adjective affixes

* 6.2 Nouns

* 6.2.1 Gender
Gender
* 6.2.2 Number

* 6.3 Pronouns

* 6.3.1 Personal pronouns * 6.3.2 Possessive pronouns * 6.3.3 Demonstrative pronouns

* 6.4 Verbs

* 6.4.1 Negation * 6.4.2 Prohibition

* 6.5 Adjectives

* 6.6 Word order

* 6.6.1 Emphasis

* 6.7 Measure words

* 7 Writing system
Writing system

* 7.1 Letter names and pronunciations

* 8 Vocabulary

* 8.1 Loan words of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
origin * 8.2 Loan words of Chinese origin * 8.3 Loan words of Arabic origin * 8.4 Loan words of Portuguese origin * 8.5 Loan words of Dutch origin * 8.6 Loan words of English origin * 8.7 Other loan words

* 9 Literature * 10 As speakers of other languages

* 11 Words

* 11.1 Numbers

* 11.1.1 Cardinal * 11.1.2 Ordinal

* 11.2 Days and Months

* 11.2.1 Days * 11.2.2 Months

* 11.3 Common phrases * 11.4 Example

* 12 See also * 13 References

* 14 External links

* 14.1 English to Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
translator * 14.2 Dictionary software English and Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia

HISTORY

EARLY KINGDOMS ERA

Rencong alphabet , native writing systems found in Malay Peninsula, central and South Sumatra . The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang ", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (hitu adik sa- is the rest of 4th line. Kedukan Bukit Inscription , written in Pallava script , is the oldest surviving specimen of the Old Malay language
Malay language
in South Sumatra
Sumatra
, Indonesia.

Indonesian is a standardized register of " Riau Malay", which despite its common name is not the Malay dialect native to the Riau Islands , but rather the Classical Malay of the Malaccan royal courts. Originally spoken in Northeast Sumatra
Sumatra
, Malay has been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for half a millennium. It might be attributed to its ancestor , the Old Malay language
Malay language
(which can be traced back to the 7th century). The Kedukan Bukit Inscription is the oldest surviving specimen of Old Malay, the language used by Srivijayan empire. Since the 7th century, the Old Malay language
Malay language
has been used in Nusantara (Indonesian archipelago), evidenced by Srivijaya inscriptions and by other inscriptions from coastal areas of the archipelago, such as those discovered in Java .

OLD MALAY AS LINGUA FRANCA

Trade
Trade
contacts carried on by various ethnic peoples at the time were the main vehicle for spreading the Old Malay language, which was the main communications medium among the traders. Ultimately, the Old Malay language
Malay language
became a lingua franca and was spoken widely by most people in the archipelago.

Indonesian (in its standard form) is essentially the same language as the official Malaysian , Singaporean and Brunei
Brunei
standards of Malay. However, it does differ from Malaysian in several respects, with differences in pronunciation and vocabulary. These differences are due mainly to the Dutch and Javanese influences on Indonesian. Indonesian was also influenced by the Melayu pasar (literally "market Malay"), which was the lingua franca of the archipelago in colonial times, and thus indirectly by other spoken languages of the islands.

Malaysian Malay claims to be closer to the classical Malay of earlier centuries, even though modern Malaysian has been heavily influenced, in lexicon as well as in syntax, by English. The question of whether High Malay ( Court
Court
Malay) or Low Malay (Bazaar Malay) was the true parent of the Indonesian language
Indonesian language
is still in debate. High Malay was the official language used in the court of the Johor Sultanate and continued by the Dutch-administered territory of Riau-Lingga , while Low Malay was commonly used in marketplaces and ports of the archipelago. Some linguists have argued that it was the more common Low Malay that formed the base of the Indonesian language.

DUTCH COLONIAL ERA

When the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(VOC) first arrived in the archipelago, the Malay language
Malay language
was a significant trading and political language due to the influence of Malaccan Sultanate and later the Portuguese . However, the language had never been dominant among the population of the Indonesian archipelago as it was limited to mercantile activity. The VOC adopted the Malay language
Malay language
as the administrative language of their trading outpost in the east. Following the bankruptcy of the VOC, the Batavian Republic took control of the colony in 1799 and it was only then that education in and promotion of Dutch began in the colony . Even then, Dutch administrators were remarkably reluctant to promote the use of Dutch compared to other colonial regimes. Dutch thus remained the language of a small elite: in 1940, only 2% of the total population could speak Dutch. Nevertheless, it did have a significant influence on the development of Malay in the colony: during the era of colonization the language that would become Indonesian absorbed a large amount of Dutch vocabulary in the form of loanwords .

BIRTH OF INDONESIAN LANGUAGE

Volksraad session held in July 1938 in Jakarta, where Indonesian was formally used for the first time by Jahja Datoek Kajo.

The nationalist movement that ultimately brought Indonesian to its national language status rejected Dutch from the outset. However, the rapid disappearance of Dutch was a very unusual case compared to other colonized countries, where the colonial language generally has continued to function as the language of politics, bureaucracy , education, technology , and other important areas for a significant time after independence. Soenjono Dardjowidjojo even goes so far as to say that, "Indonesian is perhaps the only language that has achieved the status of a national language in its true sense" since it truly dominates in all spheres of Indonesian society . The ease with which Indonesia
Indonesia
eliminated the language of its former colonial power can perhaps be explained as much by Dutch policy as by Indonesian nationalism, though. In marked contrast to the French , Spanish and Portuguese, who pursued an assimilation colonial policy, or even the British , the Dutch did not attempt to spread their language among the indigenous population. In fact, they consciously prevented the language from being spread by refusing to provide education, especially in Dutch, to the native Indonesians so they would not come to see themselves as equals. Moreover, the Dutch wished to prevent the Indonesian from elevating their perceived social status by taking on elements of Dutch culture. Thus, until the 1930s, they maintained a minimalist regime and allowed Malay to spread quickly throughout the archipelago.

Dutch dominance at that time almost cover all aspects, to the official forums should used the Dutch, although since the Youth Congress (1928) was agreed as the Indonesian national language which is one of the tools the pro-independence struggle. As of it, Mohammad Husni Thamrin inveighed actions underestimating Indonesian. After some criticism and protests, the use of Indonesian was allowed since the Volksraad sessions held in July 1938. By the time they tried to counter the spread of Malay by teaching Dutch to the natives, it was too late, and in 1942, the Japanese conquered Indonesia
Indonesia
and outlawed the use of the Dutch language. Three years later, the Indonesians themselves formally abolished the language and established Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
as the national language of the new nation.

ADOPTED AS NATIONAL LANGUAGE

The Pledge was the result of second Youth Pledge held in Batavia in October 1928. On the last pledge, there was an affirmation of Indonesian language
Indonesian language
as a unifying language throughout the archipelago.

The adoption of Indonesian as the country's national language was in contrast to most other post-colonial states, as neither the language with the most native speakers (in this case, Javanese) nor the language of the former European colonial power (in this case, Dutch) was to be adopted, but rather a local language with many fewer native speakers than the most widely spoken local language (nevertheless, Malay was the second most widely spoken language in the colony after Javanese, and had many L2 speakers using it for trade, administration, and education).

In 1945 when Indonesia
Indonesia
declared its independence and Indonesian was formally declared the national language, it was the native language of only about 5 per cent of the population, whereas Javanese and Sundanese were the mother tongues of 42–48 percent and 15 percent respectively. It was a combination of nationalistic , political , and practical concerns that ultimately led to the successful adoption of Indonesian as a national language. In 1945, Javanese was easily the most prominent language in Indonesia. It was the native language of nearly half the population, the primary language of politics and economics , and the language of courtly , religious , and literary tradition. What it lacked, however, was the ability to unite the diverse Indonesian population as a whole. With thousands of islands and hundreds of different languages, the newly independent country of Indonesia
Indonesia
had to find a national language that could realistically be spoken by the majority of the population and that would not divide the nation by favoring one ethnic group, namely the Javanese, over the others. In 1945, Indonesian was already in widespread use; in fact, it had been for roughly a thousand years. Over that long period of time, Malay, which would later become Indonesian, was the primary language of commerce and travel . In addition, it was the language used for the propagation of Islam
Islam
in the 13th to 17th centuries, as well as the language of instruction used by Portuguese and Dutch missionaries attempting to convert the indigenous people to Christianity
Christianity
. The combination of all of these factors meant that the language was already known to some degree by most of the population, and it could be more easily adopted as the national language than perhaps any other.

Over the first 53 years of Indonesian independence , the country's first two presidents, Sukarno and Suharto
Suharto
constantly nurtured the sense of national unity embodied by Indonesian, and the language remains an important component of Indonesian identity today. Through a language planning program that made Indonesian the language of politics , education , and nation-building in general, Indonesia became one of the few success stories of an indigenous language effectively overtaking that of a country's colonizers to become the de jure and de facto official language. It is a unique and somewhat unusual story, especially considering the historical dominance of Javanese; a diverse collection of peoples were able to compromise to hold the nation together. Today, Indonesian continues to function as the language of national identity as the Congress of Indonesian Youth envisioned, and it also serves as the language of education, literacy , modernization , and social mobility . Despite still being a second language to most Indonesian citizens, it is unquestionably the language of the Indonesian nation as a whole, as it has had unrivaled success as a factor in nation-building and the strengthening of Indonesian identity.

MODERN AND COLLOQUIAL INDONESIAN

Further information: Indonesian slang language Road-signs in an airport terminal Toll gate in Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesian language used on a bus advertisement

While Indonesian is spoken as a mother tongue by only a small proportion of Indonesia's large population (i.e. mainly those who reside within the vicinity of Jakarta
Jakarta
and other large predominantly Indonesian-speaking cities such as Medan
Medan
and Balikpapan ), over 200 million people regularly make use of the national language, with varying degrees of proficiency. In a nation that boasts more than 700 native languages and a vast array of ethnic groups, it plays an important unifying and cross-archipelagic role for the country. Use of the national language is abundant in the media, government bodies, schools , universities , workplaces , among members of the Indonesian upper-class or nobility and also in many other formal situations, although the 2010 Indonesian Census shows that only 19.94% of people over 5 years old speak mainly Indonesian at home.

Standard and formal Indonesian is used in books and newspapers and on television/ radio news broadcasts; however, few native Indonesian speakers use the formal language in their daily conversations. While this is a phenomenon common to most languages in the world (for example, spoken English does not always correspond to written standards), the degree of "correctness" of spoken Indonesian (in terms of grammar and vocabulary) by comparison to its written form is noticeably low. This is mostly due to Indonesians combining aspects of their own local languages (e.g., Javanese , Sundanese , Balinese , and Chinese ) with Indonesian. This results in various "regional" Indonesian dialects, the very types that a foreigner is most likely to hear upon arriving in any Indonesian city or town. This phenomenon is amplified by the use of Indonesian slang , particularly in the cities.

The most common and widely used colloquial Indonesian is heavily influenced by Betawi language , a Malay-based creole of Jakarta
Jakarta
, amplified by its popularity in Indonesian popular culture in mass media and Jakarta's status as the national capital. In informal spoken Indonesian, various words are replaced with those of a less formal nature. For example, tidak (no) is often replaced with the Javanese nggak or the even simpler gak, while seperti (like, similar to) is often replaced with kayak (pronounced kai-yah). Sangat or amat (very), the term to express intensity, is often being replaced with Javanese-influenced banget.

As for pronunciation, the diphthongs ai and au on the end of base words are typically pronounced as /e/ and /o/. In informal writing the spelling of words is modified to reflect the actual pronunciation in a way that can be produced with less effort. For example, capai becomes cape or capek, pakai becomes pake, kalau becomes kalo.

In verbs, the prefix me- is often dropped, although an initial nasal consonant is often retained, as when mengangkat becomes ngangkat (the basic word is angkat). The suffixes -kan and -i are often replaced by -in. For example, mencarikan becomes nyariin, menuruti becomes nurutin. The latter grammatical aspect is one often closely related to the Indonesian spoken in Jakarta
Jakarta
and its surrounding areas.

CLASSIFICATION AND RELATED LANGUAGES

Indonesian has its root from Malay . Malay historical linguists agree on the likelihood of the Malay homeland being in western Borneo stretching to the Bruneian coast. A form known as Proto-Malay language was spoken in Borneo
Borneo
at least by 1000 BCE and was, it has been argued, the ancestral language of all subsequent Malayan languages . Its ancestor, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian , a descendant of the Proto-Austronesian language , began to break up by at least 2000 BCE, possibly as a result of the southward expansion of Austronesian peoples into Maritime Southeast Asia
Maritime Southeast Asia
from the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
. Indonesian, which originated from Malay, is a member of the Austronesian family of languages, which includes languages from Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
, with a smaller number in continental Asia
Asia
. Malagasy , a geographic outlier spoken in Madagascar
Madagascar
in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
; the Philippines
Philippines
national language, Filipino ; and the native language of New Zealander, Māori language are also members of this language family. Although each language of the family is mutually unintelligible, their similarities are rather striking. Many roots have come virtually unchanged from their common ancestor, Proto-Austronesian language . There are many cognates found in the languages' words for kinship, health, body parts and common animals. Numbers, especially, show remarkable similarities.

Numbers in Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
LANGUAGE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

PAN , C. 4000 BCE *isa *DuSa *telu *Sepat *lima *enem *pitu *walu *Siwa *puluq

AMIS cecay tusa tulu sepat lima enem pitu falu siwa pulu'

RUKAI itha drusa tulru supate lrima eneme pitu valru bangate pulruku

TSOU coni yuso tuyu sʉptʉ eimo nomʉ pitu voyu sio maskʉ

TAGALOG isá dalawá tatló ápat limá ánim pitó waló siyám sampu

ILOCANO maysá dua talló uppát limá inném pitó waló siam sangapúlo

CEBUANO usá duhá tuló upat limá unom pitó waló siyám napulu

CHAMORRO maisa/håcha hugua tulu fatfat lima gunum fiti guålu sigua månot/fulu

MALAGASY iray roa telo efatra dimy enina fito valo sivy folo

MALAY /INDONESIAN satu dua tiga empat lima enam tujuh lapan/delapan sembilan sepuluh

MINANGKABAU ciek duo tigo ampek limo anam tujuah salapan sambilan sapuluah

JAVANESE siji loro telu papat limo nem pitu wolu songo sepuluh

TETUN ida rua tolu hat lima nen hitu ualu sia sanulu

FIJIAN dua rua tolu vā lima ono vitu walu ciwa tini

KIRIBATI teuana uoua teniua aua nimaua onoua itiua waniua ruaiua tebuina

TONGAN taha ua tolu fā nima ono fitu valu hiva -fulu

SāMOAN tasi lua tolu fā lima ono fitu valu iva sefulu

MāORI tahi rua toru whā rima ono whitu waru iwa tekau (archaic: ngahuru)

TAHITIAN hō'ē piti toru maha pae ōno hitu va'u iva 'ahuru

MARQUESAN tahi 'ua to'u hā 'ima ono hitu va'u iva 'ahu'u

LEEWARD ISLANDS (SOCIETY ISLANDS) LANGUAGE tahi rua toru fā rima ono fitu varu iva 'ahuru

HAWAIIAN kahi lua kolu hā lima ono hiku walu iwa -'umi

However, Indonesian as it is known today was heavily influenced by several languages due to historical ties with other nations. Dutch made the highest contribution to the language, especially in vocabulary due to the Dutch's colonization for over three centuries, from the 16th century until mid-20th century. Asian languages also influenced the language, with Chinese influencing Indonesian during the 15th and 16th centuries due to the spice trade , Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Hindi contributing during the flourishing of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms from the 2nd to the 14th century, followed by Arabic after the spread of Islam
Islam
in the archipelago in the 13th century. Loanwords from Portuguese were mainly connected with articles that the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia. Indonesian also receives many of English words as results of globalization and modernization , especially since the 1990s, as far as the Internet\'s emergence and development until now. Some Indonesian words have also been borrowed into English, among them the common words orangutan, gong, bamboo, rattan, sarong, and the less common words such as paddy, sago and kapok. The phrase "to run amock" comes from the Indonesian verb amuk (to run out of control, to rage). Due to the complexity of historical background of the language, Indonesian has become more advanced, even when compared to its own ancestor, Malay.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

In 2010, Indonesian had 42.8 million native speakers , and 154.9 million second-language speakers, who speak it alongside their local mother tongue , giving a total number of speakers in Indonesia
Indonesia
of 197.7 million. It is common as a first language in urban areas, and as a second language by those residing in more rural parts of Indonesia.

The VOA
VOA
and BBC
BBC
use Indonesian as their standard for broadcasting in Malay. In Australia
Australia
, Indonesian is one of three Asian target languages, together with Japanese and Mandarin , taught in some schools as part of the Languages Other Than English programme. Indonesian has been taught in Australian schools and universities since the 1950s. In Vietnam
Vietnam
's largest city, Ho Chi Minh City , Indonesian becomes the second language, which is equal with English , French , and Japanese as the prioritized second languages, after Vietnamese .

In East Timor
East Timor
, which was an Indonesian province from 1975 to 1999, Indonesian is recognised by the constitution as one of the two working languages (the other being English ), alongside the official languages of Tetum and Portuguese . Its understood by among the Malay people of Australia's Cocos Keeling Islands in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
, also in some parts of the Sulu
Sulu
area of the southern Philippines
Philippines
and traces of it are to be found among people of Malay descent in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, South Africa , Suriname
Suriname
, and other places.

OFFICIAL STATUS

Indonesian is also the language of Indonesian mass media, such as magazines. Printed and broadcast mass media are encouraged to use proper Indonesian, although more relaxed popular slang often prevails. Warning sign in Indonesia
Indonesia

Indonesian is the official language of the Republic of Indonesia
Indonesia
, thus its usage is encouraged throughout Indonesian archipelago. Its regulated in Chapter XV, Constitution of Indonesia
Indonesia
1945 about the flag, official language, coat of arms, and national anthem of Indonesia. Also in Chapter III, Section 25 to 45, Government regulation No. 24/ 2009 specifically mentions the status of the Indonesian language.

The national language shall be Indonesian — Article 35, Chapter XV, Constitution of Indonesia
Indonesia

Indonesian functions as a symbol of national identity and pride, and is a unifying language among the diverse Indonesian ethnic groups . It also serves as a vehicle of communication among the Indonesian provinces and different regional cultures in Indonesia. The language is used as the national official language, the language of education, communication, transaction and trade documentation, the development of national culture, science, technology, and mass media in Indonesia.

According to Indonesian law, the Indonesian language
Indonesian language
was proclaimed as the unifying language during Sumpah Pemuda
Sumpah Pemuda
on 28 October 1928, developed further to accommodate the dynamics of Indonesian civilization. As mentioned previously, the language was based on Riau Malay, though linguists note that this is not the local dialect of Riau, but the Malaccan dialect that was used in the Riau court . Since its conception in 1928 and its official recognition in 1945 Constitution, the Indonesian language
Indonesian language
has been loaded with a nationalist political agenda to unify Indonesia
Indonesia
(former Dutch East Indies ). This status has made Indonesian language
Indonesian language
relatively open to accommodate influences from other Indonesian ethnic languages, most notably Javanese as the majority ethnic group in Indonesia, and Dutch as the previous colonizer. Compared to Malay language
Malay language
spoken as the native regional language in Sumatra
Sumatra
and Malay peninsula or standardized version of Malaysian language, Indonesian language
Indonesian language
differ profoundly by a large amount of Javanese loanwords incorporated into their already rich vocabulary. As a result, Indonesian has wider sources of loanwords , compared to Malay. It was suggested that the Indonesian language
Indonesian language
is an artificial language made official in 1928. By artificial it means that Indonesian was designed by academics rather than evolving naturally as most common languages have, in order to accommodate the political purpose of establishing an official unifying language of Indonesia. By borrowing heavily from numerous other languages it expresses a natural linguistic evolution; in fact, it is as natural as the next language, as demonstrated in its exceptional capacity for absorbing foreign vocabulary.

The disparate evolution of Indonesian and Malaysian has led to a rift between the two standards. This has been based more upon political nuance and the history of its standardization rather than cultural reasons, and as a result there are asymmetrical views regarding each other's standard among Malaysians and Indonesians. In Malaysia, the national language is Malaysian; in Indonesia, it is Indonesian. Malaysians tend to assert that Malaysian and Indonesian are merely variants of the same language, while Indonesians tend to treat them as separate, albeit related, languages. The result of this attitude is that Indonesians feel little need to harmonize their language with Malaysia
Malaysia
and Brunei, whereas Malaysians are keener to coordinate the evolution of the language with Indonesians, although the 1972 Indonesian alphabet reform was largely seen as a concession of Dutch-based Indonesian to the English-based spelling of Malaysian.

PHONOLOGY

VOWELS

It is usually said that there are six vowels in Indonesian. These six vowels are shown in the table below. However, other analyses set up a system with other vowels, particularly the open-mid vowels /ɛ / and /ɔ /.

TABLE OF VOWEL PHONEMES OF INDONESIAN

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

CLOSE i

u

CLOSE-MID e ə o

OPEN-MID (ɛ )

(ɔ )

OPEN

a

In standard Indonesian orthography, the Latin alphabet is used, and five vowels are distinguished: a, i, u, e, o. In materials for learners, the mid-front vowel /e/ is sometimes represented with a diacritic as é to distinguish it from the mid-central vowel /ə/.

Diphthongs

Some analyses claim that Indonesian has three native diphthong phonemes only in open syllables, they are:

* /ai̯/: kedAI ('shop'), pandAI ('clever') * /au̯/: kerbAU ('buffalo') * /oi̯/ (or /ʊi̯/ in Indonesian): dodOI, ambOI

Others assume that these "diphthongs" are actually a monophthong followed by an approximant, so ⟨ai⟩ represents /aj/, ⟨au⟩ represents /aw/, and ⟨oi⟩ represents /oj/. On this basis, there are no phonological diphthongs in Indonesian.

Diphthongs are differentiated from two vowels in two syllables, such as:

* /a.ʔi/: e.g. rAYakan ('celebrate') , AIr ('water') (or in Indonesia
Indonesia
and elsewhere) * /a.ʔu/: bAU ('smell') , lAUt ('sea') (or in Indonesia
Indonesia
and elsewhere)

CONSONANTS

The consonants of Indonesian are shown below. Non-native consonants that only occur in borrowed words, principally from Arabic and English, are shown in parentheses. Some analyses list 19 "primary consonants" for Indonesian as the 18 symbols that are not in parentheses in the table as well as the glottal stop .

CONSONANT PHONEMES OF STANDARD INDONESIAN

LABIAL ALVEOLAR PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL

NASAL m n ɲ ŋ

PLOSIVE VOICELESS p t t͡ʃ k (ʔ)

VOICED b d d͡ʒ ɡ

FRICATIVE VOICELESS (f) s (ʃ) (x) h

VOICED (v) (z)

APPROXIMANT w l j

TRILL

r

ORTHOGRAPHIC NOTE: The sounds are represented orthographically by their symbols as above, except:

* /ɲ / is written ⟨ny⟩ before a vowel, ⟨n⟩ before ⟨c⟩ and ⟨j⟩ * /ŋ / is written ⟨ng⟩ * the glottal stop is written as a final ⟨k⟩ or an apostrophe ⟨'⟩ (the use ⟨k⟩ from its being an allophone of /k/ or /ɡ/ in the syllable coda) * /tʃ / is written ⟨c⟩ * /dʒ / is written ⟨j⟩ * /ʃ / is written ⟨sy⟩ * /x / is written ⟨kh⟩ * /j / is written ⟨y⟩

STRESS

Indonesian has light stress that falls on either the final or penultimate syllable, depending on regional variations as well as the presence of the schwa (/ə/) in a word. It is generally the penultimate syllable that is stressed, unless its vowel is a schwa /ə/. If the penult has a schwa, then stress moves to the ante-penultimate syllable if there is one, even if that syllable has a schwa as well; if the word is disyllabic, the stress is final. In disyllabic stress with a closed penultimate syllable, such as tinggal ('stay') and rantai ('chain'), stress falls on the penult.

However, there is some disagreement among linguists over whether stress is phonemic (unpredictable), with some analyses suggesting that there is no underlying stress in Indonesian.

RHYTHM

The classification of languages based on rhythm can be problematic. Nevertheless, acoustic measurements suggest that Indonesian has more syllable-based rhythm than British English, even though doubts remain about whether the syllable is the appropriate unit for the study of Malay prosody. However, many linguists suggest that rhythm in Indonesian is not payed, because Indonesian is not a kind of tonal language like Chinese , Thai , or Vietnamese .

GRAMMAR

Word order in Indonesian is generally Subject-Verb-Object (SVO), similar to that of most modern European languages
European languages
, such as English. However considerable flexibility in word ordering exists, in contrast with languages such as Japanese or Korean , for instance, which always end clauses with verbs. Indonesian, while allowing for relatively flexible word orderings, does not mark for grammatical case nor does it make use of grammatical gender .

AFFIXES

In Indonesian, affixes take on an important role because slightly different affixes may have very different meanings. There are four types of affixes: prefixes (awalan), suffixes (akhiran), circumfixes (apitan) and infixes (sisipan). Affixes are categorized into noun, verb, and adjective affixes. Root words are either nouns or verbs, which can take on affixes to generate new words, for example, masak (to cook) may become memasak (cooks), memasakkan (cooks for), dimasak (cooked), pemasak (a cook), masakan (a meal, cookery). Many initial consonants alternate in the presence of prefixes: sapu (to sweep) becomes menyapu (sweeps/sweeping); panggil (to call) becomes memanggil (calls/calling), tapis (to sieve) becomes menapis (sieves).

Other examples of the use of affixes to change the meaning of a word can be seen with the word ajar (teach):

* ajar = teach * ajarAN = teachings * BELajar = to learn * MENGajar = to teach (intransitive ) * MENGajarKAN = to teach (transitive ) * DIajar = being taught (intransitive) * DIajarKAN = being taught (transitive) * MEMPELajarI = to study * DIPELajarI = being studied * PELajar = student * PENGajar = teacher * PELajarAN = subject, education * PENGajarAN = lesson * PEMBELajarAN = learning * TERajar = taught (accidentally) * TERPELajar = well-educated, literally "been taught" * BERPELajarAN = is educated, literally "has education"

Noun Affixes

Noun affixes are affixes that form nouns upon addition to root words. The following are examples of noun affixes:

TYPE OF NOUN AFFIXES AFFIX EXAMPLE OF ROOT WORD EXAMPLE OF DERIVED WORD

Prefix pə(r)- ~ pəng- duduk (sit) penduduk (population)

kə- hendak (want) kehendak (desire)

Infix ⟨əl⟩ tunjuk (point) telunjuk (index finger, command)

⟨əm⟩ kelut (dishevelled) kemelut (chaos, crisis)

⟨ər⟩ gigi (teeth) gerigi (toothed blade)

Suffix -an bangun (wake up, raise) bangunan (building)

Circumfix kə-...-an raja (king) kerajaan (kingdom)

pə(r)-...-an pəng-...-an kerja (work) pekerjaan (occupation)

The prefix per- drops its r before r, l and frequently before p, t, k. In some words it is peng-; though formally distinct, these are treated as variants of the same prefix in Indonesian grammar books.

Verb Affixes

Similarly, verb affixes in Indonesian are attached to root words to form verbs. In Indonesian, there are:

TYPE OF VERB AFFIXES AFFIX EXAMPLE OF ROOT WORD EXAMPLE OF DERIVED WORD

Prefix bər- ajar (teach) belajar (to study)

məng- tolong (help) menolong (to help)

di- ambil (take) diambil (be taken)

məmpər- panjang (length) memperpanjang (to lengthen)

dipər- dalam (deep) diperdalam (be deepened)

tər- makan (eat) termakan (to have accidentally eaten)

Suffix -kan letak (place, keep) letakkan (keep)

-i jauh (far) jauhi (avoid)

Circumfix bər-...-an pasang (pair) berpasangan (in pairs)

bər-...-kan dasar (base) berdasarkan (based on)

məng-...-kan pasti (sure) memastikan (to make sure)

məng-...-i teman (company) menemani (to accompany)

məmpər-...-kan guna (use) mempergunakan (to utilise, to exploit)

məmpər-...-i ajar (teach) mempelajari (to study)

kə-...-an hilang (disappear) kehilangan (to lose)

di-...-i sakit (pain) disakiti (to be hurt by)

di-...-kan benar (right) dibenarkan (is allowed to)

dipər-...-kan kenal (know, recognise) diperkenalkan (is being introduced)

Adjective Affixes

Adjective affixes are attached to root words to form adjectives:

TYPE OF ADJECTIVE AFFIXES AFFIX EXAMPLE OF ROOT WORD EXAMPLE OF DERIVED WORD

Prefix tər- kenal (know) terkenal (famous)

sə- lari (run) selari (parallel)

Infix ⟨əl⟩ serak (disperse) selerak (messy)

⟨əm⟩ cerlang (radiant bright) cemerlang (bright, excellent)

⟨ər⟩ sabut (husk) serabut (dishevelled)

Circumfix kə-...-an barat (west) kebaratan (westernized)

In addition to these affixes, Indonesian also has a lot of borrowed affixes from other languages such as Sanskrit, Arabic and English. For example, maha-, pasca-, eka-, bi-, anti-, pro- etc.

NOUNS

Common derivational affixes for nouns are peng-/per-/juru- (actor, instrument, or someone characterized by the root), -an (collectivity, similarity, object, place, instrument), ke-...-an (abstractions and qualities, collectivities), per-/peng-...-an (abstraction, place, goal or result).

Gender

Indonesian does not make use of grammatical gender , and there are only selected words that use natural gender . For instance, the same word is used for he/him and she/her (dia or ia) or for his and her (dia, ia or -nya). No real distinction is made between "girlfriend" and "boyfriend", both pacar (although more colloquial terms as cewek girl/girlfriend and cowok boy/boyfriend can also be found). A majority of Indonesian words that refer to people generally have a form that does not distinguish between the sexes. However, unlike English, distinction is made between older or younger.

There are some words that have gender, for instance putri means "daughter", and putra means "son" and also pramugara means "male flight attendant" and pramugari meaning "female flight attendant". Another example would be olahragawan, which equates to "sportsman", and olahragawati, meaning sportswoman. Often, words like these (or certain suffixes such as "-a" and "-i" or "-wan" and "wati") are absorbed from other languages (in these cases, from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
through the Old Javanese language
Javanese language
). In some regions of Indonesia
Indonesia
such as Sumatera and Jakarta, abang (a gender-specific term meaning "older brother") is commonly used as a form of address for older siblings/males, while kakak (a non-gender specific term meaning "older sibling") is often used to mean "older sister". Similarly, more direct influences from other languages, such as Javanese and Chinese, have also seen further use of other gendered words in Indonesian. For example: Mas ("older brother"), M'bak ("older sister"), Koko ("older brother") and Cici ("older sister").

Number

Indonesian grammar does not regularly mark plurals . In Indonesian, to change a singular into a plural one either repeats the word or adds para before it (the latter for living things only); for example, "students" can be either murid-murid or para murid. Plurals are rarely used in Indonesian, especially in daily and informal situations. Reduplication is often mentioned as the formal way to express the plural form of nouns in Indonesian; however, in informal daily discourse , speakers of Indonesian usually use other methods to indicate the concept of something being "more than one". Reduplication may also indicate the conditions of variety and diversity as well, and not simply plurality.

Reduplication is commonly used to emphasize plurality; however, reduplication has many other functions. For example, orang-orang means "(all the) people", but orang-orangan means "scarecrow". Similarly, while hati means "heart" or "liver", hati-hati is a verb meaning "to be careful". Also, not all reduplicated words are inherently plural, such as orang-orangan "scarecrow/scarecrows", biri-biri "a/some sheep" and kupu-kupu "butterfly/butterflies". Some reduplication is rhyming rather than exact, as in sayur-mayur "(all sorts of) vegetables".

Distributive affixes derive mass nouns that are effectively plural: pohon "tree", pepohonan "flora , trees"; rumah "house", perumahan "housing, houses"; gunung "mountain", pegunungan "mountain range, mountains".

Quantity words come before the noun: seribu orang "a thousand people", beberapa pegunungan "a series of mountain ranges", beberapa kupu-kupu "some butterflies".

Plural in Indonesian is just to clarify the number of objects in sentence. For example, Ani membeli satu kilo mangga (Ani buys one kilogram of mangoes). In this case, "mangoes", which is plural, is not said as mangga-mangga because the plurality is implicit: the amount A KILOGRAM means more than one mango. So, as it is logically, one does not change the singular into the plural form, because it is not necessary and considered a pleonasm (in Indonesian often called Pemborosan Kata).

PRONOUNS

Personal pronouns are not a separate part of speech, but a subset of nouns. They are frequently omitted, and there are numerous ways to say "you". Commonly the person's name, title, title with name, or occupation is used ("does Johnny want to go?", "would Madam like to go?"); kin terms, including fictive kinship , are extremely common. However, there are also dedicated personal pronouns, as well as the demonstrative pronouns ini "this, the" and itu "that, the".

Personal Pronouns

From the perspective of a European language, Indonesian boasts a wide range of different pronouns, especially to refer to the addressee (the so-called second person pronouns). These are used to differentiate several parameters of the person they are referred to, such as the social rank and the relationship between the addressee and the speaker.

This table shows an overview over the most commonly and widely used pronouns of the Indonesian language:

Common pronouns PERSON

RESPECT SINGULAR PLURAL

1ST PERSON EXCLUSIVE INFORMAL, FAMILIAR aku kami (we: they and me, she/he and me)

STANDARD, POLITE saya

INCLUSIVE

kita (we: you and me, you and us)

2ND PERSON

FAMILIAR kamu kalian

POLITE Anda (you) Anda sekalian (you, you all)

3RD PERSON

dia or ia (she/he) mereka (itu) (they)

* FIRST PERSON PRONOUNS

Notable among the personal-pronoun system is a distinction between two forms of "we" : kita (you and me, you and us) and kami (us, but not you). The distinction is increasingly confused in colloquial Indonesian.

Saya and aku are the two major forms of "I". Saya is the more formal form, whereas aku is used with family, friends, and between lovers. Sahaya is an old or literary form of saya. Sa(ha)ya may also be used for "we", but in such cases it is usually used with sekalian or semua "all"; this form is ambiguous as to whether it corresponds with inclusive kami or exclusive kita. Less common are hamba "slave", hamba tuan, hamba datuk (all extremely humble), beta (a royal addressing oneselves), patik (a commoner addressing a royal), kami (royal or editorial "we"), kita, təman, and kawan.

* SECOND PERSON PRONOUNS

There are three common forms of "you", Anda (polite), kamu (familiar), and kalian "all" (commonly used as a plural form of you, slightly informal). Anda is used with strangers, recent acquaintances, in advertisements, in business, and when you wish to show respect (though terms like tuan "sir" and other titles also show respect), while kamu is used in situations where the speaker would use aku for "I". Anda sekalian is polite plural.

Engkau (əngkau), commonly shortened to kau, and hang are used to social inferiors, awak to equals, and əncik (cek before a name) is polite, traditionally used for people without title. The compounds makcik and pakcik are used with village elders one is well acquainted with or the guest of.

* THIRD PERSON PRONOUNS

The common word for "s/he" and "they" is ia, which has the object and emphatic/focused form dia. Bəliau "his/her Honour" is respectful. As with "you", names and kin terms are extremely common. Mereka "someone", mereka itu, or orang itu "those people" are used for "they".

* REGIONAL VARIETIES

There are a large number of other words for "I" and "you", many regional, dialectical, or borrowed from local languages. Saudara "you" (male) and saudari (female) (plural saudara-saudara or saudari-saudari) show utmost respect. Daku "I" and dikau "you" are poetic or romantic. Indonesian gua "I" and lu "you" are slang and extremely informal. In the state of Pahang, two variants for "I" and "you" exist, depending on location. In East Pahang, around Pekan, "kome" is used as "I" while in the west around Temerloh, "koi" is used. Interestingly, "kome" is also used in Kuala Kangsar, Perak, but instead it means "you". This allegedly originated from the fact that both the royal families of Pahang and Perak (whose seats are in Pekan and Kuala Kangsar respectively) were descendants of the same ancient line.

The pronouns aku, kamu, engkau, ia, kami, and kita are indigenous to Indonesian.

Possessive Pronouns

Aku, kamu, engkau, and ia have short possessive enclitic forms. All others retain their full forms like other nouns, as does emphatic dia: meja saya, meja kita, meja anda, meja dia "my table, our table, your table, his/her table".

Possessed forms of meja "table" PRONOUN ENCLITIC POSSESSED FORM

aku -ku mejaku (my table)

kamu -mu mejamu (your table)

ia -nya mejanya (his, her, their table)

There are also proclitic forms of aku, ku- and kau-. These are used when there is no emphasis on the pronoun: KU-dengar raja itu menderita penyakit kulit. AKU mengetahui ilmu kedokteran. AKU-LAH yang akan mengobati dia. "It has come to my attention that the King has a skin disease. I am skilled in medicine. I will cure him."

Here ku-verb is used for a general report, aku verb is used for a factual statement, and emphatic aku-lah meng-verb (≈ "I am the one who...") for focus on the pronoun.

Demonstrative Pronouns

There are two demonstrative pronouns in Indonesian. Ini "this, these" is used for a noun which is generally near to the speaker. Itu "that, those" is used for a noun which is generally far from the speaker. Either may sometimes be equivalent to English "the". There is no difference between singular and plural. However, plural can be indicated through duplication of a noun followed by a ini or itu. The word yang "which" is often placed before demonstrative pronouns to give emphasis and a sense of certainty, particularly when making references or enquiries about something/ someone, like English "this one" or "that one".

PRONOUN INDONESIAN ENGLISH

INI buku ini This book, these books, the book(s)

buku-buku ini These books, (all) the books

ITU kucing itu That cat, those cats, the cat(s)

kucing-kucing itu Those cats, the (various) cats

PRONOUN + YANG EXAMPLE SENTENCE ENGLISH MEANING

YANG INI Q: Anda mau membeli buku yang mana?

A: Saya mau YANG INI. Q: Which book do you wish to purchase?

A: I would like THIS ONE.

YANG ITU Q: Kucing mana yang memakan tikusmu?

A: YANG ITU! Q: Which cat ate your mouse?

A: THAT ONE!

VERBS

Verbs are not inflected for person or number, and they are not marked for tense; tense is instead denoted by time adverbs (such as "yesterday") or by other tense indicators, such as sudah "already" and belum "not yet". On the other hand, there is a complex system of verb affixes to render nuances of meaning and to denote voice or intentional and accidental moods . Some of these affixes are ignored in colloquial speech.

Examples of these are the prefixes di- (patient focus , frequently but erroneously called "passive voice", for OVA word order in the third person, and OAV in the first or second persons), meng- (agent focus , frequently but erroneously called "active voice", for AVO word order), memper- and diper- (causative , agent and patient focus), ber- (stative or habitual; intransitive VS order), and ter- (agentless actions, such as those which are involuntary, sudden, stative or accidental, for VA = VO order); the suffixes -kan (causative or benefactive ) and -i (locative, repetitive, or exhaustive); and the circumfixes ber-...-an (plural subject, diffuse action ) and ke-...-an (unintentional or potential action or state).

* duduk to sit down * mendudukkan to sit someone down, give someone a seat, to appoint * menduduki to sit on, to occupy * didudukkan to be given a seat, to be appointed * diduduki to be sat on, to be occupied * terduduk to sink down, to come to sit * kedudukan to be situated

Forms in ter- and ke-...-an are often equivalent to adjectives in English.

Negation

Four words are used for negation in Indonesian, namely tidak, bukan, jangan, and belum.

* TIDAK (not), often shortened to tak, is used for the negation of verbs and "adjectives". * BUKAN (be-not) is used in the negation of a noun.

For example:

INDONESIAN GLOSS ENGLISH

Saya TIDAK tahu I NOT know I do NOT know

Ibu saya TIDAK senang mother I NOT be-happy My mother is NOT happy

Itu BUKAN anjing saya that BE-NOT dog I That IS NOT my dog

Prohibition

For negating imperatives or advising against certain actions in Indonesian, the word jangan (do not) is used before the verb. For example,

* JANGAN tinggalkan saya di sini!

DON\'T leave me here!

* JANGAN lakukan itu!

DON\'T do that!

* JANGAN! Itu tidak bagus untukmu.

DON\'T! That's not good for you.

ADJECTIVES

There are grammatical adjectives in Indonesian. Stative verbs are often used for this purpose as well. Adjectives are always placed after the noun which they modify. Hence, "rumah saya" means "my house", while "saya rumah" means "I am a house".

INDONESIAN GLOSS ENGLISH

Hutan hijau forest green (The) green forest.

Hutan itu hijau forest that green That/the forest is green.

Kəreta yang merah carriage which (is) red. (The) carriage which is red = the red carriage.

Kəreta merah carriage red. Red carriage.

Dia orang yang terkenal sekali he/she person which be-famous very He/she is a very famous person

Orang terkenal person famous. Famous person.

Orang ini terkenal sekali person this be-famous very This person is very famous

To say that something "is" an adjective, the determiners "itu" and "ini" ("that" and "this") are often used. For example, in the sentence "anjing itu galak", the use of "itu" gives a meaning of "the/that dog is ferocious", while "anjing ini galak", gives a meaning of "this dog is ferocious". However, if "itu" or "ini" were not to be used, then "anjing galak" would meaning only "ferocious dog", a plain adjective without any stative implications. The all-purpose determiner, "yang", is also often used before adjectives, hence "anjing yang galak" also means "ferocious dog" or more literally "dog which is ferocious"; "yang" will often be used for clarity. Hence, in a sentence such as "saya didekati oleh anjing galak" which means "I was approached by a ferocious dog", the use of the adjective "galak" is not stative at all.

Often the "ber-" intransitive verb prefix, or the "ter-" stative prefix will be used to suggest a meaning of "to be...". For example, "beda" means "different", hence "berbeda" means "to be different"; "awan" means "cloud", hence "berawan" means "cloudy". Using the "ter-" prefix, implies a state of being. For example, "buka" means "open", hence "terbuka" means "is opened"; "tutup" means "closed/shut", hence "tertutup" means "is closed/shut".

WORD ORDER

Adjectives, demonstrative determiners, and possessive determiners follow the noun they modify.

Indonesian does not have a grammatical subject in the sense that English does. In intransitive clauses, the noun comes before the verb. When there is both an agent and an object , these are separated by the verb (OVA or AVO), with the difference encoded in the voice of the verb. OVA, commonly but inaccurately called "passive", is the basic and most common word order.

Either the agent or object or both may be omitted. This is commonly done to accomplish one of two things: 1) Adding a sense of politeness and respect to a statement or question

For example, a polite shop assistant in a store may avoid the use of pronouns altogether and ask:

ELLIPSES OF PRONOUN (AGENT books, rivers, chairs, some fruits, thoughts, etc. 'fruit' dua buah meja (two tables), lima buah rumah (five houses)

ekor animals 'tail' seekor ayam (a chicken), tiga ekor kambing (three goats)

orang human beings 'person' seorang laki-laki (a man), enam orang petani (six farmers), seratus orang murid (a hundred students)

biji smaller rounded objects most fruits, cups, nuts 'grain' sebiji/ sebutir telur (an egg), sebutir/ butiran-butiran beras (rice or rices)

batang long stiff things trees, walking sticks, pencils 'trunk, rod' sebatang tongkat (a stick)

həlai things in thin layers or sheets paper, cloth, feathers, hair 'leaf' sepuluh helai pakaian (ten cloths)

kəping keping flat fragments slabs of stone, pieces of wood, pieces of bread, land, coins, paper 'chip' sekeping uang logam (a coin)

pucuk letters, firearms, needles 'sprout' sepucuk senjata (a weapon)

bilah things which cut lengthwise and thicker 'blade' sebilah kayu (a piece of wood)

bidanɡ things which can be measured with number 'field' sebidang tanah/lahan (an area)

potong bread 'cut' sepotong roti (slices of bread)

utas nets, cords, ribbons 'thread' seutas tali (a rope)

carik things easily torn, like paper 'shred' secarik kertas (a piece of paper)

Example: Measure words are not necessary just to say "a": burung "a bird, birds". Using se- plus a measure word is closer to English "one" or "a certain": Ada seekor burung yang bisa berbicara "There was a (certain) bird that could talk"

WRITING SYSTEM

Main articles: Indonesian alphabet and Perfected Spelling System

Indonesian is written with the Latin script
Latin script
. It was originally based on the Dutch spelling
Dutch spelling
and still bears some similarities to it. Consonants are represented in a way similar to Italian , although ⟨c⟩ is always /tʃ/ (like English ⟨ch⟩), ⟨g⟩ is always /ɡ/ ("hard") and ⟨j⟩ represents /dʒ/ as it does in English. In addition, ⟨ny⟩ represents the palatal nasal /ɲ/, ⟨ng⟩ is used for the velar nasal /ŋ/ (which can occur word-initially), ⟨sy⟩ for /ʃ/ (English ⟨sh⟩) and ⟨kh⟩ for the voiceless velar fricative /x/. Both /e/ and /ə/ are represented with ⟨e⟩.

Spelling changes in the language that have occurred since Indonesian independence include:

PHONEME Obsolete spelling Modern spelling

/u / oe u

/tʃ / tj c

/dʒ / dj j

/j / j y

/ɲ / nj ny

/ʃ / sj sy

/x / ch kh

Introduced in 1901, the van Ophuijsen system , (named from the advisor of the system, Charles Adriaan van Ophuijsen) was the first standardization of romanized spelling. It was most influenced by the then current Dutch spelling
Dutch spelling
system . In 1947, the spelling was changed into Republican Spelling or Soewandi Spelling (named by at the time Minister of Education, Soewandi). This spelling changed formerly-spelled oe into u (however, the spelling influenced other aspects in orthography, for example writing reduplicated words). All of the other changes were a part of the Perfected Spelling System , an officially-mandated spelling reform in 1972. Some of the old spellings (which were derived from Dutch orthography ) do survive in proper names; for example, the name of a former president of Indonesia
Indonesia
is still sometimes written Soeharto , and the central Java city of Yogyakarta is sometimes written Jogjakarta.

LETTER NAMES AND PRONUNCIATIONS

The Indonesian alphabet is exactly the same as in English.

MAJUSCULE FORMS

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

MINUSCULE FORMS

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Indonesian follows the letter names of the Dutch alphabet . Indonesian alphabet has a phonemic orthography ; words are spelled the way they are pronounced, with few exceptions. The letters Q, V and X are rarely encountered, being chiefly used for writing loanwords .

LETTER NAME (IN IPA ) SOUND (IN IPA ) ENGLISH EQUIVALENT

Aa a (/a/) /a/ A as in fAther

Bb bé (/be/) /b/ B as in Bed

Cc cé (/t͡ʃe/ or /se/) /t͡ʃ/ CH as in CHeck

Dd dé (/de/) /d/ D as in Day

Ee é (/e/) /e/ E as in rEd

Ff éf (/ef/) /f/ F as in eFfort

Gg gé (/ge/) /ɡ/ G as in Gain

Hh ha (/ha/) /h/ H as in Harm

Ii i (/i/) /i/ I as in pIn

Jj jé (/d͡ʒe/) /d͡ʒ/ J as in Jam

Kk ka (/ka/) /k/ K as in sKate

Ll él (/el/) /l/ L as in Let

Mm ém (/em/) /m/ M as in Mall

Nn én (/en/) /n/ N as in Net

Oo o (/o/) /o/ O as in Owe

Pp pé (/pe/) /p/ P as in sPeak

Qq ki (/ki/) /q/ Q as in Queen

Rr ér (/er/) /r/ Spanish RR as in pueRRo

Ss és (/es/) /s/ S as in Sun

Tt te (/te/) /t/ unaspirated T as in sTill

Uu u (/u/) /u/ U as in pUll

Vv ve (/ve/ or /fe/) /v/ V as in Van

Ww we (/we/) /w/ W as in Wet

Xx ex (/ex/) /ks/ X as in Xylophone

Yy yé (/je/) /j/ Y as in Yarn

Zz zet (/zet/) /z/ Z as in Zebra

In addition, there are digraphs that are not considered separate letters of the alphabet:

DIGRAPH SOUND ENGLISH EQUIVALENT

ai /ai̯/ UY as in bUY

au /au̯/ OU as in OUch

oi /oi̯/ OY as in bOY

gh /ɣ/ or /x/ similar to Dutch and German CH, but voiced

kh /x/ CH as in loCH

ng /ŋ/ NG as in siNG

ny /ɲ/ Spanish ñ; similar to NY as in caNYon with a nasal sound

sy /ʃ/ SH as in SHoe

VOCABULARY

See also: List of loanwords in Indonesian

A pie chart showing percentage of other languages contribute on loan words of Indonesian language. Dutch (42.5%) English (20.9%) Arabic (19%) Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Hindi (9%) Chinese (3.6%) Portuguese (2%) Tamil (2%) Persian (1%)

A modern dialect of Malay, Indonesian has also been influenced by other languages, including Dutch , English , Arabic , Chinese , Portuguese , Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, Tamil , Hindi , and Persian . It is estimated that there are some 750 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanwords in modern Indonesian, 1,000 Arabic loans, some of Persian and Hebrew origin, some 125 words of Portuguese, some of Spanish and Italian origin, and 10,000 loanwords from Dutch. The vast majority of Indonesian words, however, come from the root lexical stock of Austronesian (including Old Malay).

The study of Indonesian etymology and loan words reveals both its historical and social contexts. Examples are the early Sanskrit borrowings from the 7th century during the trading era, the borrowings from Arabic and Persian during the time of the establishment of Islam in particular, and those from Dutch during the colonial period. Linguistic history and cultural history are clearly linked.

List of loan words of Indonesian language
Indonesian language
published by the Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa (The Language Center) under Ministry of Education
Education
and Culture :

LANGUAGE ORIGIN NUMBER OF WORDS

Dutch 3280

English 1610

Arabic 1495

Sanskrit 677

Chinese 290

Portuguese 131

Tamil 131

Persian 63

Hindi 7

LOAN WORDS OF SANSKRIT ORIGIN

Indonesian National Armed Forces , Indonesian National Police , Indonesian Air Force and Indonesian Army
Indonesian Army
mottos are Tri Dharma
Dharma
Eka Karma, Rastra Sewakottama, Swa Bhuwana Paksa, Kartika Eka Paksi, all in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language.

The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence came from contacts with India
India
since ancient times. The words were either borrowed directly from India
India
or with the intermediary of the Old Javanese language
Javanese language
. Although Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
are no longer the major religions of Indonesia, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, which was the language vehicle for these religions, is still held in high esteem and is comparable with the status of Latin
Latin
in English and other Western European languages. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is also the main source for neologisms , these are usually formed from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
roots. The loanwords from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
cover many aspects of religion , art and everyday life. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanwords, unlike those from other languages, have entered the basic vocabulary of Indonesian to such an extent that, for many, they are no longer perceived as foreign.

From Sanskrit
Sanskrit
came such words as स्वर्ग surga (heaven), भाषा bahasa (language), काच kaca (glass, mirror), राज- raja (king), मनुष्य manusia (mankind), चिन्ता cinta (love), भूमि bumi (earth), भुवन buana (world), आगम agama (religion), स्त्री Istri (wife/woman), जय Jaya (victory/victorious), पुर Pura (city/temple/place), रक्षस Raksasa (giant/monster), धर्म Dharma (rule/regulations), मन्त्र Mantra
Mantra
(words/poet/spiritual prayers), क्षत्रिय Satria (warrior/brave/soldier), विजय Wijaya (greatly victorious/great victory), etc. Sanskrit words and sentences are also used in names, titles, and mottos of the Indonesian National Police
Indonesian National Police
and Indonesian Armed Forces such as: Bhayangkara , Laksamana , Jatayu
Jatayu
, Garuda
Garuda
, Dharmakerta Marga Reksyaka, Jalesveva Jayamahe , Kartika Eka Paksi , Swa Bhuwana Paksa , Rastra Sewakottama , Yudha Siaga, etc. The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words also still makes the Indonesian language
Indonesian language
more powerful in meaning from the usage of the National Armed Forces titles such as (above) and more meanings that also contributes to official and formal languages of Indonesia.

Because Sanskrit
Sanskrit
has been very long known in the Indonesian archipelago , the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanwords, unlike those from other languages, have entered the basic vocabulary of Indonesian to such an extent that, for many, they are no longer perceived to be foreign. Therefore, one could write a short story using only Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words. The short story below consists of approximately 80 words in Indonesian that are written using Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words alone, except for a few particles.

KARENA SEMUA diBIAYA i DANA NEGARA JUTA an RUPIAH , sang MAHAGURU SASTRA BAHASA KAWI dan MAHASISWA -MAHASISWI nya, DUTA -DUTA NEGERI MITRA , MENTERI KeBUDAYA an dan PARIWISATA SUAMI -ISTRI , beSERTA KARYAWAN -KARYAWATI LEMBAGA NIRLABA SEGERA berDHARMAWISATA ke peDESA an di UTARA KOTA kaBUPATE n PROBOLINGGO ANTARA CANDI -CANDI PURBA , berWAHANA KELEDAI di KALA SENJA dan berSAMA KEPALA DESA meNYAKSI kan PARA TANI yang berJIWA berSAHAJA SERTA berBUDI NIRMALA seCARA berBAHAGIA berUPACARA , SERAYA MERDU meNYUARA kan GITA -GITA MANTRA , yang meRUPA kan SARANA PUJI an mereka meMUJA NAMA SUCI PERTIWI , DEWI BUMI yang berSEDIA mengANUGERAH i mereka KARUNIA dan RESTU , meRAKSA dari BAHAYA , MALA PETAKA dan BENCANA .

LOAN WORDS OF CHINESE ORIGIN

The relationship with China has been going since the 7th century when Chinese merchants traded in some areas of the archipelago such as Riau , West Borneo
Borneo
, East Kalimantan , and North Maluku
North Maluku
. At the kingdom of Srivijaya appeared and florished, China opened diplomatic relations with the kingdom in order to secure trade and seafaring. In 922, Chinese travelers visited Kahuripan in East Java
East Java
. Since the 11th century, hundreds of thousands of Chinese migrants left Mainland China and settled in many parts of Nusantara (now called as Indonesia).

The Chinese loanwords are usually concerned with cuisine, trade or often just things exclusively Chinese. Words of Chinese origin (presented here with accompanying Hokkien
Hokkien
/ Mandarin pronunciation derivatives as well as traditional and simplified characters ) include pisau (匕首 bǐshǒu – knife), loteng, (樓/層 = lóu/céng – floor/ level), mie (麵 > 面 Hokkien
Hokkien
mī – noodles), lumpia (潤餅 ( Hokkien
Hokkien
= lūn-piáⁿ) – springroll), cawan (茶碗 cháwǎn – teacup), teko (茶壺 > 茶壶 = cháhú , teh-ko = teapot), 苦力 kuli = 苦 khu (bitter) and 力 li (energy) and even the widely used slang terms gua and lu (from the Hokkien
Hokkien
'goa' 我 and 'lu/li' 你 – meaning 'I/ me' and 'you').

LOAN WORDS OF ARABIC ORIGIN

The word masjid (mosque) in Indonesian derrived from Arabic word masjid (مسجد).

Many Arabic words were brought and spread by merchants from Arab Peninsula like Arabian , Persian , and from the western part of India, Gujarat
Gujarat
where many Muslims lived. As a result, many Indonesian words come from the Arabic language. Especially since the late 12th century, Old Malay was heavily influenced by the language and produced many great literary works such as Syair , Babad , Hikayat , and Suluk . This century is known as The Golden Age of Indonesian Literature.

Many loanwords from Arabic are mainly concerned with religion, in particular with Islam
Islam
, and by extension, with greetings such as the word, "selamat" (from Arabic : سلام‎‎ salām = peace) means "safe" or "lucky". Words of Arabic origin include dunia (from Arabic : دنيا‎‎ dunyā = the present world), names of days (except Minggu), such as Sabtu (from Arabic : سبت‎‎ sabt-u = Saturday), iklan (آعلان iʻlan = advertisement), kabar (خبر ḵabar = news), Kursi (كرسي kursī = a chair), jumat (جمعة jumʻa = Friday), ijazah (إجازة ijāza = 'permission', certificate of authority, e.g. a school diploma certificate), kitab (كتاب kitāb = book), tertib (ترتيب tartīb = order/arrangement) and kamus (قاموس qāmūs = dictionary). Allah
Allah
(Arabic : الله‎‎), as it is mostly the case for Arabic speakers, is the word for God
God
even in Christian
Christian
Bible
Bible
translations. Many early Bible
Bible
translators, when they came across some unusual Hebrew words or proper names, used the Arabic cognates. In the newer translations this practice is discontinued. They now turn to Greek names or use the original Hebrew Word. For example, the name Jesus
Jesus
was initially translated as 'Isa (Arabic : عيسى‎‎), but is now spelt as Yesus. Several ecclesiastical terms derived from Arabic still exist in Indonesian language. Indonesian word for bishop is uskup (from Arabic : أسقف‎‎ usquf = bishop). This in turn makes the Indonesian term for archbishop uskup agung (literally great bishop), which is combining the Arabic word with an Old Javanese word. The term imam (from Arabic : إمام‎‎ imām = leader, prayer leader) is used to translate a Catholic priest , beside its more common association with an Islamic prayer leader. Some Protestant denominations refer to their congregation jemaat (from Arabic : جماعة‎‎ jamāʻa = group, a community). Even the name of the Bible
Bible
in Indonesian translation is Alkitab (from Arabic : الكتاب‎‎ al-kitāb = the book), which literally means "the Book".

LOAN WORDS OF PORTUGUESE ORIGIN

Indonesian word gereja (church) is derived from Portuguese igreja.

Alongside Malay , Portuguese was the lingua franca for trade throughout the archipelago from the sixteenth century through to the early nineteenth century. The Portuguese were among the first westerners to sail eastwards to the "Spice Islands ". Loanwords from Portuguese were mainly connected with articles that the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia. Indonesian words derived from Portuguese include meja (from mesa = table), bangku (from banco = chair), lemari (from armário = closet), boneka (from boneca = doll), jendela (from janela = window), gereja (from igreja = church), misa (from missa = mass), natal (from natal = Christmas), pesta (from festa = party), dansa (from dança = dance), pesiar (from passear = cruise), bendera (from bandeira = flag), sepatu (from sapato = shoes), garpu (from garfo = fork), kemeja (from camisa = shirt), kereta (from carreta = chariot), pompa (from bomba hidráulica = pump), pigura (from figura = picture), roda (from roda = wheel), nona (from dona = young woman), sekolah (from escola = school), lentera (from lanterna = lantern), paderi (from padre = priest), santo, santa (from santo, santa = saint), puisi (from poesia = poetry), tukar (from trocar = exchange), keju (from queijo = cheese), mentega (from manteiga = butter), serdadu (from soldado = soldier), meski (from mas que = although), kamar (from câmara = room), laguna (from laguna = lagoon), lelang (from leilão = auction), persero (from parceiro = company), markisa (from maracujá = passion fruit), limau (from limão = lemon), kartu (from cartão = card), ombak (from onda = waves), Inggris (from inglês = English), Sabtu (from sábado = Saturday) and Minggu (from domingo = Sunday).

LOAN WORDS OF DUTCH ORIGIN

Chunghua bioscoop (now bioskop = cinema), Glodok
Glodok
, Jakarta
Jakarta
in 1953.

The former colonial power, the Netherlands
Netherlands
, left a sizable amount of vocabulary that can be seen in words such as polisi (from politie = police), kualitas (from kwaliteit = quality), aktual (from actueel = current), rokok (from roken = smoking cigarettes), korupsi (from corruptie = corruption), kantor (from kantoor = office), resleting (from ritssluiting = zipper), pelopor (from voorloper = frontrunner) persneling (from versnelling = transmission gear), setrum (from stroom = electricity current), maskapai (from maatschappij = company), apotek (from apotheek = pharmacy), handuk (from handdoek = towel), setrika (from strijkijzer = clothes iron), bioskop (from bioscoop = cinema), spanduk (from spandoeken = banner), korsleting (from kortsluiting = short circuit), om (from oom = uncle), tante (from tante = aunt), traktir (from trakteer = treat) and gratis (from gratis = free). These Dutch loanwords, and many other non-Italo-Iberian, European language loanwords that came via Dutch, cover all aspects of life. Some Dutch loanwords, having clusters of several consonants, pose difficulties to speakers of Indonesian. This problem is usually solved by insertion of the schwa . For example, Dutch schroef > sekrup (screw (n.)). One scholar argues that 20% of Indonesian words are inspired by the Dutch language .

Before the standardization of the language, many Indonesian words follow standard Dutch alphabet and pronunciation such as "oe" for vowel "u" or "dj" for consonant "j" . As a result, Malay words are written with that orthography such as: passer for the word Pasar or djalan for the word jalan, older Indonesian generation tend to have their name written in such order as well.

LOAN WORDS OF ENGLISH ORIGIN

Many English words were incorporated into Indonesian through globalization . Many Indonesians, however, mistake words already adopted from Dutch as words borrowed from English. This is due to the Germanic traces that exist in the two languages. Indonesian adopts English words with standardization. For example: imaJinaSI from imaGinaTION, universiTAS from universiTY, aKSesorI from aCCessorY, geograFI from geograPHY, KonservaTIF from ConservaTIVE, rUtiN from rOUtiNE, and so other. However, there are several words that directly borrowed without standardization which have same meanings in English such as: bus, data, domain, detail, internet, film, golf, lift, monitor, radio, radar, unit, safari, sonar, and video.

OTHER LOAN WORDS

Modern Indonesian draws many of its words from foreign sources, there are many synonyms . For example, Indonesian has three words for "book", i.e. pustaka (from Sanskrit), kitab (from Arabic) and buku (from Dutch boek); however, each has a slightly different meaning. A pustaka is often connected with ancient wisdom or sometimes with esoteric knowledge. A derived form, perpustakaan means a library. A kitab is usually a religious scripture or a book containing moral guidance. The Indonesian words for the Bible
Bible
and Gospel are Alkitab and Injil, both directly derived from Arabic. The book containing the penal code is also called the kitab. Buku is the most common word for books.

There are direct borrowings from various other languages of the world, such as karaoke (from カラオケ) from Japanese , and ebi (from えび) which means dried shrimp. Many words that originally are adopted through the Dutch language
Dutch language
today however often are mistaken as English due to the similarity in the Germanic nature of both languages. In some cases the words are replaced by English language through globalization: although the word arbei (Dutch: aardbei) still literally means strawberry in Indonesian, today the usage of the word stroberi is more common. Greek words such as demokrasi (from δημοκρατία dēmokratía), filosofi (from φιλοσοφία philasophia), mitos (from μῦθος mythos) came through Dutch, Arabic and Portuguese respectively.

It is notable that some of the loanwords that exist in both Indonesian and Malaysian languages are different in spelling and pronunciation mainly due to how they derived their origins: Malaysian utilizes words that reflect the English usage (as used by its former colonial power, the British ), while Indonesian uses a Latinate form reflected in the Dutch usage (e.g. aktiviti (Malaysian) vs. aktivitas (Indonesian), universiti (Malaysian) vs. universitas (Indonesian)).

LITERATURE

Main article: Indonesian literature

Indonesia
Indonesia
hosts a sparkling variety of traditional verbal arts such as poetry , historical narratives , romances , and drama ; which are expressed in local languages, but modern genres are expressed mainly through Indonesian. Some of Indonesian great classic stories including Sitti Nurbaya
Sitti Nurbaya
by Marah Rusli , Azab dan Sengsara by Merari Siregar , and Sengsara Membawa Nikmat by Tulis Sutan Sati . Modern literature like novels , short stories , stage plays, and free-form poetry has developed since the late years of the 19th century and has produced such internationally recognised figures as novelist Pramoedya Ananta Toer , dramatist W.S. Rendra , poet Chairil Anwar , and cinematographer Garin Nugroho . Indonesia’s classic novels itself, have their own charm, offering insight into local culture and traditions and the historical background prior to and immediately after the country gained independence. One of the great is Shackles which was written by Armijn Pane in 1940. Originally titled Belenggu and translated into many languages including English and German .

AS SPEAKERS OF OTHER LANGUAGES

BIPA ( Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
bagi Penutur Asing) book, which helps foreigners to learn Indonesian language
Indonesian language
effectively.

Over the past few years, interest in learning Indonesian has grown among non-Indonesians. Various universities have started to offer courses that emphasise the teaching of the language to non-Indonesians. In addition to National Universities, private institutions have also started to offer courses, like the Indonesia Australia
Australia
Language Foundation and the Lembaga Indonesia
Indonesia
Amerika.

As early as 1988, teachers of the language have expressed the importance of a standardised Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
bagi Penutur Asing (also called BIPA) materials (mostly books), and this need became more evident during the 4th International Congress on the Teaching of Indonesian to Speakers of Other Languages held in 2001.

Since 2013, the Indonesian Embassy in the Philippines
Philippines
has given basic Indonesian language
Indonesian language
courses to 16 batches of Filipino students, as well as training to members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Philippines
. Due to increasing demand among students, the Embassy will open an intermediate Indonesian language
Indonesian language
course later in the year. The Indonesian Embassy in Washington, D.C., USA also began offering free Indonesian language
Indonesian language
courses at the beginner and intermediate level.

In an interview, Department of Education
Education
Secretary Armin Luistro said that the country's government should promote Indonesian or Malay, which are related to Filipino. Thus, the possibility of offering it as an optional subject in public schools is being studied.

WORDS

NUMBERS

Cardinal

NUMBER ENGLISH INDONESIAN

0 zero nol/kosong

1 one satu

2 two dua

3 three tiga

4 four empat

5 five lima

6 six enam

7 seven tujuh

8 eight delapan

9 nine sembilan

10 ten sepuluh

11 eleven sebelas

12 twelve dua belas

20 twenty dua puluh

21 twenty one dua puluh satu

30 thirty tiga puluh

100 one hundred seratus

200 two hundred dua ratus

210 two hundred ten dua ratus sepuluh

1000 one thousand seribu

10000 ten thousand sepuluh ribu

100000 one hundred thousand seratus ribu

1000000 one million sejuta, satu juta

1000000000 one billion satu miliar

1000000000000 one trillion satu triliun

Ordinal

NUMBER ENGLISH INDONESIAN

1st first pertama

2nd second kedua

3rd third ketiga

4th fourth keempat

5th fifth kelima

6th sixth keenam

7th seventh ketujuh

8th eighth kedelapan

9th ninth kesembilan

10th tenth kesepuluh

DAYS AND MONTHS

Days

ENGLISH INDONESIAN

Monday Senin

Tuesday Selasa

Wednesday Rabu

Thursday Kamis

Friday Jumat

Saturday Sabtu

Sunday Minggu

Months

ENGLISH INDONESIAN

January Januari

February Februari

March Maret

April April

May Mei

June Juni

July Juli

August Agustus

September September

October Oktober

November November

December Desember

COMMON PHRASES

ENGLISH INDONESIAN SPELLING (IN IPA )

Hello! Halo!

Good morning! Selamat pagi!

Good afternoon! Selamat siang!

Good evening! or Good night! Selamat malam!

Goodbye! Selamat tinggal!

See you later! Sampai jumpa lagi!

Thank you Terima kasih (formal)

Thanks Makasih (colloquial)

You are welcome Sama-sama or terima kasih kembali or

Yes Ya or iya or

No Tidak

And Dan

Or Atau

Because Karena

Therefore Karena itu

Nothing Tidak ada

Maybe Mungkin

How are you? Apa kabar?

I am fine Baik or Baik-baik saja or

Have a nice day! Semoga hari Anda menyenangkan!

Bon appetite! Selamat makan! or Selamat menikmati! or

I am sorry Maafkan saya

Excuse me Permisi

What? Apa?

Who? Siapa?

When? Kapan?

Where? Di mana?

Why? Mengapa?

How? Bagaimana?

How much? Berapa?

What is your name? Nama Anda siapa?

My name is... Nama saya...

Do you know? Apakah Anda tahu?

Yes, I know / No, I do not know Ya, saya tahu / Tidak, saya tidak tahu /

Can you speak Indonesian? Bisakah Anda berbicara bahasa Indonesia?

Yes, I can speak Indonesian / No, I can not speak Indonesian Ya, saya bisa berbicara bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
/ Tidak, saya tidak bisa berbicara bahasa indonesia /

What time is it now? Pukul berapa sekarang?

It is 5.00 o'clock Sekarang pukul 5.00

When will you go to the party? Kapan Anda akan pergi ke pesta itu?

Soon Nanti

Today Hari ini

Tomorrow Besok

Day after tomorrow Lusa

Yesterday Kemarin

Congratulations! Selamat!

Happy New Year! Selamat Tahun Baru!

Merry Christmas! Selamat Natal!

Please Mohon or tolong or

Stop! Berhenti!

I am happy Saya senang

I understand Saya mengerti

Help! Tolong!

I need help Saya memerlukan bantuan

Can you help me? Bisakah Anda menolong saya?

Can I help you? / Do you need help? Dapatkah saya membantu Anda? / Apakah Anda membutuhkan bantuan? /

May I borrow your eraser? Bolehkah saya meminjam penghapus Anda?

With my pleasure Dengan senang hati

Welcome Selamat datang

Welcome to Indonesia Selamat datang di Indonesia

I agree / I disagree Saya setuju / Saya tidak setuju /

I understand / I do not understand Saya mengerti / Saya tidak mengerti /

I am hungry Saya lapar

I am thirsty Saya haus

I am sick Saya sakit

Get well soon Semoga cepat sembuh

EXAMPLE

The following texts are excerpts from the official translations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Indonesian and Malay, along with the original declaration in English.

ENGLISH INDONESIAN MALAY

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS PERNYATAAN UMUM TENTANG HAK ASASI MANUSIA PERISYTIHARAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA SEJAGAT

ARTICLE 1 PASAL 1 PERKARA 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Semua orang dilahirkan merdeka dan mempunyai martabat dan hak-hak yang sama. Mereka dikaruniai akal dan hati nurani dan hendaknya bergaul satu sama lain dalam semangat persaudaraan. Semua manusia dilahirkan bebas dan sama rata dari segi maruah dan hak-hak. Mereka mempunyai pemikiran dan perasaan hati dan hendaklah bergaul dengan semangat persaudaraan.

SEE ALSO

* Indonesia
Indonesia
portal * Languages portal

* Bahasa , for other languages referred to as bahasa * Languages of Indonesia * Language families and languages * Malay language
Malay language
* Demographics of Indonesia
Indonesia
* Indonesian slang language * Indonesian abbreviated words * Comparison of Standard Malay and Indonesian * List of English words of Indonesian origin * List of loanwords in Indonesian

REFERENCES

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Indonesia
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EXTERNAL LINKS

INDONESIAN EDITION of , the free encyclopedia

Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: INDONESIAN

Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for INDONESIAN .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to INDONESIAN LANGUAGE .

* How many people speak Indonesian? * free language resource * Learning Indonesian * Indonesian Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix) * Indonesia
Indonesia
WWW Virtual Library * Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
Dictionary * Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
dalam jaringan (Great Dictionary of the Indonesian Language of the Language Center, in Indonesian only) * Example recording of spoken bahasa Indonesia * Informasi Bahasa Indonesia * Tv

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