Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are fluent in any of more than 700 indigenous local languages ; examples include Javanese , Sundanese and Balinese , which are commonly used at home and within the local community. However, most formal education , and nearly all national mass media , governance , administration , judiciary , and other forms of communication, are conducted in Indonesian.
The Indonesian name for the language is bahasa
* 1 History
* 1.1 Early kingdoms era
Old Malay as lingua franca
* 1.3 Dutch colonial era
* 1.4 Birth of
* 2 Classification and related languages * 3 Geographical distribution * 4 Official status
* 5 Phonology
* 5.1 Vowels
* 5.1.1 Diphthongs
* 5.2 Consonants * 5.3 Stress * 5.4 Rhythm
* 6 Grammar
* 6.1 Affixes
* 6.1.1 Noun affixes * 6.1.2 Verb affixes * 6.1.3 Adjective affixes
* 6.2 Nouns
* 6.3 Pronouns
* 6.4 Verbs
* 6.4.1 Negation * 6.4.2 Prohibition
* 6.5 Adjectives
* 6.6 Word order
* 6.6.1 Emphasis
* 6.7 Measure words
* 7.1 Letter names and pronunciations
* 8 Vocabulary
* 8.1 Loan words of
* 9 Literature * 10 As speakers of other languages
* 11 Words
* 11.1 Numbers
* 11.1.1 Cardinal * 11.1.2 Ordinal
* 11.2 Days and Months
* 11.2.1 Days * 11.2.2 Months
* 11.3 Common phrases * 11.4 Example
* 12 See also * 13 References
* 14 External links
EARLY KINGDOMS ERA
Rencong alphabet , native writing systems found in Malay
Peninsula, central and
South Sumatra . The text reads (Voorhoeve's
spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da /
tang ", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling
you; though called, you do not come" (hitu adik sa- is the rest of 4th
Kedukan Bukit Inscription , written in Pallava script ,
is the oldest surviving specimen of the Old
Indonesian is a standardized register of "
Riau Malay", which
despite its common name is not the Malay dialect native to the Riau
Islands , but rather the
Classical Malay of the Malaccan royal courts.
Originally spoken in Northeast
OLD MALAY AS LINGUA FRANCA
Indonesian (in its standard form) is essentially the same language as
the official Malaysian , Singaporean and
Malaysian Malay claims to be closer to the classical Malay of earlier
centuries, even though modern Malaysian has been heavily influenced,
in lexicon as well as in syntax, by English. The question of whether
High Malay (
DUTCH COLONIAL ERA
Dutch East India Company
BIRTH OF INDONESIAN LANGUAGE
Volksraad session held in July 1938 in Jakarta, where Indonesian was formally used for the first time by Jahja Datoek Kajo.
The nationalist movement that ultimately brought Indonesian to its
national language status rejected Dutch from the outset. However, the
rapid disappearance of Dutch was a very unusual case compared to other
colonized countries, where the colonial language generally has
continued to function as the language of politics, bureaucracy ,
education, technology , and other important areas for a significant
time after independence. Soenjono Dardjowidjojo even goes so far as
to say that, "Indonesian is perhaps the only language that has
achieved the status of a national language in its true sense" since it
truly dominates in all spheres of Indonesian society . The ease with
Dutch dominance at that time almost cover all aspects, to the
official forums should used the Dutch, although since the Youth
Congress (1928) was agreed as the Indonesian national language which
is one of the tools the pro-independence struggle. As of it, Mohammad
Husni Thamrin inveighed actions underestimating Indonesian. After some
criticism and protests, the use of Indonesian was allowed since the
Volksraad sessions held in July 1938. By the time they tried to
counter the spread of Malay by teaching Dutch to the natives, it was
too late, and in 1942, the Japanese conquered
ADOPTED AS NATIONAL LANGUAGE
The Pledge was the result of second
Youth Pledge held in Batavia
in October 1928. On the last pledge, there was an affirmation of
The adoption of Indonesian as the country's national language was in contrast to most other post-colonial states, as neither the language with the most native speakers (in this case, Javanese) nor the language of the former European colonial power (in this case, Dutch) was to be adopted, but rather a local language with many fewer native speakers than the most widely spoken local language (nevertheless, Malay was the second most widely spoken language in the colony after Javanese, and had many L2 speakers using it for trade, administration, and education).
In 1945 when
Over the first 53 years of Indonesian independence , the country's
first two presidents,
MODERN AND COLLOQUIAL INDONESIAN
While Indonesian is spoken as a mother tongue by only a small
proportion of Indonesia's large population (i.e. mainly those who
reside within the vicinity of
Standard and formal Indonesian is used in books and newspapers and on television/ radio news broadcasts; however, few native Indonesian speakers use the formal language in their daily conversations. While this is a phenomenon common to most languages in the world (for example, spoken English does not always correspond to written standards), the degree of "correctness" of spoken Indonesian (in terms of grammar and vocabulary) by comparison to its written form is noticeably low. This is mostly due to Indonesians combining aspects of their own local languages (e.g., Javanese , Sundanese , Balinese , and Chinese ) with Indonesian. This results in various "regional" Indonesian dialects, the very types that a foreigner is most likely to hear upon arriving in any Indonesian city or town. This phenomenon is amplified by the use of Indonesian slang , particularly in the cities.
The most common and widely used colloquial Indonesian is heavily
Betawi language , a Malay-based creole of
As for pronunciation, the diphthongs ai and au on the end of base words are typically pronounced as /e/ and /o/. In informal writing the spelling of words is modified to reflect the actual pronunciation in a way that can be produced with less effort. For example, capai becomes cape or capek, pakai becomes pake, kalau becomes kalo.
In verbs, the prefix me- is often dropped, although an initial nasal
consonant is often retained, as when mengangkat becomes ngangkat (the
basic word is angkat). The suffixes -kan and -i are often replaced by
-in. For example, mencarikan becomes nyariin, menuruti becomes
nurutin. The latter grammatical aspect is one often closely related to
the Indonesian spoken in
CLASSIFICATION AND RELATED LANGUAGES
Indonesian has its root from Malay . Malay historical linguists agree
on the likelihood of the Malay homeland being in western Borneo
stretching to the Bruneian coast. A form known as Proto-Malay
language was spoken in
PAN , C. 4000 BCE *isa *DuSa *telu *Sepat *lima *enem *pitu *walu *Siwa *puluq
AMIS cecay tusa tulu sepat lima enem pitu falu siwa pulu'
RUKAI itha drusa tulru supate lrima eneme pitu valru bangate pulruku
TSOU coni yuso tuyu sʉptʉ eimo nomʉ pitu voyu sio maskʉ
TAGALOG isá dalawá tatló ápat limá ánim pitó waló siyám sampu
ILOCANO maysá dua talló uppát limá inném pitó waló siam sangapúlo
CEBUANO usá duhá tuló upat limá unom pitó waló siyám napulu
CHAMORRO maisa/håcha hugua tulu fatfat lima gunum fiti guålu sigua månot/fulu
MALAGASY iray roa telo efatra dimy enina fito valo sivy folo
MALAY /INDONESIAN satu dua tiga empat lima enam tujuh lapan/delapan sembilan sepuluh
MINANGKABAU ciek duo tigo ampek limo anam tujuah salapan sambilan sapuluah
JAVANESE siji loro telu papat limo nem pitu wolu songo sepuluh
TETUN ida rua tolu hat lima nen hitu ualu sia sanulu
FIJIAN dua rua tolu vā lima ono vitu walu ciwa tini
KIRIBATI teuana uoua teniua aua nimaua onoua itiua waniua ruaiua tebuina
TONGAN taha ua tolu fā nima ono fitu valu hiva -fulu
SāMOAN tasi lua tolu fā lima ono fitu valu iva sefulu
MāORI tahi rua toru whā rima ono whitu waru iwa tekau (archaic: ngahuru)
TAHITIAN hō'ē piti toru maha pae ōno hitu va'u iva 'ahuru
MARQUESAN tahi 'ua to'u hā 'ima ono hitu va'u iva 'ahu'u
LEEWARD ISLANDS (SOCIETY ISLANDS) LANGUAGE tahi rua toru fā rima ono fitu varu iva 'ahuru
HAWAIIAN kahi lua kolu hā lima ono hiku walu iwa -'umi
However, Indonesian as it is known today was heavily influenced by
several languages due to historical ties with other nations. Dutch
made the highest contribution to the language, especially in
vocabulary due to the Dutch's colonization for over three centuries,
from the 16th century until mid-20th century. Asian languages also
influenced the language, with Chinese influencing Indonesian during
the 15th and 16th centuries due to the spice trade ,
In 2010, Indonesian had 42.8 million native speakers , and 154.9
million second-language speakers, who speak it alongside their local
mother tongue , giving a total number of speakers in
Indonesian is also the language of Indonesian mass media, such
as magazines. Printed and broadcast mass media are encouraged to use
proper Indonesian, although more relaxed popular slang often prevails.
Warning sign in
Indonesian is the official language of the Republic of
The national language shall be Indonesian — Article 35, Chapter
XV, Constitution of
Indonesian functions as a symbol of national identity and pride, and is a unifying language among the diverse Indonesian ethnic groups . It also serves as a vehicle of communication among the Indonesian provinces and different regional cultures in Indonesia. The language is used as the national official language, the language of education, communication, transaction and trade documentation, the development of national culture, science, technology, and mass media in Indonesia.
According to Indonesian law, the
The disparate evolution of Indonesian and Malaysian has led to a rift
between the two standards. This has been based more upon political
nuance and the history of its standardization rather than cultural
reasons, and as a result there are asymmetrical views regarding each
other's standard among Malaysians and Indonesians. In Malaysia, the
national language is Malaysian; in Indonesia, it is Indonesian.
Malaysians tend to assert that Malaysian and Indonesian are merely
variants of the same language, while Indonesians tend to treat them as
separate, albeit related, languages. The result of this attitude is
that Indonesians feel little need to harmonize their language with
It is usually said that there are six vowels in Indonesian. These six vowels are shown in the table below. However, other analyses set up a system with other vowels, particularly the open-mid vowels /ɛ / and /ɔ /.
TABLE OF VOWEL PHONEMES OF INDONESIAN
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
CLOSE-MID e ə o
OPEN-MID (ɛ )
In standard Indonesian orthography, the Latin alphabet is used, and five vowels are distinguished: a, i, u, e, o. In materials for learners, the mid-front vowel /e/ is sometimes represented with a diacritic as é to distinguish it from the mid-central vowel /ə/.
Some analyses claim that Indonesian has three native diphthong phonemes only in open syllables, they are:
* /ai̯/: kedAI ('shop'), pandAI ('clever') * /au̯/: kerbAU ('buffalo') * /oi̯/ (or /ʊi̯/ in Indonesian): dodOI, ambOI
Others assume that these "diphthongs" are actually a monophthong followed by an approximant, so ⟨ai⟩ represents /aj/, ⟨au⟩ represents /aw/, and ⟨oi⟩ represents /oj/. On this basis, there are no phonological diphthongs in Indonesian.
Diphthongs are differentiated from two vowels in two syllables, such as:
The consonants of Indonesian are shown below. Non-native consonants that only occur in borrowed words, principally from Arabic and English, are shown in parentheses. Some analyses list 19 "primary consonants" for Indonesian as the 18 symbols that are not in parentheses in the table as well as the glottal stop .
CONSONANT PHONEMES OF STANDARD INDONESIAN
LABIAL ALVEOLAR PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL
NASAL m n ɲ ŋ
PLOSIVE VOICELESS p t t͡ʃ k (ʔ)
VOICED b d d͡ʒ ɡ
FRICATIVE VOICELESS (f) s (ʃ) (x) h
VOICED (v) (z)
APPROXIMANT w l j
ORTHOGRAPHIC NOTE: The sounds are represented orthographically by their symbols as above, except:
* /ɲ / is written ⟨ny⟩ before a vowel, ⟨n⟩ before ⟨c⟩ and ⟨j⟩ * /ŋ / is written ⟨ng⟩ * the glottal stop is written as a final ⟨k⟩ or an apostrophe ⟨'⟩ (the use ⟨k⟩ from its being an allophone of /k/ or /ɡ/ in the syllable coda) * /tʃ / is written ⟨c⟩ * /dʒ / is written ⟨j⟩ * /ʃ / is written ⟨sy⟩ * /x / is written ⟨kh⟩ * /j / is written ⟨y⟩
Indonesian has light stress that falls on either the final or penultimate syllable, depending on regional variations as well as the presence of the schwa (/ə/) in a word. It is generally the penultimate syllable that is stressed, unless its vowel is a schwa /ə/. If the penult has a schwa, then stress moves to the ante-penultimate syllable if there is one, even if that syllable has a schwa as well; if the word is disyllabic, the stress is final. In disyllabic stress with a closed penultimate syllable, such as tinggal ('stay') and rantai ('chain'), stress falls on the penult.
However, there is some disagreement among linguists over whether stress is phonemic (unpredictable), with some analyses suggesting that there is no underlying stress in Indonesian.
The classification of languages based on rhythm can be problematic. Nevertheless, acoustic measurements suggest that Indonesian has more syllable-based rhythm than British English, even though doubts remain about whether the syllable is the appropriate unit for the study of Malay prosody. However, many linguists suggest that rhythm in Indonesian is not payed, because Indonesian is not a kind of tonal language like Chinese , Thai , or Vietnamese .
Word order in Indonesian is generally
similar to that of most modern
In Indonesian, affixes take on an important role because slightly different affixes may have very different meanings. There are four types of affixes: prefixes (awalan), suffixes (akhiran), circumfixes (apitan) and infixes (sisipan). Affixes are categorized into noun, verb, and adjective affixes. Root words are either nouns or verbs, which can take on affixes to generate new words, for example, masak (to cook) may become memasak (cooks), memasakkan (cooks for), dimasak (cooked), pemasak (a cook), masakan (a meal, cookery). Many initial consonants alternate in the presence of prefixes: sapu (to sweep) becomes menyapu (sweeps/sweeping); panggil (to call) becomes memanggil (calls/calling), tapis (to sieve) becomes menapis (sieves).
Other examples of the use of affixes to change the meaning of a word can be seen with the word ajar (teach):
* ajar = teach * ajarAN = teachings * BELajar = to learn * MENGajar = to teach (intransitive ) * MENGajarKAN = to teach (transitive ) * DIajar = being taught (intransitive) * DIajarKAN = being taught (transitive) * MEMPELajarI = to study * DIPELajarI = being studied * PELajar = student * PENGajar = teacher * PELajarAN = subject, education * PENGajarAN = lesson * PEMBELajarAN = learning * TERajar = taught (accidentally) * TERPELajar = well-educated, literally "been taught" * BERPELajarAN = is educated, literally "has education"
Noun affixes are affixes that form nouns upon addition to root words. The following are examples of noun affixes:
TYPE OF NOUN AFFIXES AFFIX EXAMPLE OF ROOT WORD EXAMPLE OF DERIVED WORD
Prefix pə(r)- ~ pəng- duduk (sit) penduduk (population)
kə- hendak (want) kehendak (desire)
Infix ⟨əl⟩ tunjuk (point) telunjuk (index finger, command)
⟨əm⟩ kelut (dishevelled) kemelut (chaos, crisis)
⟨ər⟩ gigi (teeth) gerigi (toothed blade)
Suffix -an bangun (wake up, raise) bangunan (building)
Circumfix kə-...-an raja (king) kerajaan (kingdom)
pə(r)-...-an pəng-...-an kerja (work) pekerjaan (occupation)
The prefix per- drops its r before r, l and frequently before p, t, k. In some words it is peng-; though formally distinct, these are treated as variants of the same prefix in Indonesian grammar books.
Similarly, verb affixes in Indonesian are attached to root words to form verbs. In Indonesian, there are:
TYPE OF VERB AFFIXES AFFIX EXAMPLE OF ROOT WORD EXAMPLE OF DERIVED WORD
Prefix bər- ajar (teach) belajar (to study)
məng- tolong (help) menolong (to help)
di- ambil (take) diambil (be taken)
məmpər- panjang (length) memperpanjang (to lengthen)
dipər- dalam (deep) diperdalam (be deepened)
tər- makan (eat) termakan (to have accidentally eaten)
Suffix -kan letak (place, keep) letakkan (keep)
-i jauh (far) jauhi (avoid)
Circumfix bər-...-an pasang (pair) berpasangan (in pairs)
bər-...-kan dasar (base) berdasarkan (based on)
məng-...-kan pasti (sure) memastikan (to make sure)
məng-...-i teman (company) menemani (to accompany)
məmpər-...-kan guna (use) mempergunakan (to utilise, to exploit)
məmpər-...-i ajar (teach) mempelajari (to study)
kə-...-an hilang (disappear) kehilangan (to lose)
di-...-i sakit (pain) disakiti (to be hurt by)
di-...-kan benar (right) dibenarkan (is allowed to)
dipər-...-kan kenal (know, recognise) diperkenalkan (is being introduced)
Adjective affixes are attached to root words to form adjectives:
TYPE OF ADJECTIVE AFFIXES AFFIX EXAMPLE OF ROOT WORD EXAMPLE OF DERIVED WORD
Prefix tər- kenal (know) terkenal (famous)
sə- lari (run) selari (parallel)
Infix ⟨əl⟩ serak (disperse) selerak (messy)
⟨əm⟩ cerlang (radiant bright) cemerlang (bright, excellent)
⟨ər⟩ sabut (husk) serabut (dishevelled)
Circumfix kə-...-an barat (west) kebaratan (westernized)
In addition to these affixes, Indonesian also has a lot of borrowed affixes from other languages such as Sanskrit, Arabic and English. For example, maha-, pasca-, eka-, bi-, anti-, pro- etc.
Common derivational affixes for nouns are peng-/per-/juru- (actor, instrument, or someone characterized by the root), -an (collectivity, similarity, object, place, instrument), ke-...-an (abstractions and qualities, collectivities), per-/peng-...-an (abstraction, place, goal or result).
Indonesian does not make use of grammatical gender , and there are only selected words that use natural gender . For instance, the same word is used for he/him and she/her (dia or ia) or for his and her (dia, ia or -nya). No real distinction is made between "girlfriend" and "boyfriend", both pacar (although more colloquial terms as cewek girl/girlfriend and cowok boy/boyfriend can also be found). A majority of Indonesian words that refer to people generally have a form that does not distinguish between the sexes. However, unlike English, distinction is made between older or younger.
There are some words that have gender, for instance putri means
"daughter", and putra means "son" and also pramugara means "male
flight attendant" and pramugari meaning "female flight attendant".
Another example would be olahragawan, which equates to "sportsman",
and olahragawati, meaning sportswoman. Often, words like these (or
certain suffixes such as "-a" and "-i" or "-wan" and "wati") are
absorbed from other languages (in these cases, from
Indonesian grammar does not regularly mark plurals . In Indonesian, to change a singular into a plural one either repeats the word or adds para before it (the latter for living things only); for example, "students" can be either murid-murid or para murid. Plurals are rarely used in Indonesian, especially in daily and informal situations. Reduplication is often mentioned as the formal way to express the plural form of nouns in Indonesian; however, in informal daily discourse , speakers of Indonesian usually use other methods to indicate the concept of something being "more than one". Reduplication may also indicate the conditions of variety and diversity as well, and not simply plurality.
Reduplication is commonly used to emphasize plurality; however, reduplication has many other functions. For example, orang-orang means "(all the) people", but orang-orangan means "scarecrow". Similarly, while hati means "heart" or "liver", hati-hati is a verb meaning "to be careful". Also, not all reduplicated words are inherently plural, such as orang-orangan "scarecrow/scarecrows", biri-biri "a/some sheep" and kupu-kupu "butterfly/butterflies". Some reduplication is rhyming rather than exact, as in sayur-mayur "(all sorts of) vegetables".
Distributive affixes derive mass nouns that are effectively plural: pohon "tree", pepohonan "flora , trees"; rumah "house", perumahan "housing, houses"; gunung "mountain", pegunungan "mountain range, mountains".
Quantity words come before the noun: seribu orang "a thousand people", beberapa pegunungan "a series of mountain ranges", beberapa kupu-kupu "some butterflies".
Plural in Indonesian is just to clarify the number of objects in sentence. For example, Ani membeli satu kilo mangga (Ani buys one kilogram of mangoes). In this case, "mangoes", which is plural, is not said as mangga-mangga because the plurality is implicit: the amount A KILOGRAM means more than one mango. So, as it is logically, one does not change the singular into the plural form, because it is not necessary and considered a pleonasm (in Indonesian often called Pemborosan Kata).
Personal pronouns are not a separate part of speech, but a subset of nouns. They are frequently omitted, and there are numerous ways to say "you". Commonly the person's name, title, title with name, or occupation is used ("does Johnny want to go?", "would Madam like to go?"); kin terms, including fictive kinship , are extremely common. However, there are also dedicated personal pronouns, as well as the demonstrative pronouns ini "this, the" and itu "that, the".
From the perspective of a European language, Indonesian boasts a wide range of different pronouns, especially to refer to the addressee (the so-called second person pronouns). These are used to differentiate several parameters of the person they are referred to, such as the social rank and the relationship between the addressee and the speaker.
This table shows an overview over the most commonly and widely used pronouns of the Indonesian language:
Common pronouns PERSON
RESPECT SINGULAR PLURAL
1ST PERSON EXCLUSIVE INFORMAL, FAMILIAR aku kami (we: they and me, she/he and me)
STANDARD, POLITE saya
kita (we: you and me, you and us)
FAMILIAR kamu kalian
POLITE Anda (you) Anda sekalian (you, you all)
dia or ia (she/he) mereka (itu) (they)
* FIRST PERSON PRONOUNS
Notable among the personal-pronoun system is a distinction between two forms of "we" : kita (you and me, you and us) and kami (us, but not you). The distinction is increasingly confused in colloquial Indonesian.
Saya and aku are the two major forms of "I". Saya is the more formal form, whereas aku is used with family, friends, and between lovers. Sahaya is an old or literary form of saya. Sa(ha)ya may also be used for "we", but in such cases it is usually used with sekalian or semua "all"; this form is ambiguous as to whether it corresponds with inclusive kami or exclusive kita. Less common are hamba "slave", hamba tuan, hamba datuk (all extremely humble), beta (a royal addressing oneselves), patik (a commoner addressing a royal), kami (royal or editorial "we"), kita, təman, and kawan.
* SECOND PERSON PRONOUNS
There are three common forms of "you", Anda (polite), kamu (familiar), and kalian "all" (commonly used as a plural form of you, slightly informal). Anda is used with strangers, recent acquaintances, in advertisements, in business, and when you wish to show respect (though terms like tuan "sir" and other titles also show respect), while kamu is used in situations where the speaker would use aku for "I". Anda sekalian is polite plural.
Engkau (əngkau), commonly shortened to kau, and hang are used to social inferiors, awak to equals, and əncik (cek before a name) is polite, traditionally used for people without title. The compounds makcik and pakcik are used with village elders one is well acquainted with or the guest of.
* THIRD PERSON PRONOUNS
The common word for "s/he" and "they" is ia, which has the object and emphatic/focused form dia. Bəliau "his/her Honour" is respectful. As with "you", names and kin terms are extremely common. Mereka "someone", mereka itu, or orang itu "those people" are used for "they".
* REGIONAL VARIETIES
There are a large number of other words for "I" and "you", many regional, dialectical, or borrowed from local languages. Saudara "you" (male) and saudari (female) (plural saudara-saudara or saudari-saudari) show utmost respect. Daku "I" and dikau "you" are poetic or romantic. Indonesian gua "I" and lu "you" are slang and extremely informal. In the state of Pahang, two variants for "I" and "you" exist, depending on location. In East Pahang, around Pekan, "kome" is used as "I" while in the west around Temerloh, "koi" is used. Interestingly, "kome" is also used in Kuala Kangsar, Perak, but instead it means "you". This allegedly originated from the fact that both the royal families of Pahang and Perak (whose seats are in Pekan and Kuala Kangsar respectively) were descendants of the same ancient line.
The pronouns aku, kamu, engkau, ia, kami, and kita are indigenous to Indonesian.
Aku, kamu, engkau, and ia have short possessive enclitic forms. All others retain their full forms like other nouns, as does emphatic dia: meja saya, meja kita, meja anda, meja dia "my table, our table, your table, his/her table".
Possessed forms of meja "table" PRONOUN ENCLITIC POSSESSED FORM
aku -ku mejaku (my table)
kamu -mu mejamu (your table)
ia -nya mejanya (his, her, their table)
There are also proclitic forms of aku, ku- and kau-. These are used when there is no emphasis on the pronoun: KU-dengar raja itu menderita penyakit kulit. AKU mengetahui ilmu kedokteran. AKU-LAH yang akan mengobati dia. "It has come to my attention that the King has a skin disease. I am skilled in medicine. I will cure him."
Here ku-verb is used for a general report, aku verb is used for a factual statement, and emphatic aku-lah meng-verb (≈ "I am the one who...") for focus on the pronoun.
There are two demonstrative pronouns in Indonesian. Ini "this, these" is used for a noun which is generally near to the speaker. Itu "that, those" is used for a noun which is generally far from the speaker. Either may sometimes be equivalent to English "the". There is no difference between singular and plural. However, plural can be indicated through duplication of a noun followed by a ini or itu. The word yang "which" is often placed before demonstrative pronouns to give emphasis and a sense of certainty, particularly when making references or enquiries about something/ someone, like English "this one" or "that one".
PRONOUN INDONESIAN ENGLISH
INI buku ini This book, these books, the book(s)
buku-buku ini These books, (all) the books
ITU kucing itu That cat, those cats, the cat(s)
kucing-kucing itu Those cats, the (various) cats
PRONOUN + YANG EXAMPLE SENTENCE ENGLISH MEANING
YANG INI Q: Anda mau membeli buku yang mana?
A: Saya mau YANG INI. Q: Which book do you wish to purchase?
A: I would like THIS ONE.
YANG ITU Q: Kucing mana yang memakan tikusmu?
A: YANG ITU! Q: Which cat ate your mouse?
A: THAT ONE!
Verbs are not inflected for person or number, and they are not marked for tense; tense is instead denoted by time adverbs (such as "yesterday") or by other tense indicators, such as sudah "already" and belum "not yet". On the other hand, there is a complex system of verb affixes to render nuances of meaning and to denote voice or intentional and accidental moods . Some of these affixes are ignored in colloquial speech.
Examples of these are the prefixes di- (patient focus , frequently but erroneously called "passive voice", for OVA word order in the third person, and OAV in the first or second persons), meng- (agent focus , frequently but erroneously called "active voice", for AVO word order), memper- and diper- (causative , agent and patient focus), ber- (stative or habitual; intransitive VS order), and ter- (agentless actions, such as those which are involuntary, sudden, stative or accidental, for VA = VO order); the suffixes -kan (causative or benefactive ) and -i (locative, repetitive, or exhaustive); and the circumfixes ber-...-an (plural subject, diffuse action ) and ke-...-an (unintentional or potential action or state).
* duduk to sit down * mendudukkan to sit someone down, give someone a seat, to appoint * menduduki to sit on, to occupy * didudukkan to be given a seat, to be appointed * diduduki to be sat on, to be occupied * terduduk to sink down, to come to sit * kedudukan to be situated
Forms in ter- and ke-...-an are often equivalent to adjectives in English.
Four words are used for negation in Indonesian, namely tidak, bukan, jangan, and belum.
* TIDAK (not), often shortened to tak, is used for the negation of verbs and "adjectives". * BUKAN (be-not) is used in the negation of a noun.
INDONESIAN GLOSS ENGLISH
Saya TIDAK tahu I NOT know I do NOT know
Ibu saya TIDAK senang mother I NOT be-happy My mother is NOT happy
Itu BUKAN anjing saya that BE-NOT dog I That IS NOT my dog
For negating imperatives or advising against certain actions in Indonesian, the word jangan (do not) is used before the verb. For example,
* JANGAN tinggalkan saya di sini!
DON\'T leave me here!
* JANGAN lakukan itu!
DON\'T do that!
* JANGAN! Itu tidak bagus untukmu.
DON\'T! That's not good for you.
There are grammatical adjectives in Indonesian. Stative verbs are often used for this purpose as well. Adjectives are always placed after the noun which they modify. Hence, "rumah saya" means "my house", while "saya rumah" means "I am a house".
INDONESIAN GLOSS ENGLISH
Hutan hijau forest green (The) green forest.
Hutan itu hijau forest that green That/the forest is green.
Kəreta yang merah carriage which (is) red. (The) carriage which is red = the red carriage.
Kəreta merah carriage red. Red carriage.
Dia orang yang terkenal sekali he/she person which be-famous very He/she is a very famous person
Orang terkenal person famous. Famous person.
Orang ini terkenal sekali person this be-famous very This person is very famous
To say that something "is" an adjective, the determiners "itu" and "ini" ("that" and "this") are often used. For example, in the sentence "anjing itu galak", the use of "itu" gives a meaning of "the/that dog is ferocious", while "anjing ini galak", gives a meaning of "this dog is ferocious". However, if "itu" or "ini" were not to be used, then "anjing galak" would meaning only "ferocious dog", a plain adjective without any stative implications. The all-purpose determiner, "yang", is also often used before adjectives, hence "anjing yang galak" also means "ferocious dog" or more literally "dog which is ferocious"; "yang" will often be used for clarity. Hence, in a sentence such as "saya didekati oleh anjing galak" which means "I was approached by a ferocious dog", the use of the adjective "galak" is not stative at all.
Often the "ber-" intransitive verb prefix, or the "ter-" stative prefix will be used to suggest a meaning of "to be...". For example, "beda" means "different", hence "berbeda" means "to be different"; "awan" means "cloud", hence "berawan" means "cloudy". Using the "ter-" prefix, implies a state of being. For example, "buka" means "open", hence "terbuka" means "is opened"; "tutup" means "closed/shut", hence "tertutup" means "is closed/shut".
Adjectives, demonstrative determiners, and possessive determiners follow the noun they modify.
Indonesian does not have a grammatical subject in the sense that English does. In intransitive clauses, the noun comes before the verb. When there is both an agent and an object , these are separated by the verb (OVA or AVO), with the difference encoded in the voice of the verb. OVA, commonly but inaccurately called "passive", is the basic and most common word order.
Either the agent or object or both may be omitted. This is commonly done to accomplish one of two things: 1) Adding a sense of politeness and respect to a statement or question
For example, a polite shop assistant in a store may avoid the use of pronouns altogether and ask:
ELLIPSES OF PRONOUN (AGENT books, rivers, chairs, some fruits, thoughts, etc. 'fruit' dua buah meja (two tables), lima buah rumah (five houses)
ekor animals 'tail' seekor ayam (a chicken), tiga ekor kambing (three goats)
orang human beings 'person' seorang laki-laki (a man), enam orang petani (six farmers), seratus orang murid (a hundred students)
biji smaller rounded objects most fruits, cups, nuts 'grain' sebiji/ sebutir telur (an egg), sebutir/ butiran-butiran beras (rice or rices)
batang long stiff things trees, walking sticks, pencils 'trunk, rod' sebatang tongkat (a stick)
həlai things in thin layers or sheets paper, cloth, feathers, hair 'leaf' sepuluh helai pakaian (ten cloths)
kəping keping flat fragments slabs of stone, pieces of wood, pieces of bread, land, coins, paper 'chip' sekeping uang logam (a coin)
pucuk letters, firearms, needles 'sprout' sepucuk senjata (a weapon)
bilah things which cut lengthwise and thicker 'blade' sebilah kayu (a piece of wood)
bidanɡ things which can be measured with number 'field' sebidang tanah/lahan (an area)
potong bread 'cut' sepotong roti (slices of bread)
utas nets, cords, ribbons 'thread' seutas tali (a rope)
carik things easily torn, like paper 'shred' secarik kertas (a piece of paper)
Example: Measure words are not necessary just to say "a": burung "a bird, birds". Using se- plus a measure word is closer to English "one" or "a certain": Ada seekor burung yang bisa berbicara "There was a (certain) bird that could talk"
Indonesian is written with the
Spelling changes in the language that have occurred since Indonesian independence include:
PHONEME Obsolete spelling Modern spelling
/u / oe u
/tʃ / tj c
/dʒ / dj j
/j / j y
/ɲ / nj ny
/ʃ / sj sy
/x / ch kh
Introduced in 1901, the van Ophuijsen system , (named from the
advisor of the system, Charles Adriaan van Ophuijsen) was the first
standardization of romanized spelling. It was most influenced by the
LETTER NAMES AND PRONUNCIATIONS
The Indonesian alphabet is exactly the same as in English.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Indonesian follows the letter names of the Dutch alphabet . Indonesian alphabet has a phonemic orthography ; words are spelled the way they are pronounced, with few exceptions. The letters Q, V and X are rarely encountered, being chiefly used for writing loanwords .
LETTER NAME (IN IPA ) SOUND (IN IPA ) ENGLISH EQUIVALENT
Aa a (/a/) /a/ A as in fAther
Bb bé (/be/) /b/ B as in Bed
Cc cé (/t͡ʃe/ or /se/) /t͡ʃ/ CH as in CHeck
Dd dé (/de/) /d/ D as in Day
Ee é (/e/) /e/ E as in rEd
Ff éf (/ef/) /f/ F as in eFfort
Gg gé (/ge/) /ɡ/ G as in Gain
Hh ha (/ha/) /h/ H as in Harm
Ii i (/i/) /i/ I as in pIn
Jj jé (/d͡ʒe/) /d͡ʒ/ J as in Jam
Kk ka (/ka/) /k/ K as in sKate
Ll él (/el/) /l/ L as in Let
Mm ém (/em/) /m/ M as in Mall
Nn én (/en/) /n/ N as in Net
Oo o (/o/) /o/ O as in Owe
Pp pé (/pe/) /p/ P as in sPeak
Qq ki (/ki/) /q/ Q as in Queen
Rr ér (/er/) /r/ Spanish RR as in pueRRo
Ss és (/es/) /s/ S as in Sun
Tt te (/te/) /t/ unaspirated T as in sTill
Uu u (/u/) /u/ U as in pUll
Vv ve (/ve/ or /fe/) /v/ V as in Van
Ww we (/we/) /w/ W as in Wet
Xx ex (/ex/) /ks/ X as in Xylophone
Yy yé (/je/) /j/ Y as in Yarn
Zz zet (/zet/) /z/ Z as in Zebra
In addition, there are digraphs that are not considered separate letters of the alphabet:
DIGRAPH SOUND ENGLISH EQUIVALENT
ai /ai̯/ UY as in bUY
au /au̯/ OU as in OUch
oi /oi̯/ OY as in bOY
gh /ɣ/ or /x/ similar to Dutch and German CH, but voiced
kh /x/ CH as in loCH
ng /ŋ/ NG as in siNG
ny /ɲ/ Spanish ñ; similar to NY as in caNYon with a nasal sound
sy /ʃ/ SH as in SHoe
See also: List of loanwords in Indonesian
A pie chart showing percentage of other languages contribute on loan
words of Indonesian language. Dutch (42.5%) English (20.9%)
A modern dialect of Malay, Indonesian has also been influenced by
other languages, including Dutch , English , Arabic , Chinese ,
The study of Indonesian etymology and loan words reveals both its historical and social contexts. Examples are the early Sanskrit borrowings from the 7th century during the trading era, the borrowings from Arabic and Persian during the time of the establishment of Islam in particular, and those from Dutch during the colonial period. Linguistic history and cultural history are clearly linked.
LANGUAGE ORIGIN NUMBER OF WORDS
LOAN WORDS OF SANSKRIT ORIGIN
Indonesian National Armed Forces , Indonesian
National Police ,
Indonesian Air Force and
KARENA SEMUA diBIAYA i DANA NEGARA JUTA an RUPIAH , sang MAHAGURU SASTRA BAHASA KAWI dan MAHASISWA -MAHASISWI nya, DUTA -DUTA NEGERI MITRA , MENTERI KeBUDAYA an dan PARIWISATA SUAMI -ISTRI , beSERTA KARYAWAN -KARYAWATI LEMBAGA NIRLABA SEGERA berDHARMAWISATA ke peDESA an di UTARA KOTA kaBUPATE n PROBOLINGGO ANTARA CANDI -CANDI PURBA , berWAHANA KELEDAI di KALA SENJA dan berSAMA KEPALA DESA meNYAKSI kan PARA TANI yang berJIWA berSAHAJA SERTA berBUDI NIRMALA seCARA berBAHAGIA berUPACARA , SERAYA MERDU meNYUARA kan GITA -GITA MANTRA , yang meRUPA kan SARANA PUJI an mereka meMUJA NAMA SUCI PERTIWI , DEWI BUMI yang berSEDIA mengANUGERAH i mereka KARUNIA dan RESTU , meRAKSA dari BAHAYA , MALA PETAKA dan BENCANA .
LOAN WORDS OF CHINESE ORIGIN
The relationship with China has been going since the 7th century when
Chinese merchants traded in some areas of the archipelago such as Riau
The Chinese loanwords are usually concerned with cuisine, trade or
often just things exclusively Chinese. Words of Chinese origin
(presented here with accompanying
LOAN WORDS OF ARABIC ORIGIN
The word masjid (mosque) in Indonesian derrived from Arabic word masjid (مسجد).
Many Arabic words were brought and spread by merchants from Arab
Peninsula like Arabian , Persian , and from the western part of India,
Many loanwords from Arabic are mainly concerned with religion, in
LOAN WORDS OF PORTUGUESE ORIGIN
Indonesian word gereja (church) is derived from Portuguese igreja.
Alongside Malay , Portuguese was the lingua franca for trade throughout the archipelago from the sixteenth century through to the early nineteenth century. The Portuguese were among the first westerners to sail eastwards to the "Spice Islands ". Loanwords from Portuguese were mainly connected with articles that the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia. Indonesian words derived from Portuguese include meja (from mesa = table), bangku (from banco = chair), lemari (from armário = closet), boneka (from boneca = doll), jendela (from janela = window), gereja (from igreja = church), misa (from missa = mass), natal (from natal = Christmas), pesta (from festa = party), dansa (from dança = dance), pesiar (from passear = cruise), bendera (from bandeira = flag), sepatu (from sapato = shoes), garpu (from garfo = fork), kemeja (from camisa = shirt), kereta (from carreta = chariot), pompa (from bomba hidráulica = pump), pigura (from figura = picture), roda (from roda = wheel), nona (from dona = young woman), sekolah (from escola = school), lentera (from lanterna = lantern), paderi (from padre = priest), santo, santa (from santo, santa = saint), puisi (from poesia = poetry), tukar (from trocar = exchange), keju (from queijo = cheese), mentega (from manteiga = butter), serdadu (from soldado = soldier), meski (from mas que = although), kamar (from câmara = room), laguna (from laguna = lagoon), lelang (from leilão = auction), persero (from parceiro = company), markisa (from maracujá = passion fruit), limau (from limão = lemon), kartu (from cartão = card), ombak (from onda = waves), Inggris (from inglês = English), Sabtu (from sábado = Saturday) and Minggu (from domingo = Sunday).
LOAN WORDS OF DUTCH ORIGIN
The former colonial power, the
Before the standardization of the language, many Indonesian words follow standard Dutch alphabet and pronunciation such as "oe" for vowel "u" or "dj" for consonant "j" . As a result, Malay words are written with that orthography such as: passer for the word Pasar or djalan for the word jalan, older Indonesian generation tend to have their name written in such order as well.
LOAN WORDS OF ENGLISH ORIGIN
Many English words were incorporated into Indonesian through globalization . Many Indonesians, however, mistake words already adopted from Dutch as words borrowed from English. This is due to the Germanic traces that exist in the two languages. Indonesian adopts English words with standardization. For example: imaJinaSI from imaGinaTION, universiTAS from universiTY, aKSesorI from aCCessorY, geograFI from geograPHY, KonservaTIF from ConservaTIVE, rUtiN from rOUtiNE, and so other. However, there are several words that directly borrowed without standardization which have same meanings in English such as: bus, data, domain, detail, internet, film, golf, lift, monitor, radio, radar, unit, safari, sonar, and video.
OTHER LOAN WORDS
Modern Indonesian draws many of its words from foreign sources, there
are many synonyms . For example, Indonesian has three words for
"book", i.e. pustaka (from Sanskrit), kitab (from Arabic) and buku
(from Dutch boek); however, each has a slightly different meaning. A
pustaka is often connected with ancient wisdom or sometimes with
esoteric knowledge. A derived form, perpustakaan means a library. A
kitab is usually a religious scripture or a book containing moral
guidance. The Indonesian words for the
There are direct borrowings from various other languages of the
world, such as karaoke (from カラオケ) from Japanese , and ebi
(from えび) which means dried shrimp. Many words that originally are
adopted through the
It is notable that some of the loanwords that exist in both Indonesian and Malaysian languages are different in spelling and pronunciation mainly due to how they derived their origins: Malaysian utilizes words that reflect the English usage (as used by its former colonial power, the British ), while Indonesian uses a Latinate form reflected in the Dutch usage (e.g. aktiviti (Malaysian) vs. aktivitas (Indonesian), universiti (Malaysian) vs. universitas (Indonesian)).
Main article: Indonesian literature
AS SPEAKERS OF OTHER LANGUAGES
Over the past few years, interest in learning Indonesian has grown
among non-Indonesians. Various universities have started to offer
courses that emphasise the teaching of the language to
non-Indonesians. In addition to National Universities, private
institutions have also started to offer courses, like the Indonesia
As early as 1988, teachers of the language have expressed the
importance of a standardised
Since 2013, the Indonesian Embassy in the
In an interview, Department of
NUMBER ENGLISH INDONESIAN
0 zero nol/kosong
1 one satu
2 two dua
3 three tiga
4 four empat
5 five lima
6 six enam
7 seven tujuh
8 eight delapan
9 nine sembilan
10 ten sepuluh
11 eleven sebelas
12 twelve dua belas
20 twenty dua puluh
21 twenty one dua puluh satu
30 thirty tiga puluh
100 one hundred seratus
200 two hundred dua ratus
210 two hundred ten dua ratus sepuluh
1000 one thousand seribu
10000 ten thousand sepuluh ribu
100000 one hundred thousand seratus ribu
1000000 one million sejuta, satu juta
1000000000 one billion satu miliar
1000000000000 one trillion satu triliun
NUMBER ENGLISH INDONESIAN
1st first pertama
2nd second kedua
3rd third ketiga
4th fourth keempat
5th fifth kelima
6th sixth keenam
7th seventh ketujuh
8th eighth kedelapan
9th ninth kesembilan
10th tenth kesepuluh
DAYS AND MONTHS
ENGLISH INDONESIAN SPELLING (IN IPA )
Good morning! Selamat pagi!
Good afternoon! Selamat siang!
Good evening! or Good night! Selamat malam!
Goodbye! Selamat tinggal!
See you later! Sampai jumpa lagi!
Thank you Terima kasih (formal)
Thanks Makasih (colloquial)
You are welcome Sama-sama or terima kasih kembali or
Yes Ya or iya or
Therefore Karena itu
Nothing Tidak ada
How are you? Apa kabar?
I am fine Baik or Baik-baik saja or
Have a nice day! Semoga hari Anda menyenangkan!
Bon appetite! Selamat makan! or Selamat menikmati! or
I am sorry Maafkan saya
Excuse me Permisi
Where? Di mana?
How much? Berapa?
What is your name? Nama Anda siapa?
My name is... Nama saya...
Do you know? Apakah Anda tahu?
Yes, I know / No, I do not know Ya, saya tahu / Tidak, saya tidak tahu /
Can you speak Indonesian? Bisakah Anda berbicara bahasa Indonesia?
Yes, I can speak Indonesian / No, I can not speak Indonesian
Ya, saya bisa berbicara bahasa
What time is it now? Pukul berapa sekarang?
It is 5.00 o'clock Sekarang pukul 5.00
When will you go to the party? Kapan Anda akan pergi ke pesta itu?
Today Hari ini
Day after tomorrow Lusa
Happy New Year! Selamat Tahun Baru!
Merry Christmas! Selamat Natal!
Please Mohon or tolong or
I am happy Saya senang
I understand Saya mengerti
I need help Saya memerlukan bantuan
Can you help me? Bisakah Anda menolong saya?
Can I help you? / Do you need help? Dapatkah saya membantu Anda? / Apakah Anda membutuhkan bantuan? /
May I borrow your eraser? Bolehkah saya meminjam penghapus Anda?
With my pleasure Dengan senang hati
Welcome Selamat datang
Welcome to Indonesia Selamat datang di Indonesia
I agree / I disagree Saya setuju / Saya tidak setuju /
I understand / I do not understand Saya mengerti / Saya tidak mengerti /
I am hungry Saya lapar
I am thirsty Saya haus
I am sick Saya sakit
Get well soon Semoga cepat sembuh
The following texts are excerpts from the official translations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Indonesian and Malay, along with the original declaration in English.
ENGLISH INDONESIAN MALAY
UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS PERNYATAAN UMUM TENTANG HAK ASASI MANUSIA PERISYTIHARAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA SEJAGAT
ARTICLE 1 PASAL 1 PERKARA 1
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Semua orang dilahirkan merdeka dan mempunyai martabat dan hak-hak yang sama. Mereka dikaruniai akal dan hati nurani dan hendaknya bergaul satu sama lain dalam semangat persaudaraan. Semua manusia dilahirkan bebas dan sama rata dari segi maruah dan hak-hak. Mereka mempunyai pemikiran dan perasaan hati dan hendaklah bergaul dengan semangat persaudaraan.
Bahasa , for other languages referred to as bahasa
Languages of Indonesia
Language families and languages
* ^ A B C D Badan Pusat Statistik (28 March 2013). "Penduduk
INDONESIAN EDITION of , the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: INDONESIAN
Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for INDONESIAN .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to INDONESIAN LANGUAGE .
* How many people speak Indonesian?
* free language resource
* Learning Indonesian
* Indonesian Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from
Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix)