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"INDONESIA RAYA" has been the national anthem of Indonesia
Indonesia
since the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Indonesia
Indonesia
on the 17 August 1945 . The song was introduced by its composer , Wage Rudolf Supratman , on 28 October 1928 during the Second Indonesian Youth Congress in Batavia . The song marked the birth of the all-archipelago nationalist movement in Indonesia
Indonesia
that supported the idea of one single "Indonesia" as successor to the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
, rather than split into several colonies. The first newspaper to openly publish the musical notation and lyrics of " Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya" — an act of defiance towards the Dutch authorities — was the Chinese Indonesian weekly Sin Po.

The first stanza of " Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya" was chosen as the national anthem when Indonesia
Indonesia
proclaimed its independence at 17 August 1945. Jozef Cleber , a Dutch composer, created an arrangement of the tune for philharmonic orchestra in 1950. This arrangement is widely used.

" Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya" is played in flag raising ceremonies (student assemblies) in schools across Indonesia
Indonesia
every Monday. The flag is raised in a solemn and timed motion so that it reaches the top of the flagpole as the anthem ends. The main flag raising ceremony is held annually on 17 August to commemorate Independence day . The ceremony is led by the President of Indonesia
Indonesia
and is usually held in Istana Negara (Jakarta) .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Indonesian Youth Congress * 1.2 Distribution * 1.3 Orchestral rendition * 1.4 Ownership

* 2 National anthem * 3 Lyrics * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links

HISTORY

INDONESIAN YOUTH CONGRESS

Main article: Youth Pledge

In 1928, youths from across Indonesia
Indonesia
held the first Indonesian Youth Congress, an official meeting to push for the independence of the nation. Upon hearing about the efforts, young reporter Wage Rudolf Supratman contacted the organizers of Congress with the intention of reporting the story, but they requested that he not publish the story from fear of Dutch colonial authorities . The organizers wanted to avoid suspicion so that the Dutch would not ban the event. Supratman promised them this, and the organizers allowed him free access to the event. Supratman, who was also a musician and also a teacher, was inspired by the meetings and intended to write a song for the conference. After receiving encouragement from the conference leader Sugondo Djojopuspito , Supratman played on the violin the song INDONESIA with the hope that it would someday become a national anthem . He kept the script to himself because he felt that it was not the appropriate time to announce it.

Supratman first performed Indonesia
Indonesia
on the violin on 28 October 1928 during the Second Indonesian Youth Congress.

DISTRIBUTION

Following the Second Youth Congress, the text of Indonesia
Indonesia
was distributed by many political and student organisations. The press also played a key role in the publication of the song. On 7 November 1928, the Soeloeh Ra'jat Indonesia
Indonesia
daily published the text to the song. This was followed by the Sin Po Chinese weekly on 10 November. In 1929, Wage Rudolf Supratman changed the title of his song to " Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya" and appended the phrase National Anthem of Indonesia below it, but the text of the song did not change. Supratman personally printed and distributed copies of the song with its new title through pamphlets. All one thousand copies of the manuscript were sold within a short amount of time to his friends and family.

A businessman friend of his, Yo Kim Tjan , also expressed interest in recording " Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya". With Supratman's consent, Yo created a copy of the song on a gramophone record overseas to obtain the best sound quality with the intention of bringing the copy back to Indonesia. However, before Yo was able to do so, Dutch colonial authorities had imposed a ban on the song. Yo was unable to bring the original back but was able to bring home a copy. According to Yo, Supratman had also given him the rights to sell record copies of " Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya" through his store Toko Populair.

ORCHESTRAL RENDITION

Initially, there had been no orchestral rendition of the anthem. Thus in 1950, President Soekarno
Soekarno
made an appeal to Jozef Cleber to compose a symphonic rendition of " Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya".

Cleber at the time had been among the 46 persons of the Cosmopolitan Orchestra, under direction of Yvon Baarspul, sent by the Netherlands Government to help the Indonesian Government for its own music development in Jakarta. "Jos" Cleber was an experienced arranger for not only popular songs back in his hometown, but also for Indonesian pop song arrangements such as Di Bawah Sinar Bulan Purnama and Rangkaian Melati. The final rendition of the anthem is still in common use today.

The arrangements starts with a Tutti of strings and trumpets (in Verse A) that represents a brave and an elegant sound, and in the middle of the song (in Verse B) is played smoothly by strings, and finally (in Verse C) comes another Tutti of strings and trumpets, together with the timpani and cymbals, giving it a brave sound fitting for a national anthem that was respected by the people.

The original recording was recorded by the Cosmopolitan Orchestra under Cleber's direction on Phillips tape in 1951 by the Radio of Jakarta. The record was digitally restored in 1997 in Australia based on Cleber's sheet music that was kept in Jakarta, and it was played again by the Victorian Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Addie MS .

OWNERSHIP

In 1951, ownership of the copyright to " Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya" came into question. President Sukarno
Sukarno
ordered a search for the rightful heir to Supratman. By law, Supratman was the copyright holder of "Indonesia Raya" as its composer. After Supratman's death in 1938, ownership of the rights to his works fell upon the designated heirs, his four surviving sisters. However, because " Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya" was officially adopted as the national anthem of Indonesia
Indonesia
on 17 August 1945, the work became the property of the state. In addition, the name of "Wage Rudolf Supratman" must be listed as its creator.

As a national anthem, copies of " Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya" cannot be circulated as merchandise to be sold. Consequently, the government had the obligation to obtain all the rights to distribute the song, including the original recording, from Yo Kim Tjan. In 1958, the government obtained the sole right to " Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya" from Supratman's family. The following year, Yo handed the original record of the song to the Indonesian government. With the recommendation of the Department of Education, the government also rewarded Supratman's sisters with 250,000 Indonesian rupiah each on 31 May 1960.

NATIONAL ANTHEM

" Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya", as stated in the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia
Indonesia
(Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Indonesia
Indonesia
tahun 1945 ) is the national anthem of Republic of Indonesia. This is stipulated in the Chapter XV, Article 36B of the constitution .

Furthermore, based on Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 44 Tahun 1958 (PP No.44/1958 - Government Regulation Number 44 Year 1958), THE FIRST STANZA OF "INDONESIA RAYA" is used as the official lyrics of the national anthem of Indonesia.

LYRICS

There is no official translation of " Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya" into other languages. On 28 October 1953, on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the anthem, the Harian Umum daily published their own English, German, and Dutch translations of the song. A bulletin released by the Ministry of Information used these translations. Currently, however, the translations are no longer published. The following table includes the original lyrics of the song in Indonesian, an approximate literal translation into English and a more poetic, singable one.

INDONESIA RAYA (INDONESIA THE GREAT)

INDONESIAN LYRICS ENGLISH TRANSLATION SINGABLE ENGLISH TRANSLATION

FIRST STANZA

INDONESIA, TANAH AIRKU TANAH TUMPAH DARAHKU DI SANALAH AKU BERDIRI JADI PANDU IBUKU INDONESIA, KEBANGSAANKU BANGSA DAN TANAH AIRKU MARILAH KITA BERSERU "INDONESIA BERSATU!"

HIDUPLAH TANAHKU, HIDUPLAH NEGERIKU BANGSAKU, RAKYATKU, SEMUANYA BANGUNLAH JIWANYA, BANGUNLAH BADANNYA UNTUK INDONESIA RAYA : INDONESIA RAYA, MERDEKA! MERDEKA! TANAHKU, NEGERIKU YANG KUCINTA INDONESIA RAYA, MERDEKA! MERDEKA! HIDUPLAH INDONESIA RAYA! INDONESIA RAYA, MERDEKA! MERDEKA! TANAHKU, NEGERIKU YANG KUCINTA INDONESIA RAYA, MERDEKA! MERDEKA! HIDUPLAH INDONESIA RAYA!

Indonesia, my homeland. The land where I have shed my blood. It is there I stand, to be my motherland's guide. Indonesia, my country My people and my homeland, Let us proclaim "Indonesians unite!"

Long live my land, long live my country My people, my homeland, all of it let her soul be raised may her body be awakened For Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great : Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great, independent and free My home and country which I love Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great, independent and free Long live Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great! Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great, independent and free My home and country which I love Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great, independent and free Long live Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great! Indonesia, beloved homeland

Where I have spilt my blood

Thou art where I stand firmly

Guiding my motherland true

Indonesia, my people

I pledge my allegiance to you

Let us all unite and proclaim

"Indonesians unite!'

Long live my land, eternal may it last

My people, my country, all of it

Arise, my compatriots

For Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great!

Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great, be free, be free!

My land so beloved dearly!

Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great, be free, be free!

Long live Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great!

SECOND STANZA

Indonesia, tanah yang mulia Tanah kita yang kaya Di sanalah aku berdiri Untuk selama-lamanya Indonesia, tanah pusaka Pusaka kita semuanya Marilah kita mendoa " Indonesia
Indonesia
bahagia!"

Suburlah tanahnya, suburlah jiwanya Bangsanya, rakyatnya, semuanya Sadarlah hatinya, sadarlah budinya Untuk Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya →

Indonesia, a noble land Our wealthy land there I stand Forever and ever Indonesia, the land of heritage A heritage to us all Let us pray "Joyful Indonesia!"

Fertile may her soil, flourish may her soul The nation, the people, entirely Vigilant may her heart, vigilant may her mind For the Great Indonesia
Indonesia
→ Indonesia, noble and sublime

A land bountiful and free

Thou art where I plant my roots

Forever to stand

Indonesia, land of my fathers

All thine children's heirloom

Let us pray to thine success

For Indonesians' joy!

Rich are thy fields, holy is thine soul

Every one of us, arise!

Open all thine hearts and minds

For Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great!

Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great, be free, be free!

My land so beloved dearly!

Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great, be free, be free!

Long live Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great!

THIRD STANZA

Indonesia, tanah yang suci Tanah kita yang sakti Di sanalah aku berdiri Menjaga ibu sejati Indonesia, tanah berseri Tanah yang aku sayangi Marilah kita berjanji " Indonesia
Indonesia
abadi!"

Selamatlah rakyatnya, selamatlah putranya Pulaunya, lautnya, semuanya Majulah negerinya, majulah pandunya Untuk Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya →

Indonesia, a sacred land Our victorious land there, I stand To defend the good mother Indonesia, a radiant land My beloved land Let us pledge " Indonesia
Indonesia
is eternal!"

Safe may her people, safe may her children her islands, her seas entirely Let the country be developed, let her scouts advance For the Great Indonesia
Indonesia
→ Indonesia, land so pure

A land mighty with resolve

Thou art whom I pledge to

My unchanging allegiance.

Indonesia, a resplendent spirit

Escapes not thine body nor soul

Let us all unite and proclaim

"Indonesia, one and true!"

May thy children be safe from all strife and war

Thy islands, thy seas, too

Indonesians, march on, Indonesians march on

For Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great!

Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great, be free, be free!

My land so beloved dearly!

Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great, be free, be free!

Long live Indonesia
Indonesia
the Great!

SEE ALSO

* Bangun Pemudi-Pemuda

NOTES

* ^ " Indonesia
Indonesia
- Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 27 November 2011. * ^ National Geographic Indonesia
Indonesia
Pewarta Melayu-Tionghoa di era pergerakan nasional * ^ Ensiklopedi Jakarta
Jakarta
Jos Cleber * ^ Sularto 1982, pp. 11–13 * ^ Sularto 1982, p. 20 * ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya 1972, p. 37 * ^ Sularto 1982, p. 28 * ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya 1972, p. 38 * ^ Winarno 2003, p. 63 * ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya 1972, p. 61 * ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya 1972, p. 62 * ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya 1972, p. 64 * ^ Wikisource:Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia#Section XV .2A.2A : The State.27s Flag.2C Language.2C and Coat of Arms.2C and The National Anthem * ^ s:Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia#Section XV .2A.2A : The State\'s Flag, Language, and Coat of Arms, and The National Anthem * ^ http://www.hukumonline.com/detail.asp?id=22256&cl=Berita (a news article stating the regulation regulating the symbol and instrument of the country) * ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya 1972, p. 59

REFERENCES

* Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya (1972), Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya (in Indonesian), Jakarta: Proyek Pengembangan Media Kebudayaan, OCLC
OCLC
2391302 . * Sularto, Bambang (1982), Sejarah Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya (in Indonesian) (1st ed.), Jakarta: Balai Pustaka , OCLC
OCLC
10894709 . * Winarno, Bondan (2003), Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia
Indonesia
Raya (in Indonesian), Jakarta: TSA Komunika, ISBN 979-97105-1-0 .

EXTERNAL

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